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FP7

IMPSHIELDC Report Summary

Project reference: 296691
Funded under: FP7-JTI

Final Report Summary - IMPSHIELDC (IMPact SHIELD design C)

Executive Summary:
Advisory Council for Aeronautical Research in Europe (ACARE) have set out a goal of reducing fuel consumption per passenger by 50% from the levels in 2000 by 2020. In the clean sky partnership program fuel saving and thus weight savings are a central issue towards achieving these ACARE goals. One accepted approach to achieving these goals is widespread use of composite materials in aircraft. Another approach is the use of uncontained engines mounted close to the fuselage, as suggested in the Clean Sky Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft (SFWA) initiative. Failure of rotating aircraft engine components may result in fragments thrown outwards at high velocity and may easily damage the fuselage or other primary structure. To prevent this damage occurring, impact shielding has to be integrated with the fuselage and other structures at risk. The main objective of this project was to design and manufacture three innovative shielding design concepts to protect critical components of an aircraft against high velocity shrapnel from an engine burst. In order to meet the requirement for low weight in aircraft applications, making the shielding from high performance fibres was an obvious solution. The concepts proposed therefore used well established high performance fibres and manufacturing methods to fit the requirements of medium to high maturity level and low manufacturing costs stated in the call.
From the negotiations in 2012, the decision was made to divide the IMPSHIELD project into three projects (A, B and C). Then, since SICOMP coordinated the three projects and as the approach and structure were the same for the three projects, the consortium and project partners agreed to handle IMPSHIELD A, B and C as a single project from a management and reporting point of view. From a financial point of view, the summarized time spent on each project over the three reporting periods reflects the work done respectively in the projects.
The kick-off meeting was held together with the IMPTEST project in April 2013 since the IMPSHIELD project was so closely connected to the IMPTEST project. It was agreed about having the project meetings together in the future. A lot of valuable time was spent on getting access to the projects as a coordinator for the three projects; it was finally solved in December 2014 one and a half year after the project started.
Most of the design work for the three shields was performed by subcontractor ICON (Imperial College Consultants) in WP2 of each project. The differences in size and weight between the three projectiles led to changes in the design along the way for the three shields.
The corrugated design for shield A was abandoned since the impact simulations showed that the waves should be too small for the smallest and lightest projectile, i.e. almost flat. The shields were built up from a number of flat 2mm S2-glass laminates depending of projectile, all in all 155 2mm laminates were manufactured for the phase one delivery of 15 A-shields.
For the B shield the idea with folded loops was abandoned when the simulations showed that the folded loops will not unfold as wanted for these projectiles as they do for example on bird impact. A UHMWPE prepreg was used for the B-shields.
The design calculations for shield C showed that an air gap (foam core) between the laminates in the shield did not improve the performance of the shields for these projectiles. The consortium decided to go for a pure aramid laminate solution built up from several 5mm laminates without an air gap, for phase one delivery 50 5mm laminates were manufactured.
After initial compaction-, bleed- and process tests for the A- and C shields, the manufacturing (WP3) of the panels for phase one started at SICOMP according to the design agreed. Both shields were hot-pressed, but the application of the resin differed. For shield A the resin was applied using a spray-gun since the resin was a thermoset powder and for the C-shield the resin was an epoxy film. Shield B was manufactured according to the design specification with chosen high performance fibre, (UHMWPE) according to the prepreg solution, and hot-pressed, by Honeywell since they would not let the project buy just the material. The panels were delivered to SICOMP for control and making mounting holes to fit the test rig. Honeywell could not share all of the data with the project due to a mixture of the data being ITAR controlled or Honeywell proprietary. Analysis was performed at SICOMP to get at least some of the data needed for the evaluation of the B-panels.
Problems getting the material needed and the IMPTEST-project not being able to fire their gas-gun as scheduled, due to safety regulations, to test the phase one panels led in November to an amendment for the project to be extended to July 2015. At the delayed “mid-term” review in January 2015 it was decided, from the phase one testing results in IMPTEST, that the project were to continue with the B- and C-panels for phase two and ageing. Most of the manufactured panels were delivered to Imperial College in London for phase two testing in IMPTEST, but five of each was kept for ageing at SICOMP. A literature review on the effects of environment of the materials was done (WP4) and led to the ageing conditions. The panels were aged in an environmental chamber for almost two month, monitoring the weight gain approximately ever 100th hour. After the ageing process, the panels were delivered to London for testing in IMPTEST.
