Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

FP7

ROADMARK Report Summary

Project ID: 605847
Funded under: FP7-SME
Country: Spain

Final Report Summary - ROADMARK (Novel Mineral Material for road marking)

Executive Summary:
ROADMARK has been a project proposed by several European SMEs to contribute with a development of a novel cementitious material for long-lasting and anti-sliding road marking. The final film has improved features such as anti-skid, more durable, waterproofing and self-cleaning properties. The mineral compositions allowed get an improved adhesion between the asphalt and the paint that improved the durability of the paint.

In the execution of the project has been proved the technological approach, which has consisted in obtaining an enhanced cementious paint formulation based on an inorganic material as a non-fuel fossil dependent alternative that reduces the associated cost and the negative impact on the environment and all water based. The final formulation comply with established regulations. Properties as retrorefectivity, colour, luminance are optimal for its use in road markings, the density and viscosity reached allow use in equipment that are commonly used in paint application. The amount of TiO2 present in the formulation is small and because of it gets to have a competitive price in the market. In addition, because of their inorganic nature yellowing resistance (UV aging) is much higher than the traditional white road marking paints..
The application enables adaptability and adaptation to the different current methods of finishing, either with air gun in high pressure boiler, brush, roller, extensor applicator (Zapaton) or even trowel. Applying paint to the methods described achieves good application workability, adhesion to the substrate (asphalt or cement), fast drying, good finish, surface leveling, retroreflectivity, luminance, and color homogeneity

The traditional paint developed from different plastic materials are easily dirty when raining, compromising its visibility and the safety of drivers. With our new material we can save lives and decrease traffic accidents.

In this project, to ensure that each specific part of the execution has been developed correctly and it has been defined some work packages, which are the followings:

WP 1. Preliminary research and specifications.
The RTD’s was created a database with suitable raw materials. It was identified polymers,additives, Cementitious aggregates and mineral components. To improve Properties: Adhesiveness, Film Forming, Curing Process.
WP 2. Development of binder composition for new product formulation and simulation module.

In this WP the RTD’s studied the combination of hydroxyapatite and latex. At the same time we studied the formulation of binder films with adequate adhesion and cohesion behaviour on road pavement.

WP 3. Development of new material formulation for road marking

The development of a suitable material road marker formulation composed of cement, inorganic compounds and polymer latex binder were studied by RTDs. Suitable additives were evaluated to obtain the final formulation. And a complete characterization of final formulation was carried out.

WP 4. Development of drying mechanism & Process, traction optimization

RTD’s with SME’s studied application methods and curing techniques. Curing times were studied according several parameters such as environmental conditions, presence of curing agents and different substrates.

WP5 Technology Validation.

RTD’s with SME’s especially PAC & CHEMCOLOR produced small quantities of best performing material. This best formulation was applied in real substrates (asphalt & cementious) with different paint equipments.

WP 5. Exploitation & Dissemination.
This WP has consisted on the dissemination and exploitation activities and have been carried out by RTDS and SMEs.

WP 6. CONSORTIUM MANAGEMENT
The WP 6 has consisted on the Consortium management that ensures the achievement of the project objectives.

In each of this work package, a member of the Consortium has been designed as the leader
depending on their skills and PAC has made a report providing information about the subjects to
be covered in each part of the execution, in order to inform the rest of the members of the project and the European Commission. The Consortium have to take into account the degree of advantage and the involved results

Project Context and Objectives:
1 PROJECT CONTEXT OF ROADMARK

1.1 Economic Component

-The associated cost to pavement and signalling maintenance is carried out by Public investment in the EU, it has decreases in latest years from 1.5% of GDP to less 1%. In countries such as UK, is about €58M. This situation provokes a poor maintenance of roads pavements, road marking, therefore a detrimental safety of roads and drivers. Markings and Markings & Signs has been demonstrated to have comparable reduction in accidents (33%) than expensive one.
-Economic threats faced by Road Marking SMEs. the present acute economic crisis is envisaged to severely affect public spending on road maintenance and new marking/signalling infrastructures in the next decade. As typically road maintenance competencies are derived to regional or even local administrations, every week news are released on budget cuts for road maintenance and infrastructures
-Other factors as the price volatility and foreseen relative shortages of base raw materials used in regular road marking products, such as paint (oil-based resin used as binder in thermoplastic paints, or Titanium dioxide (TiO2) as friction additive), represent additional threats that road marking formulators will face in the next years.
- Associated costs to deaths and injured people in traffic accidents
- It could be estimated to be about 1,5-2% of gross domestic products in Europe, about €16,000M. These costs are the sum of death´s costs, hospitalization, insurances debts and time labour loss.

