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Periodic Report Summary 1 - SUSANA (SUpport to SAfety ANalysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies)

Project Context and Objectives:
The main objective of the SUSANA project is to support all stakeholders using CFD for safety analysis of FCH systems and infrastructure. To do so, the project activities include the review of the state-of-the-art in physical and mathematical modelling of phenomena and scenarios relevant to hydrogen safety, the compilation and publication of a Best Practices Guide on the application of the CFD methodology for safety analysis of FCH technologies, the development of publicly available databases for the verification and validation of CFD codes and models and finally, built on the these activities, the creation of a CFD Model Evaluation Protocol, facilitating the use of CFD for a safer design of FCH systems and facilities in Europe. Overall, the project has achieved most of its objectives and technical goals for this period with relatively minor deviations. A comprehensive review on the state of the art in physical and mathematical modelling of safety phenomena relevant to FCH technologies has already been carried out within WP2, while a literature review of the numerical methods and approaches relevant to the hydrogen safety engineering has been realised in WP3. Nevertheless, although an excel database of verification has been developed within WP4, this database has to be reviewed and refocused because its current functionalities and therefore its practical usefulness is very limited. WP5 has progressed adequately and during this reporting period a complete and user friendly model validation database has been established and a CFD benchmarking exercise has been carried out. In WP6, the CFD Model Evaluation Protocol Structure has been defined, whereas in WP7 a workshop with experts and stakeholders has been organised. Based on the work carried out by the consortium during the first period of the project and the discussions held during the mid-term review meeting, the objectives can be still achieved and the project can be expected to produce the results defined in the DoW.

Project Results:
While WP1 is dedicated to the administrative part of the project, technical and general project management, the first scientific work package within SUSANA starts with the numbering WP2. This work package deal with the identification of physical phenomena relevant to the field of hydrogen engineering, as well as mathematical models and numerical approaches used to model and simulate them. The activities within this work package during first reporting period ends up in public documents named “State of the art review concerning FCH technologies” and a second one which was drafted and named “Critical analysis and requirements to models”. While “State of the art review concerning FCH technologies” is a reference document, “Critical analysis and requirements to models” lays foundation for the “Guidelines to the best practices” which is major aim of another work package. The foundation based on the models already identified and mapped within the guidelines to best practices. Generally, activities within this work package during first reporting period concentrated on:
- preparation of structure and work schedule for “State of the art review concerning FCH technologies“ (D2.1) and report “Critical analysis and requirements to the models” (D2.2)
- compilation of comprehensive list of existing CFD models and their mathematical formulation (including source terms, physical property coefficients, specific initial and boundary conditions) for inclusion in “State of the art review concerning FCH technologies” (D2.1)
The “State of the art review concerning FCH technologies” has been developed as planned. “Critical analysis and requirements to models” is planned to be delivered in the second reporting period. The work package is closely linked to other work package in concerns “CFD Model Evaluation Protocol”, which is the principal project output and also regarding physical models description during the preparation of D2.1. A direct link to the development of the database was set, to ensure that validation and verification database covers the complete range of relevant phenomena.
The main objective of WP3, which is also one of the main outputs of the project, is to produce a publicly available “Best Practices Guidelines” on the application of the CFD methodology for safety analysis of FCH installations and technology. During the first reporting period, the first part of the Best Practices Guidelines was drafted and the document “Intermediate report on Best practices in numerical simulations” was prepared by performing literature review of the numerical methods and approaches relevant to the hydrogen safety engineering field and preparing all chapters and subchapters. Prior the development of deliverables D3.1 and D3.2, the milestone MS3 “Table of contents and schedule of the guide to best practices” gets prepared, outlining structure, table of contents and schedule of the guide to best practices’ as well as literature review and compilation of reference list.
The basis for composing the Best Practices Guidelines was developed and set. According to the expertise of the participating partners the specific subjects (which constitute the paragraphs of the deliverable D3.1 “Intermediate report on Best practices in numerical simulations”) were addressed and distributed among the partners.
Work package WP4 is focussed on identifying verification and validation procedures of relevance to hydrogen and fuel cell safety applications, identifying appropriate metrics to compare experimental and simulation datasets, and appropriate statistical methods for comparing datasets. Early in the project, WP4 made useful progress in proposing and adopting internationally accepted definitions for verification and validation.
Verification is focussed on ensuring that the relevant equations are being solved correctly, whereas validation is concerned with whether these equations are an appropriate reflection of the physical phenomena. Early on in the project the consortium presented and adopted a standard definition of validation and verification, which was accepted as useful, particularly when we reflected how interchangeably these terms are used (incorrectly) in much CFD literature. A key element is the verification database – this was delivered during first project period. This database contains approximately 50 papers and datasets on verification, from generic procedures (applicable to all computer simulations) to a smaller set of H2 safety related applications. Supporting database is a document summarising approaches and techniques related to verification, this serves as a summary of the technique and is included as an input into deliverable D6.1 (Draft of the Model Evaluation Protocol).
In order to improve the computational description of the realistic scenarios in hydrogen industry and support the CFD users’ community in code validation, work package WP5 gets established. This work package contains the setup and development of validation database, containing various categories of hydrogen experiments. Thus work package WP5 includes the sustaining elements of SUSANA, the validation database. At the end of the project a comprehensive validation database will be available public. Therefore, the technical requirements were developed, programmed and installed to run the database under a password protected domain. This is mandatory to protect already included and forthcoming data (also in future) of validation experiments and documents against vandalism and unauthorized modifications. The database can be accessed by a personal registration. Further within first reporting period, to support the validation procedure of users (the users of validation database) a benchmarking exercise was arranged. Several experiments in the validation database became selected by the project partners for benchmarking exercise and some get already simulated numerically by the project partners.
The main output of WP6 is the development of the Model Evaluation Protocol of CFD models for safety analysis of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. In Task 6.1 - Structure of the Protocol - the MS6 milestone (Protocol Structure) was finalized. The table of content, the assignment of the coordination and responsibility of each paragraph and chapter to the partners, and a Gantt-like chart were included in the final version of the document. The Protocol structure was presented and discussed at the first international expert workshop that was held in Athens in September 2014. Although several interesting comments were made by the external experts on some specific points of the MEP, none of the comments required modifications of the protocol structure MS6. Two deliverables are foreseen and due to the end of the project. Nevertheless partners have already started to work on the deliverables.
Work package WP7 aims to make the project deliverables available to the hydrogen safety- and wider community using various dissemination routes and to gather feedback early in the project to ensure that the outcome is fit for purpose. The two main activities in WP7 are an expert workshop which took place in September 2014 in Athens and a dissemination seminar at the end of the project.
The workshop “Computational Hydrogen Safety” was held in Athens in September 2014 and a number of experts became invited (approximately 20 experts) of which 11 attended the work shop. These experts were from a diverse range of backgrounds including: hydrogen safety engineering, nuclear engineering, academia, code development and evaluation, and regulation. There were two main aims of the workshop; to present an overview of the SUSANA project and to gain feedback based upon the experience of the experts. Presentations were given by the SUSANA participants as well as by each invited expert.
The dedicated dissemination seminar will be organised at the end of the project to present the detailed project outcomes to the FCH safety community, especially the database and respective documentation. The consortium starts already with its planning and probably the seminar will be supported by a webinar or substituted fully through webinars. The audience for this event is expected to comprise mainly those that are likely to use the outputs of this project. The seminar will present the Best Practice Guide and Model Evaluation Protocols in detail including their scientific basis and a practical guide on how they should be used.
Last but not least, dissemination of the Best Practice Guide and Model Evaluation Protocol will also be carried out throughout this work package by journal publications, conference presentations and promoting and developing the project website as “special website to support CFD stakeholders”.