Some of the work and lessons learned in the IMPSHIELD projects will be included in the dissemination of the IMPTEST project

Project Context and Objectives:
Failure of rotating aircraft engine components may result in fragments thrown outwards at high velocity. Fragments from such components may easily damage the fuselage or other primary structure, and the risk is particularly serious from these uncontained engines. To prevent this damage occurring, impact shielding has to be integrated with the fuselage and other structures at risk. The main objective of this project was to design and manufacture three innovative shielding design concepts to protect critical components of an aircraft against high velocity shrapnel from an engine burst. In order to meet the requirement for low weight in aircraft applications, making the shielding from high performance fibres was an obvious solution. The concepts proposed therefore used well established high performance fibres and manufacturing methods to fit the requirements of medium to high maturity level and low manufacturing costs stated in the call. It is also expected that IMPSHIELD projects will provide test panels for the IMPTEST project and the following contributions to the Clean Sky programme:
-Improved understanding of the efficiency of various impact shielding concepts
-Improved understanding of manufacturing of ballistic shields for different environmental conditions
-Provide a prototype structure using high performance fibres for use in ballistic shielding on aircraft

Project Results:
1. Introduction
The main S & T results/foregrounds of the three concepts within the IMPSHIELD projects regarding design and manufacturing of the composite laminates are described in the following text. The laminates, Impact Shields, from these projects are used in the IMPTEST (278368) project where the ballistic performance for the different designs and materials is tested and evaluated. The design of the shields was made from three different projectiles and performed by the subcontractor ICON (Imperial College Consultants). The fibre and resin for each concept is also presented with shield thicknesses and areal weights. The manufacturing, which according to the DoW is a bigger part of the project, was performed by the coordinating research institute Swerea SICOMP AB.
2. IMPSHIELD Design Concept A (Temperature range -55°C – 150°C)
This concept requires a medium to high level of maturity of the technology. Also stipulated is the use of a low manufacturing cost of the shield which affects the design concept.
2.1. Initial Design Concept
The first design for concept A (proposed in the application) was based on a single laminate with a corrugated dry backing layer. That design concept followed the so-called bi-stable [1] lamination technique in which material gradually activates during the impact event.
The key aspects are the front face which slows the projectile. The concept could use novel 7 micron glass fibres, which have indicated an improvement over the mature 9 micron glass fibres. The composite has also been arranged in a novel geometrical configuration which has not been tested as a complete unit.
2.2. Final Design
Calculations made by ICON showed that the corrugations will not work unless they are only few millimetres in length, which is not practical for draping the material unless it has a very low dtex and weight, which is assumed to be not possible. Also, the shear locking of the fabric is required to determine the wave length which requires physical tests. Hence the project should proceed with conventional laminate concept with the following properties:
S2-glass dry summary
Density 2.488g/cm3, E=90GPa, tensile strength= 2.34GPa
Airbus projectile: tlam =30mm, Areal weight = 41 kg/m2
Dassault projectile: tlam =14mm, Areal weight = 19 kg/m2
Intermediate projectile: tlam =18mm, Areal weight = 24 kg/m2
2.3. Materials for Impshield A
Woven S2 7μm was not possible to get delivered from Hexcel despite the fact that it was a “common style” material in their technical fabric handbook. Hexcel could only supply weaves in 9μm filament diameter. The 7 μm that Imperial College had at Sigmatex was not suitable for the shields since it was quite heavy and with a high dtex. So a 9 μm weave from Hexcel will be used. A PIMC (powder in mould coating) thermoset powder will be used as matrix material. The powder is tested to make a laminate “starved” in a controlled way by adding an amount of powder in between each layer. Application of powder repeatable for each layer will be important and will be made with electrostatic spray and a dispenser combined with thermal adhesion with scale. Curing of powder will probably occur in 150-200°C.
Reinforcement: S2 Glass, HexForce® 06781 1270 Z6040 S-2 Glass Fabric (9μm) 8H Satin Weave from Hexcel.
Matrix: Thermoset powder, PiMC 1241, Powder thermosets for resin starved laminates from Synres-Almoco bv
2.4. References
[1]. Z. Whitman, S. Leelavanichkul, E. Cherkaev, V. Vinogradov, V. La Saponara, A. Cherkaev, and D.O. Adams, Improvement in energy absorption through use of bistable structures. International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition 50, pp2643-2657, 2005.