1.2 Social Component

Road Safety is a major societal issue, the fatalities during 2006-2010 period until an average annual of 38,057 people. Road accidents mostly occur on rural roads. In EU only 7% of road fatalities occurred on motorways, while two thirds of all other accidents happened on rural roads. This fact could be easily associated with the poor maintenance of those roads in comparison with highway and national roads. In addition to the dramatic personal and social consequences, these figures also bring about huge economic cost estimated on about 1,5-2% of gross domestic product in Europe.
It is estimated that the main cause of traffic accident are Human Factor (90%), Alcohol (30-50%), Speed (20-30%), Distractions (20-30%), Prohibited driving manoeuvres (10-20%), Drug consume (3-5%), Sleeping drivers (5-6%), Fatigue (10-20%) and road maintenance (10-15%).
In the absence of a single report with global data on the influence of poor road marking on road fatalities, a conservative estimation based on available publications and their own experience is that factors as worn-out or dashed out road marks, poor skid-resistance marks, slippery lines and due to non self-cleaning marks and low-visibility markings, are the first cause of about 1-3% of the total road mortal accidents in Europe, i.e. 340-1,020 deaths per year.
It is clear that there is a need to improve road marking in Europe and that the implementation of new and advanced system will drive a significant decrease in the number of deaths and injured people in Europe.


1.3 Political & Legislative Components

The relevant EU policies and legislation affecting Traffic marking issues are:

-Directive 2008/1/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 Jan. 2008 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control.
-Road Safety Action Programme (2003-2010).
-Directive 2008/96/EC of European Parliament and Council of 19 Nov. 2008 on road infrastructure safety management.
-Directive 2004/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on minimum safety requirements for tunnels in the trans-European road network.
-REACH, European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006).

These necessary directives and regulations contribute to threaten the competitiveness of road marking manufacturers due to the restrictive normative, forcing us to develop new and advanced products mixtures with improved properties that match the required normative.

1.4 Environmental Component

In the context of Kyoto even Paris 2015 emerge from the need of replacing currently used raw material for new road material design and formulations. As mentioned above, the use of oil-based materials in conventional road paints is forcing the need of finding new and innovative solutions for coatings and other road markings design that allow to overcome the associated limitations, such as the strong international markets dependence. This need is clearly linked to legislative and political issues commented. The use of organic binders increases the environmental impact due to the organic volatiles (VOC) contained on such as mixtures, normally solvent borne.
And the potential savings in street lighting that trying to be enforced in different countries across Europe, for whose actual application improved night visibility of road marking needs to be put in place. Following a recent report of the Road Safety Marking Associations (RSMA), “an average county in England will have C02 emissions related to street lighting of in excess of 15,000 tonnes of C02

1.5 European SMEs Competitiveness in Industrial Coatings

European sector is represented by 4,500 enterprises , with a turnover of €44,208M and added value of €12,022M with 174,000 employed people. The total coating consumption for Europe in 2009 was approximately 7,818,780Tn. The total consumption in Europe for special purposes (5% of total coatings) in 2009 totalled 960,000Tn. The traffic marking paint totalled 48,000Tn in 2009, representing a total sales value of about €672,66M.
USA & China are introducing new technology or introducing cheaper products, are threatening the competitiveness of European Industry. Hence, there is an urgent need to find new solutions to face such external threats.

OBJECTIVES

The objective of the AT-INSULATE project has been to develop of a novel inexpensive cementitious material for anti-sliding road marking. A new mineral product for road marking based on inorganic components (cement, Mica, SiO2 ) as major components and a polymer latex formulation. This composition is dispersed in water so that a thin film is generated when applied. The final film had improved features such as anti-skid, waterproofing and self cleaning properties. The mineral compositions allow getting an improved adhesion between the asphalt and coating.

1.New Cementitious materials with improved features: we developed new cementitious product based on white Portland cements with the concourse of additives that improve the adhesiveness and cohesiveness of the material to asphalt and concrete pavements. We used hydroxy apatite and calcium oxalates.
2. New Latex mixtures for cement formulation: we achieved increased flexibility and cohesiveness of the material, with a good compatibility between the binder (latex) and the cementitious and improved latexes formulations were developed.
3 New road markings: the new material was proportionated scientific progress on surface characterization and knowledge on interaction between vehicle tyre and material surface to better control dry and wet adherence. These studies was undertaken by two different ways: empirical characterization by tribological characterization for surface studies and mathematical simulation for adhesive, cohesive and durability properties

ROADMARK Scientific objectives

Scientific Objective 1:

- To increase understanding of influence of latex polymer on cement hydratation (setting time).

With the following sub-objectives:
-We achieved a modified latex formulation from vinyl acetate, vinyl versatate and acrilate polymers that allow decreasing the setting time of cement while increasing the flexibility of the same.
-We achieved understand the mechanisms by which cement hydratation and latex polymer film formation.
-We achieved the effect caused by the modification of latex formulation on cement hydratation.
-We studied the effects of modified latex polymer and their influence on adhesive and cohesive bonding forces of latex and cementitious composition.

The associated milestones of this objective is Milestones 1 (New scientific knowledge in the field of road markers based on cement, inorganic compounds and polymers) and it has been achieved successfully

Scientific Objective 2:

-To increase understanding of influence of hydroxy apatite on cement hydratation (setting time) and mechanical properties
With the following sub-objectives:
- We studied the compatibility and compositions effects of hydroxy apatite addition to white cement.
- We achieved understand the effect on cement hydratation (setting time) and mechanical effects of hydroxy apatite on cementitious mixtures (cohesiveness).
- We understand the mechanisms by which hydroxy apatite prevents the disintegration of the cementitious mixture.
- We understand the interpenetrating network structure of hydroxy apatite and cement hydrated phases that binds the cement particles.