Potential Impact:
Numerical simulations using CFD technique are complimentary to costly experimental studies and testing of FCH system, and often it is the only affordable way to develop safety strategy and/or engineering solutions. In spite of ever growing computing power and user friendly interface of CFD tools, the knowledge of the state-of-the-art in physical and numerical aspects, as well as best practices in application of CFD for safety engineering design of FCH systems is very limited among growing number of involved stakeholders. Sometimes users fail to apply this powerful technique properly that could have dramatic consequences for life safety and future of the technologies. SUSANA aims to support all stakeholders using CFD for safety engineering design and assessment of FCH systems and infrastructure, especially those who have no specialised knowledge in hydrogen safety and associated CFD modelling/simulations practice, through the development of the CFD Model Evaluation Protocol, Specialised Databases and Best Practice Guidelines.

The project is built on the complementarities of expertise of leading European experts in the field of CFD use for provision of hydrogen safety to achieve the synergy and consolidate the CFD excellence in application to safety design of FCH systems and infrastructure. Five of seven partners are co-authors of the Reference Report “Prioritisation of research and development for modelling the safe production, storage, delivery and use of hydrogen” published by the European Commission. The aim of the project will be achieved through the following support objectives:

o Review the state-of-the-art in CFD physical and numerical modelling and simulations being applied for safety analysis in FCH technologies.
o Update and enhance the verification and validation procedures for CFD models/codes/simulations.
o Compile the best practices guide in numerical simulations of problems specific to safety of FCH technologies.
o Develop the CFD Model Evaluation Protocol for assessment of the capability of the CFD models of accurately describing the relevant physical phenomena and the capability of the CFD users of following the correct modelling strategy in applying correctly the CFD safety analysis of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies
o Create the infrastructure for implementation of the CFD Model Evaluation Protocol, which includes:
Database of problems for verification of codes and models against analytical solutions, designed to demonstrate capability of CFD codes to solve numerically the governing equations
Model Evaluation Database of experiments for validation of simulations covering a range of phenomena relevant to FCH safety
An open to all stakeholders the benchmarking exercises for codes and models, further advanced during the project and to be continued beyond the project
Project website to support experts’ forum and provide open access to the databases, the best practices document, benchmark exercise specifications, available benchmark results, etc. to all stakeholders through the public access area
o Establish the experts group for use of complementarities and synergies of the project partners and external to the project experts, and for the implementation of the Protocol at as earliest stages of the project as possible.
o Provide cross-fertilisation of expertise and experience in the field available in Europe and globally.
o Dissemination of project results to stakeholders through different channels, including online forum, workshops, dissemination seminar, etc.

The specific feature of the project is building synergies on complementarities of not only project partners yet experts beyond the consortium. Call for participation to external experts will be issued through different routes, including but not limited to the International Association for Hydrogen Safety (IA HySafe), International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementation Agreement Task 31 “Hydrogen Safety” (IEA HIA Task 31), the H2FC European Infrastructure project and its Cyber-Laboratory (, etc.

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Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie
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