3. Design Concept Impshield B (Temperature range -55°C – 85°C)
The concept in this call requires a medium to high level of maturity of the technology without the necessity of aiming for a low cost manufacturing solution.
3.1. Initial Design Concept
The NLR has developed previously developed the so-called ‘tensor skin concept’ [2] using Dyneema layers within an existing laminated composite. The concept was originally developed for a helicopter subfloor structure, and has been applied to meet birdstrike regulations within a composite leading edge. The leading edge skin structure contains a laminate (tensor) with folded loops which unfold on bird impact, effectively catching the bird. The composite skin laminate consists of multiple plies, of which the load-carrying plies transfer the normal operational aerodynamic load to the ribs. These plies therefore provide the usual leading edge skin stiffness. The second group of plies, the tensor plies, contain folded loops between the ribs, which are to unfold when a relatively high lateral load is applied to the skin. Under normal conditions these plies are additionally present without any function. In case of a relatively high lateral load, like a bird impact, all plies except the tensor plies fail. The unfolded plies are comparable to plastic hinges and are loaded in tension like a membrane. When completely unfolded, the vertical load compressively loads the ribs, which are then crushed in a controlled way in order to absorb sufficient bird kinetic energy. These designs were not optimised and do not use the most recent developments in material science, which could potentially produce a step change in the performance. Other concepts also use unfolding ideas, typically the so-called bi-stable [3] lamination technique could be used to activate material gradually during the impact event as an alternative to the corrugation concept. The basic concept consists of UHMWPE prepreg.
The appropriate Dyneema for the concept could be HB50, contacts with DSM gave that the recently commercialised HB80 should be better, but unfortunately they were not willingly to supply the material to the project. Contact with Honeywell was taken and they provided materials similar to DSM:s Dyneema.
3.1.1. Shield thickness
The thicknesses (mm) for the Airbus, Dassault and Intermediate (A, D and I) projectiles have been estimated based on three analytical methods. Jacobs and Van Dingenen [5] assumed the absorbed energy is proportional to mass below the strike face, while empirical scaling laws have been developed by Cunniff [4].
Dassault Method (11.8mm, 7.6mm and 10.0mm) [based on chart provided by Dassault]
Jacobs et al Method (14.9mm, 6.8mm and 9.0mm) [based on HB2 only]
Cunniffs Method (12.7mm, 6.2mm and 8.4mm) [for smaller HB26 plate geometry only, but relative velocities similar]
3.2. Final Design
The thicknesses calculated by the design team at Honeywell according to the energy absorption and the provided projectile and the composite laminate data are:
Airbus projectile: tlam =18.8mm, Areal weight = 18.6 kg/m2
Dassault projectile: tlam =9.5mm, Areal weight = 9.3 kg/m2
Intermediate projectile: tlam =12.8mm, Areal weight = 12.7 kg/m2
The shields are manufactured using a hot-press process at Honeywell in USA and delivered to SICOMP for inspection and analysis before shipping to London.
3.3. Materials Impshield B
Honeywell Spectra (UHMWPE/PUR), Spectra Shield® II SR-3136 prepreg with Spectra® 3000 fibre and PUR matrix
3.4. References
[2]. Ubels, L.C., Johnson, A. F., Gallard, J. P., Sunaric, M: Design and testing of a composite bird strike resistant leading edge. The SAMPE Europe Conference & Exhibition, Paris, France, 1-3 April 2003. NLR-TP-2003-054
[3]. Z. Whitman, S. Leelavanichkul, E. Cherkaev, V. Vinogradov, V. La Saponara, A. Cherkaev, and D.O. Adams, Improvement in energy absorption through use of bi-stable structures. International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition 50, pp2643-2657, 2005.
[4]. Cunniff, P. M. 1999. “Dimensionless Parameters for Optimization of Textile-Based Body Armor Systems,” presented at the 18th International Symposium on Ballistics Conference, November 1999.
[5]. M. J. N. Jacobs, J. L. J. Van Dingenen, Ballistic protection mechanisms in personal armour, J. of Materials Science, Vol. 36, pp3137-3142, 2001.