The associated milestones of this objective is Milestones 2 (Polymer binder for road marker material formulation) we studied the combination of hydroxyl apatite and latex makes necessary the combination of those materials and it has been achieved successfully

Scientific Objective 3:

- To study the effect of calcium oxalate, hydroxy apatite and other additives on surface characteristics and failure mechanisms responsible for debonding
We developed a suitable road material mixture with enhance mechanical properties and improved adhesive/cohesive property. The material present an increased grip character in comparison with current paints.

The associated milestones of this objective is Milestones 3 (Optimized formulations of binder films) and it has been achieved successfully

2.2. TECHNOLOGICAL OBJECTIVES

The contributions to the technological objectives are the following:

Technological Objective 1:

-We develop a new latex composition for cementitious material.
We developed several composition s and the best composition was Vac/VeoVa. We combined with hydroxyapatite.

All the information is in the associated milestone of this objective Milestones 2 (Polymer binder for road marker material formulation) and it has been achieved successfully

Technological Objective 2

-We develop a new cementitious composition for road marking formulation.
Based on a mixture of one white cement (CaO. Al2Si2O5(OH)4), which constitutes the binder of the new material; Muscovite(Mica) (KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2) which will impart elasticity and flexibility to the material while conferring thermal insulating properties and lubricity to the final product; Silica (SiO2) in order to increase the resistance to impact, cyclic loads provoked by traffic and resistance to breaking; Mica in order to improve the yield of the new material; Calcium Oxalate (CaC2O4) that will confer waterproofing character, anti skid and mechanical resistance to the final surface; Hydroxy apatite in order to enhance the adhesiveness and cohesiveness of the material to the substrate (asphalt or concrete).

The associated milestones of this objective is Milestones 3 (Optimized formulations of binder films) and it has been achieved successfully.


Technological Objective 3
- We develop a final road marking material composition.
The final formulation is a dry formulation that after water addition leaves an integrated marking material for concrete or asphalt applications.. We obtained the following results according normative.
Property Resume
Drying time 28 min
Bleeding Luminance factor, Δβ = 0.036, being considered as class BR2 (Δβ ≤0.05)
Hiding power Selected thickness 300 µm (corresponding to a contrast ratio of 0.97 ± 0.01)
Hiding power = 2.050m2/L which indicates that 1 liter of sample cover efficiently a substrate’s area of 2.0 m2

Chromaticity and Luminance Chromatic coordinates: x = 0.320, y = 0.337 (white colour)
Luminance, β = 0.854, being considered as class LF7 (white colour

Retroreflectance >800 mcd.m-2.lx-1, being considered as R5 according to standard EN 1436:2009
Accelerated aging Chromatic coordinates:
- Before UV: x = 0.312, y = 0.337
- After 120h UV: x=0.319; y=0.337
Luminance factor, Δβ = -0.018, being considered as class UV1 (Δβ ≤0.05)

Wear resistance-abrasion Weight loss: 150.4 ± 13.0 mg
Wear Index: 300.9 ± 26.1 mg/cycles

Density 1.68 g/cm3
Viscosity 16.000 mPa s
Nonvolatile content 0.9968 ± 0.0029, value obtained from the procedure of Hiding power (ASTM D2805)

The associated milestones of this objective is Milestone 3 (Optimized formulations of binder films) and Milestone 4 (Development of a new road marker) and it has been achieved successfully.

3. CONCLUSION

We can concluded that we achieved all objectives, properties and good results according normative.

Properties as retrorefectivity, colour, luminance are optimal for its use in road markings, the density and viscosity reached allow use in equipment that are commonly used in paint application. The amount of TiO2 present in the formulation is small and because of it gets to have a competitive price in the market (please refer to the business plan).

According to analys roughness, the painting shows a roughness at the macro level that can induce a good grip of the vehicles, roughness superior to existing paints having on the market.

With the properties of durability and drying time it has achieved a compromise between both, fulfilling drying time at the expense of durability, being this superior to previous roadmark formulation.

In addition, because of their inorganic nature yellowing resistance (UV aging) is much higher than the traditional white road marking paints, which require the UV filters to increase your stamina which also gives us a competitive advantage.

As for the application enables adaptability and adaptation to the different current methods of finishing, either with gun in high pressure boiler, brush, roller, extensor aplacator or even trowel.

It allows a very good finish on all surfaces even if they are in bad shape (cracks, chips). This is due to their inorganic nature, its compatibility with different substrates (adhesion), high filling power and his capacity to act as a binder (binder) with loose particles on the road that are incorporated into the cementitious matrix of painting itself.

Applying paint to the methods described above achieves good application workability, adhesion to the substrate (asphalt or cement), fast drying, good finish, surface leveling, retroreflectivity, luminance, and color homogeneity.

Everything explained above and the fact comply with regulations makes it a unique new product on the market.

