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EUCARD-2 Report Summary

Project ID: 312453
Country: Switzerland

Periodic Report Summary 2 - EUCARD-2 (Enhanced European Coordination for Accelerator Research & Development)

Project Context and Objectives:
WP1 Management and Communication
The management of the project had to organise two Annual Meetings in M24 and M36, follow the production, the revision and approval of 43 Milestones and 21 Deliverables, organise the Steering Committee and project Team meetings, and monitor the scientific activities and progress of the project. The project team needs to assure constant budget follow-up and the numerous communication and outreach activities.
WP2 Catalysing Innovation
The objectives for this period mainly concerned Task 2.2 (Transferring Innovation to Society, in particular Industry). The result of technology scouting within the first reporting period of EuCARD-2 identified the potential for three ‘EuCARD-2 meets the industry’ events. Two of such events were organised during the second reporting period.
WP3 Energy Efficiency
The WP3 objectives included the organisation of workshops on low power magnets, on efficient RF generation, on sustainability aspects of large research infrastructures, and on efficiency of proton driver accelerators. A comprehensive study on the energy consumption of beam transport systems had to be performed, as well as a survey study on the consumption characteristics of large accelerators.
WP4 Accelerator Applications
The main objectives for period 2 were to continue reviewing applications of particle accelerators, including a particular focus on applications with potentially large areas of impact with the goal of organising Workshops on the key areas identified, in particular with the involvement of industry. In addition, the WP planned to progress in the preparation of the “Applications of Particle Accelerators in Europe” document, identified as a priority during the first period.
WP5 Extreme Beams
The WP5 objectives for the period 2 included the organisation of 14 topical workshops and the preparation of preliminary strategy reports for the Tasks 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5 resulting from the activities of the first two reporting periods. The topical workshops were directed towards the development of an accelerator roadmap for the near and long-term future of accelerator infrastructures: (re-)commissioning of LHC and ESS, final optimization of the HL-LHC, FAIR and MYRRHA, design of future post-LHC facilities like the FCC, and smaller-scale high-precision experiments, such as EDM rings.
WP6 Low Emittance Rings
The objectives of WP6 consisted of the organisation of two Annual Workshops gathering all the low-emittance ring community, and of three topical workshops on collective effects on technology and on lattice design for low-emittance rings.
WP7 Novel Accelerators
The WP7 objectives consist of the coordination of the initiatives of plasma-based accelerator community. For the second reporting period, this included the preparation, submission and follow-up of dedicated projects, the organisation of the second bi-annual large meeting of the European plasma accelerator community, and the contribution to schools and student events.
Objectives included advertising the facility to a wider audience with a particular focus on attracting new users and reaching the intermediate objectives for the number of projects, of access units and of users.
WP9 HiRadMat and MagNet@CERN
Objectives consisted of reaching the intermediate objectives for the number of projects, of access units and of users.
WP10 Future Magnets
The main WP10 objective was the production of the first lengths of high-temperature superconductor cable, after having selected the appropriate tape composition and cable geometry. In parallel, the magnetic and mechanical design of different alternatives for the HTS dipole had to be advanced, addressing in particular simulations of the complete system and quench protection. Tools had to be prepared for coil winding and coil impregnations foreseen in the next period.
WP11 Collimator Materials for Fast High Density Deposition
The objectives for the second period were to further develop Molybdenum Carbide – Graphite (MoGr) composites in order to improve resistance to high-energy impact with beam while maintaining low electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity, further characterise MoGr behaviour under irradiation and validate MoGr and Copper-Diamond (CuCD) for LHC collimator uses.
WP12 Innovative Radio Frequency Technologies
In WP12, Task 12.2 aimed at the design and commissioning of a superconducting quadrupole resonator for the characterisation of superconducting samples at HZB, at the preparation of a first resonator at CERN, and at the preparation, testing and qualification of a number of superconducting samples. The main objective of Task 12.3 was the completion of the updated electromagnetic design of the crab cavity for the CLIC collider, including the HOM dampers and an analysis of the HOM impedance. Task 12.5 aimed at demonstrating the operation of an improved deposition system for photocathodes, and to the manufacturing and commissioning of a photocathode transport system at STFC.
WP13 Novel Acceleration Concepts
The programme for WP13 included the completion of simulations of external electron injection into a plasma operating in the so-called “bubble” regime, to achieve multi-GeV acceleration with energy spread below 1% and a step forward in the preparation for the AWAKE proton wakefield acceleration experiment at CERN, optimising its configuration and installing the diagnostics system. For ultra-fast accelerator science, the workplan included the realisation and testing of a Normal-conducting RF cavity for fs stabilisation of the electron beam at the FLASH facility.