4. Design Concept Impshield C (Temperature range -55°C – 150°C)
This call is for a new concept with a low level of maturity of the technology without the necessity of aiming for a low cost manufacturing solution.
4.1. Initial Design Concept
Most fibres can be combined with a resin, either thermoplastic or thermoset, and made into a UD, 2D woven or 3D woven layer or lamina layer. For the 2D and 3D woven architecture potentially different fibre types could be combined within a single layer. A series of layers could be graded in the through thickness direction of the armour, thus using each fibre type to its ‘best’ advantage. During a high-velocity impact event on a composite laminate, the reactions within each layer in the laminate and the response from the layers can vary significantly depending on the location within the laminate. The performance of each layer could therefore be designed and engineered specifically for the observed stress, strain, strain-rate and temperature distributions that occur at these different locations.
The possibility of developing new novel high performance hybrid composite systems, which are not unusual in nature for improving performance under various dynamic load conditions; the spider’s web is probably one of the best examples where up to seven different silks with varying properties are used to optimize the performance of the web. Hybridising layers to produce structural armour has been investigated in an ad-hoc fashion in the open literature [6, 7]; however, no modelling was used to understand the behaviour.
In the present proposal for the first concept it is proposed to use UD high performance fibre graded in the thickness direction as a cross-ply, typically in thicknesses of ~1-2mm. Between the high performance sub-laminates a foam layer would be used. The distance between the sub-laminates of high performances fibres allow the layers to act in a membrane action more readily. A high temperature thermoset or thermoplastic resin system could be used, however, it should be resin starved.
The design calculations shows that it is better to make a base laminate of 5mm and a base core “air” of 10mm (based on the impact pulse duration), rather than changing the laminate and core for each design.
Airbus projectile: tlam=25mm (5mm-10mm-5mm-10mm-5mm-10mm-5mm-10mm-5mm)
Dassault projectile: tlam=10mm (5mm-10mm-5mm)
Intermediate projectile: tlam=15mm (5mm-10mm-5mm-10mm-5mm)
4.2. Final Design
The final design is changed at the project meeting in London at Imperial College 3rd of July and the core giving the “air gap” between the laminates is excluded. The laminates will be resin starved in the shooting window and more or less homogenous in the clamping frame area and manufactured at SICOMP using hot-press process.
Airbus projectile: tlam=25mm (5mm-5mm-5mm-5mm-5mm), Areal weight = 41 kg/m2
Dassault projectile: tlam=10mm (5mm-5mm), Areal weight = 19 kg/m2
Intermediate projectile: tlam=15mm (5mm-5mm-5mm), Areal weight = 24 kg/m2
4.3. Materials Impshield C
Reinforcement: Aramid, Aramid CT736, Twaron 1680 dtex Type 2040, BASKET 2/2 Weave
Matrix: Epoxy prepreg film, Cytec MTM49-3
4.4. References
[6]. Z. Yu, A. Ait-Kadi, J. Brisson, Nylon/Kevlar composites. Mechanical properties, Polymer Engineering & Science, 31, 16, 1222-1227, 1991.
[7]. Fritz L., Lars S., Carbon, polyethylene and PBO hybrid fibre composites for structural lightweight armour, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 33, Issue 2, pp221-231, 2002.
5. Reference plates
5.1. Aluminium plates
Dassault will supply 15 300x300x12mm Aluminium plates (AA2024).
5.2. Titanium plates
SICOMP will supply five 300x300x12mm reference plates in Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V). Due to safety reasons at the laboratory at Imperial College limiting the gas gun pressure, thinner Titanium plates are supplied, i.e. five 300x300x6mm Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V). Holes will be cut in the titanium plates before delivery according to the mounting holes at the test rig.
6. Manufacturing of the shields
6.1. Manufacturing criteria’s for IMPSHIELD A and C
The manufacturing processes for A- and C-panels are decided according to the following:
a) The reinforcements will not be saturated with matrix
No wetting process such as RTM or vacuum infusion is suitable
The laminate will contain 3 fundamentals, resin / fibre / air
b) Boundary conditions for manufacturing
Fixed surface weight at reinforcements
Fixed surface weight at adhesive film
Designated thickness for the laminates for three different projectiles
c) Evenly spread resin through the laminate stacking
Minimised saturated areas
d) Realistic number of manufacturing steps
e) Highest nominal common thickness for the three designs
2 mm for IMPSHIELD A
5 mm for IMPSHIELD C
f) Compaction force at reinforcements, “performance” of weaved geometry
Geometry of reinforcement will give fibre fraction in Volume vs. compaction pressure
Indicates the process window for selected reinforcements
Reasonable fibre volume fraction
Reasonable compaction forces
The compaction tests and the fibre fraction from the shield design gives together with the laminate thicknesses a number of layers for each stack. This is shown in the manufacturing chapters for IMPSHIELD A and C.