Project Results:
The main scientific and technological results of the different work packages are presented in order to show the advances reached in the project.

1. Work Package 1


The main objective of this work package was to enhance the RTDs understanding of novel technologies of cements, polymers, and additives employed for conventional road paint formulations. Besides, suitable technologies for acceleration drying and curing times of specific road coatings will be identified. This WP has been served as information source for the following experimental WPs, that ROADMARK project is planned.

1.Study of polymers and additives currently used and cementitious agregattes, mineral components
It correspond to task 1.1 and task 1.2
Task 1.1
Duration: month 1 to month 2
Task Leader: AIDO
Partners involved: PAC, IMPERIO, FIIDS, AIDO

Task 1.2
Duration: month 2 to month 3
Task Leader: FIIDS
Partners involved: IMPERIO, MOBI, CHEM, AIDO, FIIDS

The aim of these tasks was to identify the polymers, additives, cementitious aggregates and mineral components that will compound the road mark product. Likewise, also considers the study of the properties and methodologies to evaluate them of the road or traffic paints.
The following aspects were analyzed:
- Suitable latexes, other polymeric materials and their mixtures.
- Inorganic compounds and additives.
- Influence on final properties of each components
- Study water to cement ratio; tack free and pot life times. The rheological behaviour of cementitious mixtures versus time. Acquired hardness over time and adhesiveness on concrete and asphalt surfaces.
- Properties of the final product and experimental test for their characterization.

In order to study the aspects below mentioned, the researchers consulted and analyzed different sources of biography. The main conclusions achieved are explained:

- To include latex and water-base cement to the product is an optimal option. These raw materials present a high grade of compatibility between them and will allow us to obtain road paint with a good adherence, high friction resistant and a satisfactory durability.

- In this sense, the project works in the addition of SBR in the Portland cement bases.

- Polymer latexes which would improve mechanical properties (adhesiveness and cohesiveness), penetrability and frost resistance. It is needed a suitable polymeric compound that can be easily incorporated into a cement mixture, in order to achieve shorts setting times, increased cohesiveness, film forming capability and with fast drying
- Using thin aggregates could be the best option, because the aim of the project is to obtain a product that its application on road could be done with commercial equipment available.
- Referring to the additives that could be incorporated, the characteristics of the apatite and the calcium oxalate outstand, with a very positive influence on the properties required for the materials used on road mark paints.
- Regarding to relation water/cement, different preliminary test were performed, in addition to their study theoretically. So, w/c = 4 shows good product homogenization an easy extendable mixture. The density of this product is 1.54 kg/l, this value is among the commonly used paint ratio.


In addition and due to the characteristics of the final product, reminder traffic paints and marks need comply minimum requirements, properties of the final product have been identified and the Standard Tests to evaluate the properties of the final product have been analyzed.
In attachments, you could find the analysis of the numerous laboratory test to characterize the final paint and later, the minimum suitable requirements to evaluate the final products.

2.Definition of aggregate particle size distribution for high friction. Relevant properties.
It correspond to task 1.3 and task 1.4
Task 1.3
Duration: month 2 to month 3
Task Leader: FIIDS
Partners involved: MOBI, SETAS, CHEM, AIDO, CENTI, FIIDS

Task 1.4
Duration: month 2 to month 3
Task Leader: AIDO
Partners involved: CENTI, AIDO.


The aim of this task was the study of the properties, mainly related to film forming, concrete adhesion and curing, of the current road markers. Also, it was included a detailed study of the particles size distribution in aggregates.

To study the relevant properties and its relationship, an international literature review has been the research method that has been followed to gather information.
The results of the information review was, among other properties:

Slip resistance depends strongly on the micro and macro-texture of the surface on which the object moves, whether it is a car on asphalt or a pedestrian on a zebra crossing.

Film type markings tend to lose their adhesion when wet if they are submerged by a water film and reduces their friction coefficient. There is a serious need for a road marking which has adequate wet adhesion.

According to the polymer bases, traffic paints can be classified in the follow categories:
1. Alkyd and modified alkyd paint
2. Chlorinated-rubber paint
3. Water-based latex paints
4. Thermoplastic
5. Preformed tapes
6. Epoxy
7. Polyester
8. Raised pavement markers (RPMS)
Later, the principle characteristics of each one were studied.

Regarding to aggregates, the shape, texture, and grading have a significant effect on the performance of concrete mixtures. Aggregate blends with well-shaped, rounded, and smooth particles require less paste for a given slump than blends with flat, elongated, angular, and rough particles. At the same time, uniform gradings with proper amounts of each size result in aggregate blends with high packing and in concrete with low water and paste demand. As a result, they are less expensive and will have less problems caused by the paste such as heat generation, porosity, and drying shrinkage.
Since up to approximately 80 percent of the total volume of concrete consists of aggregate, its characteristics significantly affect the performance of fresh and hardened concrete and have an impact on its cost.

For thin applications of polymer modified concrete the most appropriate kind of aggregate is sand - sometimes referred to as ‘fine aggregate’ – which is the main constituent of mortars.
Sand quality is affected by a number of factors:
• Mean particle size.
• Grading.
• Composition. Presence of impurities.
• Properties: shape and texture.

