Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS



Project ID: 315423
Funded under: FP7-SME
Country: Norway

Final Report Summary - DOCKINGMONITOR (DockingMonitor - development of automated combined berthing aid and drift monitoring system for large ships, particularly oil and LNG gas tankers)

Executive Summary:
The DockingMonitor project lasted two years from September 2013 to August 2015 and was divided into several work packages (WP) covering scientific understanding, R&D work, integration, testing and validation, innovation related and dissemination activities.

The DockingMonitor project idea was to develop a combined berthing aid and drift monitoring system, which will reduce the risks associated with the process of berthing and cargo transfer of large ships, particularly oil and LNG tankers. As opposed to existing systems, a portable distance measurement system was developed that eliminates the need of distributing more than one distance sensor on the dock.

The DockingMonitor team identified the main challenges in developing a new drift monitoring system for moored vessels based on image processing that can track the ship’s motion over the period of multiple hours during cargo transfer. Present state of the art in berthing aid systems had to be improve. Thus a laser scanning distance measurement system that was eye safe but still delivered accurate and precise data of position, as well as orientation of the ship in respect to the jetty over long distances, was introduced.

The DockingMonitor consortium achieved to build a working prototype developed within machine vision, laser technology, control electronics, and mechanical design. Repeated testing were carried out during the industrial validation. The portable DockingMonitor system can easily be installed on jetties and the validation confirmed the functionality of the system in terms of accuracy, resolution, repeatability and reliability. The validation results demonstrated the capability of the system to measure distances, velocities and to track the vessel motions.

The developed berthing and mooring aided monitoring system will have an impact on port safety and reduces risks related to cargo transfer. Based on both high-end laser distance measurement and image processing the system will significantly increase the state of the art in port safety automation. Data from the system will be transmitted to displays, PCs and handheld devices. An alarm system will alert jetty and ship crew if there is potential danger.

The DockingMonitor consortium consisted of partners from Denmark, Norway, Germany and Italy. The project was initiated by Marimatech AS (DK) having extensive experience in innovation and technology development in port safety industry. Other industrial partners were S&F Systemtechnik GmbH (DE), Cortem SPA (IT), Westcontrol AS (NO) and Norske Shell AS (NO). R&D partners were Teknologisk Institutt as, Fraunhofer ILT (DE) and Labor srl (IT). The SMEs from Denmark, Germany and Italy are the main beneficiaries and owners of project results. Teknologisk Institutt as (NO) had the role as coordinator.

Project Context and Objectives:
Great risks are associated with the process of berthing and cargo transfer of large ships, particularly oil and LNG tankers. Excessive speed upon approach to jetty may cause damage to jetty structure, loading arms, fenders and ship hull. Even more serious is the consequences of oil spills during loading and unloading of oil and LNG, in most cases caused by excess movement of the ship while moored. Such damages and oil spills may result in great expenses for the maritime industry sectors. With a great number of oil jetties in existence and a significant expected expansion of the oil and gas sector, there is definitely a need for improved safety for harbour operations.

The DockingMonitor will be marketed globally as the target areas are national, EU and overseas small and large harbours receiving cargo vessels. Potential markets identified are the expanding oil and gas sector as well as the general maritime freight and cruise ship traffic. The solution with using only one telemeter laser vs. two as in existing systems is expected to be looked upon as advantageous to existing as well as new customers. The DockingMonitor prototype is designed suitable for use in an oil and gas environment, whereas the final commercial version will be certified to fulfil the strict requirements for use in hazardous areas (ex-zones).

DockingMonitor is a combined berthing aid and drift monitoring system which eliminates the need for distributing more than one measurement unit at the jetty. The aim was to include accurate measurement of drift along the jetty during cargo transfer, a function not available on today’s systems. The DockingMonitor project aimed to develop two different measurement systems, Transversal Movement Monitor (TMM) and Longitudinal Movement Monitor (LMM). The TMM is based on a laser measurement system and is responsible for measuring the sideways movement of the ship as it approaches the jetty. It will switch to drift monitoring mode when the ship is moored for detecting drift away from the jetty. Longitudinal drift will be handled by an innovative machine vision system, the LMM. Control electronics was to be developed to control and integrate the data from the two sensor systems, together with a communication architecture that enables great stability and versatility when it comes to various platforms on which to present the information.