7. Manufacturing of IMPSHIELD Panel A
The panels for IMPSHIELD A are built up by stacking two millimetre laminates to get the three different shield thicknesses. This is a big advantage for the manufacturing process.
7.1. Process window and number of layers
A big help to set up the manufacturing process is the use of a process window (PW). It illustrates a pressure interval, for the specific hot press used, where the manufacturing is most effective. The mould will not be filled to the left of the PW (lower pressure) and it is inefficient to go further to the right of the PW (higher pressure) since the fibre fraction will just be marginally higher. The aim to build two millimetre laminates gives a number of S2 glass weave layers to be inside the process window. Choosing eight layers will put the process in the middle of the process window.
The laminates are built up, two side by side, by S2 Glass weave and a resin powder, with more resin in the frame area and less in the “shooting window”.
7.2. Building the stack of reinforcement and matrix
a) The S2 glass weave is cut in the cutting machine to the size of two parallel laminates, to make the preform and stacking process more effective.
b) The ply stack is built on a warm plate on top on a scale, and the powder matrix is applied to the right weight is reached for each layer. The shooting area is masked for two layers to get the right fibre fraction.
c) When the stack has been built it is consolidated with a roll.
d) The 700x350mm laminate stack is cut in two halves, 350x350mm before pressing
7.3. Hot pressing the stacks
e) The press tool is heated to 150°C and the press force is set to 30 tons
f) One Teflon sheet is put on the bottom tool surface
g) The two 350x350mm stacks are put into the press tool with 2mm distances around the stacks
h) One Teflon sheet is put on top of the laminate stacks and the press is closed
i) After 15 minutes the press is opened and the laminates are removed
7.4. Light inspection
After the laminates are removed from the press they are weighted and inspected by light to see if there are any major errors and for post testing comparison with pictures in IMPTEST.
7.5. Water jet cutting of outer dimensions and holes
The laminates are cut to the right dimension using water jet. The holes to fit into the mounting frame are also cut.
7.6. Stacking the laminates to the three different shield thicknesses
When the laminates have got the right dimensions they are stacked together to build the three different shield thicknesses.
7.7. Production rate and cost at SICOMP manufacturing facility
In the manufacturing facility at SICOMP 12 mm laminate (350x350mm) per hour is produced and the cost for material (resin and reinforcement) and man time is €20.5 per millimetre laminate.
8. Manufacturing of IMPSHIELD Panel B
The B-panels are manufactured by Honeywell due to the fact that some of the data for the materials and the process are under ITAR control or Honeywell proprietary. The manufacturing process is described by Honeywell in the steps below.
8.1. Processing Guidelines for Honeywell Ballistic Materials, Hard Armour Products
Honeywell Spectra Shield Hard Armour Products, Compression Moulding Process
a) Insert material stack and preheat centreline to 275°F using a panel/part contact pressure less than 200 psi and a platen temperature of 285°F.
b) Hold centreline at 275°F for 15 min. (preheat time) under panel/part contact pressure of less than 200 psi.
c) Apply 3500 psi as standard pressure on panel/part and hold at 275°F for 15 min (dwell time).
d) Initiate cool cycle.
e) Cool centreline of material stack to 125°F.
f) Release applied tonnage.
g) Remove from press.
The total Areal density for SR-3136 is given by Honeywell, 257 ± 8g /m2.
8.2. Water jet cutting holes and light inspection
The panels delivered to SICOMP are then cut for mounting in the test rig according to the drawing provided by Imperial College Consultants (ICON). The panels are also inspected with light before delivery to ICON and for post testing comparison with pictures in IMPTEST.
8.3. Optical fibre fraction control
Since fibre fraction data is unavailable from Honeywell, due to ITAR control and Honeywell proprietary, optical inspections at SICOMP give the volume fibre fraction, Vf, for the panels to 69.5%.