During the task, these factors were studied and their influence was analyzed.

2. Work Package 2


Main aim of this work was develop a binder composition based on polymer latex, hydroxyapatite and other mineral compounds. Suitable polymer latex and additives were identified.
Formulation of these polymers with hydroxyapatite will be carried out. Most suitable formulation will be identified and fully characterised. This work package will run in parallel with WP1 and WP3

1.Selection of suitable latex formulations, nature and composition. Integration of hydroxyy apatite, calcium oxalate in polymer latex formulation.

It correspond to task 2.1 and task 2.2
Task 2.1
Duration: month 4 to month 6
Task Leader: FIIDS
Partners involved: MOBI, SETAS, CENTI, AIDO, FIIDS.

Task 2.2
Duration: month 9 to month 9
Task Leader: FIIDS
Partners involved: PAC, IMPERIO, MOBI, AIDO, FIIDS

In order to provide enough paint adhesion required for a functional and durable use as road marking is necessary to study the different types of latex binder formulations selected for the purpose of choosing the most appropriate to use it in the final mixture. Similarly, to achieve increased flexibility, the cohesion of the material and the good compatibility between the binder (latex) and the cement, new and improved latex formulations must be developed.
The final coating will consist of a mixture of Portland cement, which constitutes the binder of the paint, muscovite able to provide good elasticity and flexibility, silica in order to increase the impact resistance, the resistance to breakage and the cyclic loading caused by traffic, calcium oxalate providing hydrophobicity, slip properties and good mechanical strength, apatite in order to improve the adhesion and cohesion between the paint and the substrate and the new latex polymer.
All the components that were being identify are collected in the table attached.

The prioritization and assessment of the different polymers, systems and functions was made attending to criterions such as adhesives, elasticity, mechanical resistance, weather resistance, chemical compatibility

Design of experiments (D.O.E) was used to evaluate the influence of different elastomeric and adhesive content in the final mechanical properties, film forming, setting and curing time parameters. ( see attached D.O.E )

Regarding the latex formulations, different types of latex polymers were selected and tested in order to choose the most appropriate, considering parameters such as increased flexibility, cohesion of the material and good compatibility between latex and the cementitious fraction.
After the selection of the latex, the amount of water, the quantity of dispersant and the antifoaming was varied and measured viscosity, hardness and drying time of the samples, in order to select the best performed.

Following the D.O.E, Hydroxyapatite, calcium oxalate the dispersing agent and the antifoam were added with the results of the latex, to finally select the best performance, which contains:
Cement mixture > 60 % w,
Dispersant agent and antifoaming are aorund 1% w

HAP, oxalate Ca and other additives are around 1 - 5 % w
Water around 20-30 %w

Novel formulation was characterized in the following task.

2. Characterization of novel formulation.

It correspond to task 2.3
Task 2.3
Duration: month 7 to month 12
Task Leader: CENTI
Partners involved: FIIDS, SETAS, , AIDO, CENTI

The best novel formulation was fully characterized (viscosity, adhesion, thermal and mechanical properties, curing and setting times) in order to evaluate the materials’ properties:
Drying time test, according to UNE 135202:2010 / ASTM D711 ((ASTM and EN test procedures are equivalents).
Adhesion test, according to ISO 4624 / ASTM D4541 (ASTM and ISO test procedures are equivalents).
Viscosity test according to ISO 8130
- Chromacity-luminance were evaluated according to EN 1871 “Road marking materials. Physical properties”
- Accelerated aging were evaluated according to ISO 4892-3 “Plastics. Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources. Part 3: Fluorescent UV lamps”
-
- Bleeding were evaluated according to EN 1871 “Road marking materials. Physical properties”
-
- Hiding power were evaluated according to ASTM D2805 “Standard Test Method for Hiding Power of Paints by Reflectometry”
-
- Wear resistance-abrasion were evaluated according to ASTM D4060 “Abrasion resistance of organic coatings by the Taber Abraser”

From the obtained results, the following main conclusions can be made:
• Chromacity-luminance test:
- Sample R4 presents white colour coordinates x: 0.328 and y: 0.348.
- The determined luminance factor for sample R4 (β = 0.571) corresponds to class LF2 (yellow colour).

• Accelerated aging test:
- After ten days of UV exposure, a slightly increase in the colour coordinates was observed; however, the colour coordinates obtained still corresponds to white colour.
- The difference in luminance factor for this sample (Δβ = -0.041) corresponds to class UV1.

• Bleeding resistance test:
- The difference in luminance factor obtained for sample R4 (Δβ = -0.21) corresponds to class BR1.

• Hiding power test:
- In these experiments, a ratio contrast of 0.9356 and a R∞ of 0.570 were obtained for a 500 µm thickness film of sample R4 applied on black and white charts.
- The non-volatile content of sample R4 was 0.99, whereas its density was 1.439 g/mL.
- Sample R4 presented a spreading rate of 2.550 m2/L.
- The hiding power for a contrast ratio of 0.98 for sample R4 was 1.556 m2/L, which indicates that one litre of this sample can cover well a substrate area of 1.6 m2.