The project had several goals related to the different work packages (WP1 Scientific understanding, WP2 Development of longitudinal movement monitor, WP3 Development of transverse movement monitor, WP4 Development of electronics and housing, WP5 Integration and testing, WP6 Industrial validation, WP7 Innovation-related activities and dissemination and WP8 Consortium management), which included scientific, technological, IPR and dissemination objectives. The project focus was system functioning, portability and operation of the prototype in real environment.

To achieve the main goals of completion of the different subsystems and the assembly into one DockingMonitor system the project was planned with several objectives within different work packages. The following are the main scientific and technological objectives relevant for the development work:
•Enhance the understanding of methods and technology for detecting and tracking movement with the help of camera and appropriate hardware.
•Enhance the understanding of regulations related to electronics in ex-zones.
•Complete specification of requirement describing the DockingMonitor system.
•Design and construct a machine vision system for detection and measurement of longitudinal drift (LMM) with accuracy according to specification.
•Develop image processing algorithms using images from camera.
•Develop pattern recognition mode for fail-safe solution.
•Acquirement of optics and lighting for optimal LMM system performance at jetties.
•Develop scanning laser distance measurement system (TMM) for gauging distance, speed and angle of approach of ship with accuracy according to specification.
•Design and construct the laser-scanner assemblies.
•Develop software algorithms and software modules for operation of TMM.
•Implement system for switching from berthing-aid to drift-monitoring mode.
•LMM and TMM system testing and optimising of functionality.
•Develop control electronics to liaison LMM and TMM and communication with external system.
•Design and construct portable housing that is suitable for use in an oil and gas environment.
•Manage risks throughout the period.
•Integrate the developed sub-components.
•Prepare and perform functionality testing and industrial validation.
Several IPR, dissemination and management objectives were also valid throughout the project:
•Absorption of results by SME proposers through events or case studies and written material.
•Protection of intellectual property rights.
•Dissemination of results through promotion and exploitation activities.
•Provide good overall consortium management and coordination.

By implementing the DockingMonitor solution the sustainability, profitability and the competiveness of European port operators can be expected to increase. The solution will be energy and cost efficient. DockingMonitor is portable and easy to install on the jetty and the port operators will benefit from robust technology having improved safety automation. Data from the system will be transmitted to displays, PCs and handheld devices. An alarm system will alert jetty and ship crew of potential danger. The system design shall ensure reliable and precise measurements in challenging light and weather conditions making DockingMonitor the perfect choice in exposed locations. The project partners in general and the SMEs in particular will beyond the project lifetime continue disseminating the results to relevant industry sectors encouraging them to use the new technology.

Project Results:
The DockingMonitor key feature is a portable one-unit TMM and a camera based LMM system. The project has built a working prototype developed within machine vision, laser technology, control electronics and mechanical design. The DockingMonitor berthing and drift monitoring system consist of two different measurement systems: Transversal Movement Monitor (TMM) and Longitudinal Movement Monitor (LMM). Longitudinal drift measurement is handled by an innovative machine vision system. The camera-based monitoring uses image processing algorithms to calculate the velocity and motion and alerts in case of critical displacements. Transversal movements of a ship are detected by a custom made 2D-laser scanner. The TMM is combined with a flexible control system that handles the message flow in and out the DockingMonitor system. Ex-proof housings to fit the requirements at oil and gas terminals have been designed and constructed for the two subsystems. The DockingMonitor prototype verified the system and proofed the concept within the project period.

High speed upon approach to jetty and excessive ship movement when moored may cause damage to jetty structure, loading arms, fenders and ship hull, or result in oil spills during loading/unloading of oil and LNG tankers. The one-unit solution monitors and controls movements in different directions as well as distance and velocity of ship during berthing. The danger to cargo and jetty crew that are associated with the process of berthing and cargo transfer of large ships can be substantially reduced by using a DockingMonitor system.

Based on both high-end laser distance measurement and image processing, the DockingMonitor system will significantly increase the state of the art in port safety automation. Data from the system will be transmitted to displays, PCs and handheld devices, and alarm systems will alert jetty and ship crew of potential dangers. The sub-systems LMM, combined TMM and control system, Ex-housing and support system were designed and constructed separately before being assembled into one DockingMonitor system. The system was coupled to a Berthing Aid System (BAS) which is the consumer of the data produced by the DockingMonitor system. Data from the DockingMonitor unit are received in the BAS where they will be processed, displayed, and stored for replay.