Project Results:
The EuCARD-2 project, which promotes a coordinated R&D effort to develop the next generation of particle accelerators, has completed its third year of activity progressing towards its scientific objectives. The project has strengthened its collaboration and fostered the partnership with industry; to date, it has produced 132 publications and generated one patent and one invention disclosure.
The Networks exploring new designs and technologies for the future generations of accelerators have organised a large number of high-level workshops involving prominent international experts. The outcomes included preparation for the future operation of the LHC at CERN, and the analysis of effects relevant for future high-intensity storage rings and colliders. Techniques for increasing the brilliance of synchrotron light sources were identified and analysed; among the different options are improved lattice design, use of damping wigglers, and multi-objective optimisation methods. Alternative novel approaches to particle acceleration based on lasers and plasmas were explored, with the goal of moving from R&D primarily based in universities to preparation for the construction of a first pilot plasma accelerator laboratory in Europe.
The Network on improving energy efficiency proposed novel Radio-Frequency devices increasing the overall efficiency of accelerator facilities and defined schemes for dynamic adaptation to the varying demand on the electricity grid. Another Network identified accelerator technologies with potential applications to society, as wastewater treatment and flue-gas processing with electron beams, production of medical radioisotopes with compact accelerators, novel techniques and compact delivery systems for cancer therapy with particle beams. The production of medical radioisotopes with accelerators and the development of new materials for extreme thermal management were the subject of dedicated events that brought together participants from academia and industry. New collaborations will address the increase in the future demand for radioisotopes and the application of materials developed for accelerators to domains such as automotive, aerospace, electronic packaging, fusion and solar energy.
The three Transnational Access facilities have proven their attractiveness to the wide accelerator community, providing access to a large number of user groups and approaching the number of access units outlined in the proposal.
The Joint Research Activities made a substantial progress in the development of advanced accelerator technologies. A steady progress was registered towards the construction of the first prototype accelerator magnet based on High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) technology. To date, 250 meters of HTS tape were successfully produced and tested; assembly of the cable was started, and winding trials and mechanical tests were performed. Different magnet designs are being analysed and compared, to decide which design will be selected for the final prototype magnet. The activity on advanced materials for future accelerators validated new grades of Molybdenum Carbide-Graphite and Copper-Diamond composites as robust materials for the upgrade of the LHC and developed new material grades improving performance against irradiation and high-energy deposition. The development of innovative Radio-Frequency technologies progressed with the preparation of thin film superconducting coatings for accelerating cavities and for long-pulse photocathodes; a new high efficiency klystron-type RF power source has been designed and already attracted interest from a major European company. The experimental validation of novel acceleration techniques concentrated on theoretical and experimental studies for the production of high quality and stable electron beams in a laser plasma accelerator; a prototype plasma cell was constructed and installed in preparation for a new experiment of acceleration in a plasma excited by a proton beam.

Potential Impact:
EuCARD-2 contributes to positioning European accelerator infrastructures at the forefront of global research. The potential impacts can be measured on different levels.

Improving performance of existing and future accelerators

EuCARD-2 influences the European accelerator infrastructure at 3 levels:
a) impact on existing accelerators;
b) impact on planned upgrades,
and finally c) impact on the definition of future upgrades and/or new accelerators.
The project provides through its networks a pool of competences and a platform for exchanging information and developing innovative ideas between the operators of the different facilities. New ideas and technologies can be either integrated into the design or applied during the initial operation of the new ESFRI European accelerator infrastructures such as FAIR, XFEL and ESS. In the time period covered by EuCARD-2 the scientific policy makers have to make important decisions on the next generation of accelerator facilities to be built or upgraded in order to meet the future needs of physics and science. In this context, EuCARD-2 will produce and structure new ideas with the goal of generating innovative proposals for the national and European (Horizon2020) research programs.
The networks are the focal point for comparing different options for future accelerators. With XBEAM at the forefront in the analysis in addressing all the limitations of present accelerators: energy, intensity, luminosity, polarization. The Low Emittance Rings network aims at supporting and improving the ongoing upgrade of European synchrotron light facilities, impacting as well on the design of the CLIC project. The EnEfficient network provides a frame for efficient use of energy that has a wide potential impact on the design of any of the future facilities. The EuroNNAc2 network aims to identify alternative paths towards future generation of accelerators based on emerging innovative techniques based on plasma wakefield acceleration.
The EuCARD-2 research activities purse innovative technologies with the potential to make a difference in the next generation of particle accelerators. The Future Magnets activity develops the 20T magnet technology based on high-temperature superconductors, which has the potential to reduce the size of future high-energy colliders. The study of novel materials for collimators has also an important impact on the cost and feasibility of present and future accelerator facilities. New thin film superconducting technologies for radiofrequency acceleration possess an enormous potential impact on the footprint and efficiency of large superconducting linear colliders. Laser plasma acceleration has the potential to revolutionize the field of accelerators, with possible applications ranging from compact linear colliders to table-top medical accelerators.

Catalysing the likelihood of market uptake

The innovation generated within the project has a potentially significant societal impact in the medium term. During the course of EuCARD-2, the consortium investigates applications of accelerators in fields such as, cancer therapy, production of radioisotopes for medical imaging, Accelerators Driven Systems for energy production, security issues. To maximize the likelihood that project results are realised by industry, the identification of the right technologies and of the right potential users is of paramount importance.

Impact on European science and society

In addition to the promotion of innovation carried out in the R&D studies throughout the project, two EuCARD-2 networks are focused on new aspects with a high potential of innovation: accelerator applications and energy-efficient systems. The ambition and quality of the most advanced research infrastructures involved in this project have the potential to attract the attention of young people to pursue scientific careers. This way the project contributes to the development of the human resource potential in accelerator science and technology in Europe.

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