• Abrasion test:
- In this test, sample R4 presents a maximum loss in weight of (51.2 ± 6.9) mg in 500 revolutions when abraded with CS-10 calibrase wheels with 1,000 gram load on each wheel.
- The wear index achieved for the same number of revolutions was (102.4 ± 13.8) mg per cycle.


3. Work Package 3


The aim of this work package was to develop a suitable material road marker formulation composed of cement, inorganic compounds and polymer latex binder studied in previous work package.
Suitable additives were evaluated to obtain the final formulation.
Finally, a complete characterization of final formulation were carried out.

1. Investigate suitable additives, formulation and characterization to selection the optimum composition .

It correspond to tasks 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4

Task 3.1
Duration: month 8 to month 11
Task Leader: AIDO
Partners involved: CHEM, SETAS, AIDO

Task 3.2
Duration: month 9 to month 15
Task Leader: AIDO
Partners involved: PAC, IMPERIO, SETAS, AIDO

Task 3.3
Duration: month 14 to month 17
Task Leader: CENTI
Partners involved: FIIDS, CENTI

Task 3.4
Duration: month 12 to month 18
Task Leader: AIDO
Partners involved: CHEM, FIIDS, CENTI, AIDO.


These tasks are focused on the developing and testing of the formulation for the new road marker, in function of the results obtained during the WP2, where the composition of the binder was studied and evaluated.
The experimental methodology to develop the new material for road marking was defined as: first, establish the research fields, secondly develop the new formulations and lastly, testing.

To establish the research fields, scientific articles and results and conclusions in WP2 were checked and analyzed. So, research lines were:

Decreasing w/c: Different w/c ratio have been tested in order to study the effect of w/c in our paint and to determinate the best formulation, in terms of dry time and workability.
Adding specific additives: Admixtures are chemical which are added to concrete at the mixing state to modify some of the properties of the mix. They should never be regarded as a substitute for good mix design, good workmanship, or use of good materials. In general, the effect of these additives on cement pastes is somewhat two-fold. On the one hand, they increase both the viscosity and the plasticity of the systems. On the other hand, the water retention power of these polymers improves the homogeneity and performance of the hardener product, due to their water-buffering action with respect to the cement particles.
these admixtures were incorporated on the cement binder and were studied their effect.
. Plasticizer/Sperplasticizer. DISPERBYK 2010 was employed. After their incorporation, an improvement of the workability was obtained, providing a more even distribution of the binder particles through the mix. Then, on WP3 it is considered continue working with this additive in the concentration established.
. Accelerators agents. Considering the high drying time obtained we have considered very interesting to consider the addition of accelerators agents
The main accelerator ingredient may consist of sodium aluminate, sodium and potassium hydroxide, or carbonates, triethanolamine, ferric sulfate and sodium fluoride
In order to select the most appropriate accelerator we have considered different options
Taking into account this considerations, there have been proposed different recipes using this additives.
After studing several chemical products and review different Patents (mainly: Kurt Allemann, Sika®-4a “Liquid accelerator for the setting of concrete mixtures”, US Patent 4.504.315, Mar. 12, 1985), commercial accelerator were chosen. It is a liquid accelerator for cement paste, fast setting.
The additive Sika®-4a affects directly to the workability.
The samples obtained were too dense and they cannot be applied with coatings extenders or spray techniques.
To adapt these formulations is necessary a high quantity of water or increase the dispersant concentration.
These formulations were rejected and new formulations were made

Adding calcium sulphate: Calcium sulphate is added to cement with the purpose to control clinker reactivity. Sulphate ions react with calcium and aluminium coming from aluminate phases giving precipitations of ettringite on clinker grains slowing down the hydration and controlling the setting time.
Several forms of calcium sulphate exist:
Gypsum: calcium sulphate bihydrate CaSO4•2H2O
Bassanite: calcium sulphate hemihydrates CaSO4•0.5H2O
Anhydrite: anhydrous calcium sulphate CaSO4.
Therefore, the purpose of this research field is to study how the mixture of the gypsum and hemihydrates calcium influence on the hydration reactions and then on the setting and drying time of the cement.
According to bibliography, calcium sulphate hemihydrate is characterized by a higher immediate solubility and therefore affect to clinker hydration.
Several chemical products have been studied and evaluated. Finally, AC100 were chosen.. Recipes with Sika®-4a and AC100 were tested (R4.6). Viscosity and workability of these formulations were not adequately. Then, these had been rejected and recipes containing only AC100 were formulated and tested. Workability and finishability of the R4.7 and R4.8 are adequate

Testing different cement, and therefore different cementitious mixture, cement properties depend on the specific materials, therefore in ROADMARK project the final properties also depend on the raw materials of the cementitous mixture. For this reason, it has been considered appropriate to study the effect of different kind of cement, maintain the other raw materials of the cementitious mixture.
Composition of gray cement is different to white cement, then the rheology, workability and final properties may change. In this sense, it is important to note that the gray cement requires more water quantity than white cement, to obtain similar workability.
On the other hand, it is obvious to consider the addition of titanium dioxide in order to obtain a white color that complies with the Standard regulations.
Even so, the workability is poor and it was necessary to increase the quantity of water

Simultaneously, a preliminary assessment of the all samples formulated were performed, until achieved the best formulation, which was fully characterized.