A DockingMonitor prototype was successfully developed during the project. The sub-systems were mounted on a wheeled carriage making the system portable and easy to move around at a jetty. The DockingMonitor ensures accurate measurement of drift along the jetty during cargo transfer, a function not available on existing systems. The aim was a compact system that require placement of only one measurement unit along the jetty. The manufacturing of DockingMonitor required interdisciplinary research and development including expertise in product development, machine vision, laser technology, automation and electronics, software development and mechanical design and engineering. The working prototype of the DockingMonitor system was built, tested and industrially verified.

The project was organised in eight work packages (WP); WP1 Scientific understanding, WP2 Development of Longitudinal Movement Monitor, WP3 Development of Transverse Movement Monitor, WP4 Development of electronics and housing, WP5 Integration and testing, WP6 Industrial validation, WP7 Innovation-related activities and dissemination and WP8 Consortium management. Specific results were provided as fact sheets, videos or other reports at project meetings and on the public and password protected project web site. The results from the different task works are provided to the consortium in several comprehensive deliverable reports. The main S&T results were obtained in WP1-6.

The description of RTD work and main results are as follows:

The objectives of WP1 “Scientific understanding” were enhanced understanding of methods and technology for detecting and tracking movement with the help of cameras and appropriate hardware. Furthermore enhanced understanding of regulations related to electronics in Ex zones had to be acquired. The goal of the first deliverable was the complete specification of requirement describing the DockingMonitor system.
A questionnaire was prepared that clarified remaining questions and provided the project partners with all information needed to prepare a specification of requirements document for the LMM and TMM sub-systems.
A basic concept for a camera based system to measure the displacement of a moored vessel was developed. Design of a mechanical model had to take into account the different motions of the vessel. The aim was to identify suitable sensors considering all boundary conditions. Specification of requirements related to the LMM system included:
• Investigation of oil and gas terminals and their jetties to establish background experience on which to base machine vision software design.
• Research ship types in target group and their visual characteristics.
• Correlation of this information to evaluate important parameters such as placement of DockingMonitor system and camera and lighting requirements.
• Research algorithms for movement detection suitable for the specified requirements.
The requirements of the system enclosures were devoted both to ensure that the enclosure is compliant with the Ex-standards and to define the solutions to be considered for the DockingMonitor specific application. An investigation regarding laser standards and classifications was carried out needed as background information for the selection of the laser system in WP3. Lasers safety regulations required the energy transmitted to be eye safe. Different concepts regarding measurement of transversal distance and speed and communication for a deployable berth aid system were evaluated. A system with commercial off-the-shelf components was identified. The functionality had the capability to be integrated with current berth aid system and further developed to a deployable system. The specification of the complete DockingMonitor system was broken down to sub-systems completely describing each of the work packages. In order to ensure that the development work to be performed in the project was feasible the end-user product specification had been evaluated with basis in past experience, theoretical limitations and cost-benefit considerations.

