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Final Report Summary - BACT (Bioactive compounds from Turkish marine macro organism and associated fungi for EU industries)

The aim of the project was to identify new natural marine compounds that can serve as leading structures for new products in EU industries. The target sectors were drug development and cosmetic industries. The project funding was for 3 years (2013-2016) and we could not attain all of our objectives due to the leaving of one partner long before it was time. Therefore some work was not completed and it effected our schedule and overall results.
Some researches on project are still going on and some results have already obtained that will be shared on our web site in the future.
In the search for new bioactive natural products, increasing attention is nowadays given to sources which have so far received no, or only superficial attention as chances of finding nondescribed compounds that appear in unexploited or less exploited organisms. An important aim in natural products research is the discovery of new molecules, which can be utilized as drugs. Sea is an excellent source of potentially bioactive substances. In fact scientific research, in last years, has led to finding of many novel and often species-specific metabolites in marine organisms. Marine organisms constitute a relatively untapped source for bioactive secondary metabolites. The main goal of the project is to identify new and industrially useful bioactive compounds from marine invertebrates. In this project, total 74 fungi were isolated from 18 marine samples and 68 compounds identified, 9 of them as novel. Also, 181 bacteria were isolated from 41 samples and 76 different species were identified. 21 different genera of bacteria were isolated from Turkish invertebrates/sediments and are a promising source for natural product discovery.
The crude extracts of 8 fungi isolated from 3 collected species were tested on their cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. 2 of them showed cytotoxic activity and were therefore chosen for further investigation. An antimicrobial activity was found for 3 extracts while all extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity. In total, 14 sponges and 1 coral extract were investigated with regard to their cytotoxic potential applying an MTT assay determining cell viability of a HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line and crude extracts of the sponges Spistrella cunctatrix, Ircinia oros, Sarcotragus spinosula and Dictyonella incisa and the coral extract of Eunicella cavolini showed the strongest cytotoxic potential against HT-29. Cytotoxicity of several isolates against mouse lymphoma cells (L5178Y) has been completed. 20 synthetic derivatives (compounds 11-30 in German Group) of naturally occuring sponge-derived bromotyrosines, the so-called hemibastadins, which are suspected to play a crucial role in biofouling defense mechanisms of the marine sponge Ianthella basta, were tested on their antibacterial potential against the five marine-derived bacteria Vibrio harveyi, V. anguillarum, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus and Aeromonashydrophyla. With MICs of 0.25 µg/mL against V. harveyi and 2 µg/mL against V. alginolyticus compound 30 demonstrated its strong inhibitory potential on the growth of the bacteria tested. Furthermore compound 24 exhibited a prominent effect on the growth of the same bacterial species with MICs of 4 µg/mL against V.harveyi and 32 µg/mL against V. alginolyticus, respectively. Monochlorodiaportin was tested for cytotoxic activity against mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y; the compound did not exhibit potent cytotoxicity. 1-(4-hydroxybenzoyl) indole-3-carbaldehyde was tested for antimicrobial activity against several human-, fish- and plant-pathogens (E. coli, S. aureus, V. alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, A. brassicae, and F. graminearum), but exhibited no potent antimicrobial activity.
Chinese group completed antibacterial activity assays. Table 5 shows antibacterial activity against given strains. Canadian group did antimicrobial activity assays for bacteria extracts. 32 of 76 isolates produced antimicrobial activity in one or more media against one or more pathogens. Thus these strains represent a promising resource for future studies to elucidate the compounds responsible for the observed bioactivity. Extracts from 17 isolates have been tested for antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Malessezia furfur.

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