8.4. Production cost for Honeywell panels
The cost for the laminates from Honeywell is approximately €23 per millimetre laminate (300x300mm) from what is ordered for phase one testing, i.e. five laminates of each concept. The order for phase two (and three), ten respectively fifteen panels of the two remaining concepts gives a cost of €11 per millimetre.
9. Manufacturing of IMPSHIELD Panel C
The panels for shield C are built up by stacking five millimetre laminates to the three different shield thicknesses. This is a big advantage for the manufacturing process. The laminates are built up by aramid weave and epoxy resin film with more resin in the frame area and less in the “shooting window”.
9.1. Process window and number of layers
A big help to set up the manufacturing process is the use of a process window (PW). It illustrates a pressure interval, for the specific hot press used, where the manufacturing is most effective. The mould will not be filled to the left of the PW (lower pressure) and it is inefficient to go further to the right of the PW (higher pressure) since the fibre fraction will just be marginally higher. The aim to build five millimetre laminates gives a number of aramid weave layers to be inside the process window. Choosing ten layers will put the process in the middle of the process window.
9.2. Building the stack of reinforcement and matrix
a) The aramid weave and resin film are cut and put into separate piles
aa) Ten weaves are put in each pile and weighted
bb The resin film stripes and sheets are just put in two separate piles
b) Five layers with complete resin film coverage are made; plastic protective film is first removed
c) Four layers with stripes of resin film on both sides of the aramid weave in the frame area are made; plastic protective film is first removed
d) One layer with stripes of resin film on one side of the aramid weave in the frame area is made, plastic protective film is first removed
e) The ten plys are placed on a 50°C warm plate and individually rolled to get the resin film into the weave, consolidation.
f) The pile of ten plys is the put into the freezer, to ease the removal of the protective paper
g) Ply by ply is then taken out from the freezer and put together in the right order after removing the protective paper from the resin film
h) The finished stack of ten plys is weighted
9.3. Hot pressing the stacks
a) The press tool is heated to 150°C and the press force is set to 30 tons
b) One Teflon sheet is put on the bottom tool surface
c) Two stacks are put onto the bottom tool
d) Five millimetre distance plates are put onto the bottom tool around the stacks
e) One Teflon sheet is put on top of the stacks
f) The tool is closed and the press holds the force for 15minutes
g) The tool is opened and the laminates are removed and put onto a 50°C plate for cooling
h) The laminates are weighted after cooling
9.4. Light inspection
After the laminates are weighted they are inspected by light to see if there are any major errors and for post testing comparison with pictures in IMPTEST.
9.5. Water jet cutting holes and outer dimensions
The laminates are cut to the right dimension using water jet. The holes to fit into the mounting frame are also cut.
9.6. Stacking the laminates to the three different shield thicknesses
After the water jet the laminates are dried in an oven at 70°C to remove any extra humidity in the laminates from the cutting and then stacked together for the three different configurations.
9.7. Production rate and cost at SICOMP manufacturing facility
In the manufacturing facility at SICOMP 15 mm laminate (350x350mm) per hour is produced and the cost for material (resin and reinforcement) and man time is €25 per millimetre laminate.

Potential Impact:
Since the aim of the Clean Sky initiative is to provide radically greener air transport based on novel concepts for engines and aircraft design. In this way Clean Sky is expected to provide major steps towards the environmental goals for aviation in 2020 set out by ACARE. Within Clean Sky the Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft (SFWA) ITD will specifically consider the use of these novel concepts for a new aircraft configuration. The impact shields designed within the IMPSHIELD projects will provide the basis for the shielding structures that will be incorporated in aircraft structures. The development of manufacturing methods for the concepts means a methodology of producing the shields has been tested allowing high technology readiness levels of the shields for industrial implementation.
During the design phase it has been learned that design concepts working for larger impact specimens with other weights and velocities did not work for the projectiles in these projects
From the manufacturing work in the project it was learned how to manufacture panels with resin starved areas using an electrostatic spray-gun in the process. And lessons have also been learned on how to produce a lot of laminates by hand in an ergonomic and effective way.
The focus in the project has been to design and manufacture the shields for the IMPTEST project. All the dissemination effort was planned to come from the IMPTEST project with some input from the IMPSHIELD project.

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Strand, Kenneth (Research Engineer)
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Record Number: 185019 / Last updated on: 2016-06-23