The objective of WP2 “Development of Longitudinal Movement Monitor” was the design and construction of a machine vision system for detection and measurement of longitudinal drift (LMM). The longitudinal movement of a ship moored at a jetty has been difficult to autonomously detect and measure. At present, only load arm monitoring has managed to do this to some extent, and then only through considerable cost and extensive instrumentation.
The idea behind the LMM is to have a camera pointed at the ship, just as the image sensor of the optical mouse is pointed down onto the surface. However, instead of an image depicting topographic variations of a surface, the camera records grey scale images and use the naturally occurring variations (features) in any picture to compare the images. The algorithms are more complex to those found in the processing unit of an optical mouse, due to the increased resolution and greyscale depth of the images. With diffuse features, the resolution has to be high in order to discern between smaller details on the ship. Increased resolution requires higher processing power and longer processing time. Fortunately, ship movement is slow and the frame rate of the camera need not be higher than 10 frames per second to track the motion of the ship according to the given specifications.
The LMM prototype was designed to meet the demands of the task and also the requirements to be installed into an Ex-proofed housing. The LMM-system consists of following components: LowLight CMOS Camera, lens aperture and focus control adapter, prime lens designed for low-light conditions embedded PC for image processing, Data Acquisition and a floodlight to ensure a homogeneous illumination of the ship hull during low light conditions. A prime lens was chosen as imaging optic featuring a very fast maximum aperture and swift focusing.
For a better performance of the LMM prototype the velocity measurement was separated from the displacement tracking. One program part calculates the velocity of the vessel along the jetty and the up and down motion. This can be seen as a relative measurement in means of frame to frame analysis. The other program part measures the displacement of the moored vessel in an absolute way by comparing the current recorded image to a reference image. To track the position of a vessel over time, a reference position as a starting point is inevitable. The reference position is defined as the alignment of the loading arm is perpendicular to the ship hull.
According to the specification of requirements the working range of the loading arms is within an envelope of ±1m parallel to the jetty structure. The up and down movement of the ship due to unloading and loading is limited to a range of ±0.5m since ballast tanks are used to regulated the overall weight of the vessel. Nevertheless motions due to tide and swell have to be taken into consideration. The prime lens provided a larger field of view and a resolution necessary to reach the required accuracies for velocity and displacement measurement. The advantaged of the larger area is that at least a fourth of the references image is retrieved within a recorded image of the working envelope. Furthermore a resampling of recorded images was implemented into the program flow for the displacement tracking part. Due to the optical properties of a prime lens the scaling is changing with the object distance. The working distance of the LMM system was specified as 5- 10m. The farthest distance of 10m is defined as the reference plane to which each recorded image is downsampled. This procedure is necessary to calculate a precise absolute displacement in relation to the reference image. For the velocity measurement this procedure can be omitted since the error is negligible minor by comparing frame to frame relatively.
The LMM prototype was setup and extensively tested under laboratory conditions. A ship hull dummy with factitious feature pattern was prepared and a Gantry portal provided the artificial motion of a vessel. At any recording time sharp, high-contrast and high-resolution images have to be available to guarantee that reliable position and velocity values are calculated by the image processing algorithm. It is inevitable that an in-focus, homogenously illuminated image of the ship hull is provided at any time. As a moored ship is subject to transversal movements relative to the terminal the measurement system had to be designed in a way that it can dynamically compensate the resulting changes in image scale and resolution. Furthermore the distance between the optical system and the ship hull has to be measured independently from the approach for transversal motion compensation and is realized by the TMM scanning system.
A predictive autofocus was introduced allowing big stops (smaller f numbers) to increase the amount of light that can reach the image plane. This is important to cope with extreme light conditions in a real industrial environment. The predictive autofocus is tracking the moving ship hull. It “predicts” where the object will be and continually refocuses as it moves away from or towards the camera. The autofocus works as an active autofocus system since the distance to the object is constantly measured.

The objective of WP3 “Development of Transverse Movement Monitor” was to develop a scanning laser distance measurement system (TMM) for gauging distance, speed and angle of approach of ship within defined accuracy. A custom made 2D laser scanner was developed by using an off-the-shelf laser point laser in combination with a rotating mirror to cover the required range of angles and distances at different ship positions. System specific software algorithms and software modules for operation of TMM were also developed within the work package.
The TMM monitor the berthing and mooring by measuring distance and calculate speed and position between the jetty and the ship. A system for switching from berthing-aid mode to drift –monitoring mode was developed and implemented. Final results are transferred to the Berthing Aid System (BAS) for further processing and ultimately to display the distance to the jetty. LMM and TMM components communicate each other via the control system component, hosted on the same computer as TMM. Being a separate application, the control system software can be run on any computer (Python required) giving the system high flexibility.
The TMM concept was initially tested by simplified test of distance measurements at different target angles by making a dummy ship hull with rotation ability, and by using a commercial point laser as source. The usability of the TMM concept was further verified comparing with a commercial high-end 3D scanner at the Port of Oslo targeting cargo ships approaching the jetty. The single point scanning laser performs multiple distance measures across a field of +/- 45 degrees. Position and speed is calculated as a two point distance of the front and aft of the ship relative to the jetty. The laser requires some distance from the ship in order to measure these positions correctly, but it allows the laser to scan more of the vessel. The side of the ship is considered to be a flat area and the laser measures spots with angle. Distance is used to estimate the position and speed of a straight line that will be the side of the ship and time is used to calculate the speed which is a vector for each point.
The algorithm is implemented in Python running on a Linux embedded computer with serial interface towards the laser sensor for distance measurements and the motor control board to control the angle of the mirror. The TMM related information was implemented in flow and block diagrams. Test runs and optimisation routines with realistic setups were conducted to evaluate the capabilities of the system. At a defined distance the control system will initiate the LMM measurement and start sending LMM data. TMM data will be sent continuously. Tests were performed in ambient indoors and outdoors conditions. Repeated tests were performed at distances up to 32 meters with the TMM placed perpendicular to a wall simulating a ship hull to ensure a line with slope coefficient close to 0. The results showed that the algorithm gave adequate accuracy when measuring distance. The TMM prototype assembly was successfully completed and the system was integrated and tested with the BAS system and the main functionality of reporting distance and speed was verified. The TMM solution was defined as feasible within WP3 and the completed TMM system has implemented all functions for integration with LMM and BAS.