Taking into account the results obtained in preliminary assessment, it was possible conclude that:
Samples with w/c = 1.33 present best properties than recipes with more water or more w/c ratio.
In this sense, it is necessary to reject the sample R4.1(2).
The additive Sika®-4a, based on sodium and potassium aluminate, hinders the dispersing process, providing samples not workables, with high viscosity, air embedded and high porosity, properties that involve a compromise of the mechanical properties the samples and their durability.
Addition of AC/100 provides a good workability of the samples and an improvement of the properties. Then, it is expected that mechanical and tribological properties are adequate.
Regarding TiO2, with a correct concentration on formulation recipe the properties of the samples are good and the workability is correct.
Grey cement offers also good behavior, however it is necessary to add more quantity of TiO2 in order to obtain a white product.
Summary, the samples with best performance are: R4.7, R4.8, R4.7b and R4.Gb(2). Therefore, these four samples have been fully tested or characterized. Next point of this report explain the procedures and the results obtained.

Mechanical and physical properties of the different recipes formulated were evaluated. For this, following the rules established in international standards, mainly ISO, EN and ASTM, different tests were applied.
We have considered essential to apply this tests in order to have a complete characterization of the new product and as a consequence to have a reliable system to consider a product as valid or not for the purposes of our project.
Obviously, we analyzed the obtained results.
Chromatic coordinates x,y and Luminance factor β of the four samples, R4.7, R4.8, R4.Gb(2) and R4.7b, were determined according to the procedure indicated in European Standard EN 1871,
Road markings have a white colour if the chromatic coordinates (x,y) are in the range of 0.3 to 0.4; on the other hand, if the chromatic coordinates are in the range of 0.4 to 0.5, the road marking presents a yellow colour.
According to Table XXI, the obtained values of both coordinates x and y are lower than 0.4, so it can be considered that all samples are in the white colour zone. Regarding the Luminance, the results indicate that all samples are assigned to class LF2 (colour yellow).
The bleeding resistance was evaluated according to the procedure described in European Standard EN 1871.

According to the results, the difference in the luminance factor, for smaples R4, R4.7and R4.8 is lower than 0.03, so these samples can be included in class BR1.
In the case of samples R4.7b and R4.Gb2, can be included in BR2, since the Db values are lower than 0.05.

The procedure used to evaluate the hiding power of selected formulations R4.7, R4.8, R4.Gb(2) and R4.7b was based on standard ASTM D2805.
In order to achieve the hiding power value of the four samples, other parameters were required to be determined, as following described. The procedures followed for their determination were performed according to standard ASTM D2805

According to results obtained, sample R.4Gb presented the highest hiding power value, 9.468 m2/l.

The resistance to wear was determined according to standard ASTM D 4060.
The results are presented as weight (mass) loss , which indicates how much material has been removed by abrasion, and wear index , which indicates the rate of wear, and is calculated by measuring the loss in weight (in milligrams) per thousand cycles of abrasion
Regarding the samples containing TiO2, the wear index of sample R4.Gb(2) is higher than the samples without this additive, which suggests that TiO2 addition affects the wear resistance of the formulation.
Retroreflectivity of the ROADMARK product has been studied according to the guidelines established on European Standard EN 1436:2009. Road marking materials. Road marking performance for road users.

Retroreflectivity is provided by the presence of glass beads embedded in the surface of the pavement marking
The values obtained of RL for each samples are above 800 (mcd•m^(-2)•〖lx〗^(-1)). Therefore, all samples comply with the standard requirements.

Accelerated aging: the obtained values of Luminance and chromatic coordinates for each sample (before and after accelerated aging) shown that all samples can be considered as class UV1, since Db values are lower than 0.05.
Considering the chromatic coordinates results, the colour coordinates still corresponds to white colour.

The water resistance’s evaluation of each formulation R4.7, R4.8, R4.7Gb2 and R4.7b was based on the standard ASTM D870 “Standard Practice for testing water resistance of coatings using water immersion”. According to this procedure, coatings are partial or completely immersed in distilled water at ambient or elevated temperatures.
The sample surface before and after the immersion in water for 48 h at 38ºC, visually, did not show significant differences, which indicates that the paint formulations tested are resistant to water in these conditions.

The behaviour of a cement paste product exposed to high temperatures is dependent, in part, on thermal, mechanical and deformation properties of concrete of which the member is composed.

The behaviour of the ROADMARK samples were evaluated at 60ºC and 100ºC. Methodology employed has consisted on analyze te difference on colorimetry and the strength properties, before and after that the samples are submitted at heating process.
samples R4.7 and R4.8 change their color when samples are heating.This change is major at 100 ºC that at 60ºC

Then, taking into account that the color of ROADMARK product has low saturation, it is possible to conclude that in the case of samples with TiO2 the thermal treatment has not had any effect on the samples colorimetry properties.