The objectives of WP4 “Development of electronic and housing” included both the development of control electronics to liaison the TMM and LMM sub-systems and communication with external systems, and the development of portable housings that fulfils requirements for operation in oil and gas environment.
The development of control electronics was closely linked to the development WP3 work developing the TMM. The control software was developed as a separate module in the TMM control computer which communicates with the LMM using a local IP network and with BAS using a serial RS422 network. The control is integrated electrically with the TMM laser scanner. The control program is implemented in Python and runs on a Linux embedded PC which facilitates integration between TMM and LMM as the control software can be used on a windows computer. The embedded PC selected has multiple IO, serial and IP network. The BAS system only supports serial asynch data using RS422, thus a wireless interface was not implemented yet. This can easily be implemented in the future as the embedded PC has Ethernet and option for both WLAN and mobile data communication using an external adapter. The system was successfully tested in terms of accuracy and functionality in the lab and during range control performed outdoors. The tests revealed that the total system with the control computer, laser, power supplies, mirror control hardware and adapters uses less than 49W, which eliminates the need for cooling of the equipment inside the housing.
The EX-housing of the DockingMonitor system was designed and constructed to support and enclose the TMM and LMM systems, realize a mobile installation and make the system Ex-compliant. The Ex-compliance had to be considered first in order to identify the necessary components, constraints and rules to be adopted. The target application was identified as “Gas Group IIB, Gas Temperature Class T2, System Temperature Class T3, Area Classification Zone 2 (Zone 1 during loading operations)”. Complying with that, flame-proof Ex-d aluminium enclosures of the EJB series from Cortem were used. For this first prototype it was preferred to have the LMM and TMM systems separated. The EJB-45/3020 enclosure with 200x300mm rectangular window was used for the TMM and the EJB-6 enclosure customized with circular 90mm window was used for the LMM. High transparency borosilicate glass with appropriate anti-reflection coating was requested for the enclosure windows to achieve fine performances of the TMM and LMM.
The internal assemblies for TMM and LMM were designed respecting specifications about internal distances and maximum allowed internal power dissipation. Cortem’s flame-proof Ex-d barrier cable glands were used for all the cables entering the enclosures and Ex-compliant connectors from Hawke International were selected for the cable connections out of the enclosures. Non-armoured cables were chosen for the best match with the mobile nature of the system. Internal support structures were designed for the TMM and LMM providing the necessary adjustments. For the TMM’s laser and mirror assembly a sliding installation plate was designed to allow centring the laser on the window. For the LMM’s camera a four-axes adjustable support was realized allowing tilt adjustment for the horizontal position of the camera and the three translations (up/down, left/right, forward/backward) to achieve the right position with respect to the window.
The mobile installation structure was realized as a carriage on four wheels with dimensions 1800x1600x1400mm and weight approximately 150kg. Welded zinc-coated steel was used for the structure and an aluminium roof was provided to prevent overheating of the enclosures at direct sunlight. Support for the LMM’s floodlight was integrated in the roof. In order to guarantee the horizontal position of the LMM's camera, a horizontal alignment system was provided with the carriage: 4 screw stabilizers as actuators (one at each corner), and 3 level-meters to check the alignment. The proper calibration of this alignment system with the internal alignment system of the LMM’s camera, allows achieving the horizontal position of the camera without opening the LMM's enclosure on site.

The objectives of WP5 “Integration and testing” were the successful integration of sub-components and subsequent testing by following a test protocol developed for performing functional testing.
The first integration testing took place at the facilities of Marimatech in a joint workshop between SMEs and RTDs. Fraunhofer ILT provided the LMM, TI the TMM and Marimatech the BAS. A specific setup for the DockingMonitor communication testing had been developed. In connection with the testing workshop the full consortium met for a Management Board meeting. As part of this meeting the system functionality was demonstrated to the consortium which gave opportunities for fruitful discussions and uptake of the achieved knowledge.
Before the second functional test the TMM and LMM systems were installed into the Ex proof enclosures at the RTD facilities. Then the fully equipped systems were sent to Marimatech for final assembly. Test procedures were performed to evaluate the functionality of the prototype according to mechanical integration, functional integration with BAS and live monitor of berthing and mooring phase.
The risks associated with the technical work were continuously monitored and managed so that the objective of successful integration of sub-components and subsequent testing was achieved. At the end of the functional tests realized in two steps, the DockingMonitor system was concluded as ready for industrial validation.

The objective of WP6 “Industrial validation” was the verification of the functionality of the DockingMonitor system in an industrial environment. At first a validation procedure describing industrial validation of the DockingMonitor system at end user jetty was developed. The validation procedure was prepared to be an equivalent to FAT/ SAT (Factory Acceptance Testing and Site Acceptance Testing) and should evaluate functionality against the requirements for the DockingMonitor system. Since the DockingMonitor is not yet a specified product ready for the market the validation could not be a true FAT/SAT. Secondly the industrial validation was performed. The aim was to record and evaluate results related to key figures such as accuracy, resolution, repeatability and reliability on different ship designs.
The test site was a relevant environment of berthing and cargo transfer processes where repeated testing could be achieved. Port of Aarhus is one of Denmark's leading and Europe's most efficient commercial port as well as a significant transit port for sea carriage between the countries of the Baltic Sea and the rest of the world. Shipping companies such as Maersk Line, Unifeeder, Eimskip, Samskip, Finnlines plus several others have regular connection between Aarhus and ports in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe and Asia ( The multi-terminal at the Port of Aarhus has frequent ship calls and facilitates for loading and unloading of bulk goods, containers, trailers, general cargo etc.
The industrial validation was split into three main phases: Installation, berthing and mooring. The DockingMonitor system is a portable system which was shown possible to deploy without the need to change or modify any installations on the jetty. Due to the dimensions of the prototype a van with lift was required for transporting the unit long distance. For moving short distances on the jetty DockingMonitor could easily be wheeled around by one person. The DockingMonitor prototype requires one power connector of 230 V AC 50 Hz, 10 A available within a reasonable distance from the installation point.
Testing on site was performed during daylight at 10-20ºC. Actual weather conditions during the days of validation was from sunny to overcast with light to moderate wind but no waves. System validation was performed for vessels during mooring and berthing. Measurements were mainly related to the overall functionality of the system and the drift measurement during loading and unloading of the ship. High amplitudes were detected when cargo was moved inside the vessels. The testing results were evaluated and considered consistent and stable under the actual conditions.

Potential Impact:
Technology and innovation
The DockingMonitor concept is a combined berthing and drift monitoring system that provides accurate measurement of drift along the jetty during cargo transfer, a function not available on today’s systems. The new system consist of two different measurement systems: Transversal Movement Monitor (TMM) and Longitudinal Movement Monitor (LMM). Control electronics has been developed specifically to control and integrate the data from the two sensor systems. The innovation is a portable system which eliminates the need for distributing more than one sensor along the jetty. The DockingMonitor is a portable system mounted on a wheeled carriage for fast positioning parallel to the jetty, and Ex-proof housings to fit the requirements at oil and gas terminals have been designed and constructed for the two subsystems. Combining the different systems into one unit has advantages over existing systems performing similar tasks. During the project the DockingMonitor system advanced a big step forward. The maturity of the technology developed within the project from a TRL (technology readiness level) of 2 at start to a TRL of 5/6 at the end. With its development within machine vision, laser technology, control electronics and mechanical design the DockingMonitor prototype verified the system and proofed the concept.

Impact for the participating SMEs
The project achieved a functional prototype within the project lifetime. Some further improvements are needed to reach a fully commercial product which is smaller and lighter than the version produced. The needed modifications and effort have been specified, and the participating SMEs have plans for exploitation activities beyond the project to approach and transfer the new technology to different markets. It is expected that a commercial DockingMonitor can be on the market within two years. The market potential for the DockingMonitor system is considered high as the sector of oil and gas is expanding. Today the estimated global market is 1200 oil and gas terminals with a total of 2000 jetties where oil and LNG tankers visit to load and unload their cargo. Considerable amounts are spent each year on repairing damages on ships, fenders and other jetty structures due to ships accidently running into the jetty. By introducing the DockingMonitor system such costs can be reduced. The estimation of sales forecast is to reach 10% of the users within five years of market entry. Other benefits for the participating SMEs includes increase of market share, brand awareness and preference, a more competitive product and range of products, increased related sales, strengthening of position as technology suppliers within the fields of the different subsystems, increased revenues, and strengthening of international networks.

Contribution to the development of a sustainable LNG/Cargo ship industry sector
It is expected that the DockingMonitor system will have a high positive impact on the environment due to the reduction of accidents and pollution of ecosystems. In addition, this technology can contribute to European standards on maritime port safety.
Great risks are associated with the process of berthing and cargo transfer of large ships, particularly oil and LNG tankers. High speed upon approach to jetty and excessive ship movement when moored may cause damage to jetty structure, loading arms, fenders and ship hull, or result in oil spills during loading/unloading of oil and LNG tankers. The risk of mooring line breakages and consequent danger to cargo and jetty crew can be substantially reduced by using a DockingMonitor system.
The use of DockingMonitor will enable ships and terminals to reduce the amount of oil spills during loading and discharging. Oil tankers may spill from 30% to more than 40% oil during these operations. The global average per-unit cost for clean-up of oil spills is estimated to €12 000/tonne and €18 000/tonne for other costs. Other costs include environmental damage and socio-economic damage, such as loss of cargo, vessel salvage, repair of damaged vessel, personal injuries, authority services, etc. Thus, the average expenditure related to oil spill ads up to €30 000 per tonne. In order to develop a sustainable and sound maritime sector it is required to counteract negative environmental impacts.

Wider societal implications
Safe job opportunities contribute directly to improving people’s quality of life. The expected expansion within the oil&gas sector as well as other maritime sectors will create stable employment in coastal areas for both men and women. Work and economic security are key issues in ensuring long-term wellbeing of people, communities and regions. SMEs are a major source of entrepreneurial skills and innovation and may create secondary effects of new employment possibilities. Further there may be demand of more skilled labour and thereby increased demand for education and training. Lack of experience among crew and inadequate equipment may be a dangerous mix causing accidents which can be very serious and sometimes fatal. All the mentioned factors impact on the safety, health and working conditions at the society and individual levels.

Exploitation of results and dissemination activities
The exploitable results planned and derived from the DockingMonitor project were:
1. Knowledge of subjects related to laser, machine vision and safety issues
2. Longitudinal Movement Monitor prototype
3. Transverse Movement Monitor prototype
4. Electronics and housing
5. DockingMonitor prototype
6. Results from industrial validation
The exploitable results were described and explained intermediary in monthly reports and in more detail in deliverable reports. A dissemination and use plan was developed between the DockingMonitor beneficiaries regarding protection, ownership and licensing of the IPR. Dissemination and promotion took place at different arenas during the project period. The website that was created in the beginning of the project provided information to a wider audience, including the general public. The website was operated during the project life-time and will exist beyond the end of the project. It was considered specifically important to reach the different energy and transport industry sectors that may have potential users for the DockingMonitor system. The concept and system has been presented at different national websites of the partners and internationally at conferences and exhibitions (i.e. Spring Seminar, hosted by The Harbour Masters’ Association of the United Kingdom, Scotland 2014; European Maritime Pilots' Association EMPA, Belgium, 2014; 22nd International Maritime Pilots' Association Congress, Panama 2014; 19th International Oil, Gas, Refining & Petrochemical Exhibition 2014, Iran; 9th IHMA Congress, Global Port & Marine Operations 2014, Belgium). The DockingMonitor was further presented in flyers, video and in the European Energy Innovation Magazine. The different material produced have and will be used by the SMEs to promote the DockingMonitor product.

List of Websites:
Project public website address:

Contact person:
Jakob Poulsen
Title:Software Developer
Mobile:+45-86 91 22 55

Related information


Morten Berntsen
Tel.: +4798290366
Record Number: 187930 / Last updated on: 2016-08-18
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