Compression stress curves have been measured and young’s modulus calculated to evaluate the paint’s behavior once in the road
The mechanical behaviour of the Room temperature and 60ºC samples is mostly the same and it can be concluded that at 60ºC the mixture is not affected by the temperature. After 2h at 100ºC a different behaviour can be seen, a higher deformation is obtained under the same stress, so it can be concluded that at 100ºC the mixture is affected by the temperature with a small decrease of its mechanical proprieties

2. Development and validation of numerical simulation model .

It correspond to task 3.5
Task 3.5
Duration: month 14 to month 18
Task Leader: CENTI
Partners involved: AIDO, CENTI

The objective of this study was to understand how ROADMARK paint samples would mechanically respond under contact with vehicular wheels with a certain load. For this, stress and strain profiles were obtained for different selected samples and additional studies were carried out to foresee the mechanical response of additional alterations on some paint mechanical properties.
A numerical simulation approach was developed to study the mechanical response of new road marking paints under a given loading condition based on normal contact pressures. This approach allowed the response simulation of different coating formulations developed in ROADMARK project under different loading conditions based on existing tyre models, wheel loads and inflation pressures.
Due to the similar mechanical properties between the studied coatings formulations, the stress and strain responses to the different loads didn’t reveal significant differences. For all the formulations maximum tensile stress and strain are located on the coating sections adjacent to the tyre contact area.
Also in order to understand how the Young modulus and Poisson ratio of these coatings could affect the mechanical response theoretical coatings were simulated and stress and strain responses were obtained. Increase in both Young modulus and Poisson ratio results on lower strains and stresses on the paint for all the simulated scenarios.
The developed numerical simulation approach will be used as the basis for the next tasks concerning simulation activities (task 4.5).


4. Work Package 4


Work Package 4 aims to develop different application methods and curing techniques. Curing times will be studied according several parameters such as environmental conditions, presence of curing agents, different substrates. This work package will run in parallel with WP3.

1. Investigate compatible drying conditions, application processes, curing times and application issues.

It corresponds to task 4.1, task 4.2 and task 4.4.
Task 4.1
Duration: month 13 to month 18.
Task leader: FIIDS
Partners involved: FIIDS, AIDO.
Task 4.2
Duration: month 15 to month 19.
Task leader: FIIDS
Partners involved: CHEM, CENTI, FIIDS.
Task 4.4
Duration: month 19 to month 22.
Task leader: FIIDS
Partners involved: AIDO, PAC, IMPERIO, FIIDS.

We studied curing methods used in concrete and evaluated how the ROADMARK paint dries. Different tests related to drying time are carried out in order to establish the influence of the temperature in the drying time.
1. Water spray is an excellent method of curing when temperature is above freezing point. A fine spray of water can be applied continuously by a system or a watering bar.
2. Flooding or immersion method is becoming less common but is the most efficient method of curing. Flooding water can be used in floor tiles, paving, flat roofs, and on any surface where it is possible hold water or where there is a continuous stream of water.
3. Sand, earth, bags, burlap, cotton blankets, carpets and other absorbent coverings are also useful in retaining the concrete surface water.
4. Curing membrane is a product prepared mainly of resins and solvent. This product has to be sprayed on the fresh concrete and it adheres to the surface forming an impermeable film to water and air.
5. Plastic films are a good method of curing if they are well used.
They have the advantage of being light and easy to install. The film must have a thickness greater than 0.10 mm. In sunny climates, it is advisable to use films that reflect sunlight (white), while in cold climates or indoors are recommended black ones(avoid in hot weather).

6. The steam curing is advantageous when it is important to develop early strength in the concrete or when extra heat is required to complete hydration, as in concreting in cold weather. Currently, two methods are used to develop higher initial resistance by curing steam: steam curing at atmospheric pressure (in enclosed structures molded in place and precast concrete) and curing high pressure autoclave (in small prefabricated units). By its nature, the steam curing it is used almost exclusively in prefabrication utilization.

We can rule out most of the concrete curing methods described above and only methods 1 and 4 could be treated as an alternative. Another option to cure the paint is to add drying accelerators. Due to their easy integration to the formulation, a drying accelerators will be tested instead methods 1 and 4.
It has made a study of the available tools for paint application. Airless, Airmix and Air pressure tank.
The formulation achieved in laboratory runs, needs to be modified because the requirement of the equipments.
First, the present filters were varied by a larger mesh size, in Airmix an Airless (pressure tank has no problem)
The paint developed continues obstructing the filters and cannot be applied. Therefore, as a contingency plan, there will acquire a grinder, to reduce the particle size of the mixture.
The tests performed with the pressure tank (air spray), has highlighted the need to increase the amount of water present in the mixture, for proper paint application, increasing water from 23% to 33%.
This change in the formulation, has necessitated also a change in the drying agent to achieve a paint within the standards set by the regulations, we have worked with CaCl2 in parallel in previous WP3
With the addition of CaCl2, the mixture increases in fluidity and workability but this is not enough to achieve drying times required in normative UNE 135202:2010.
For further work will be necessary to maintain fixed the amount of water in the formulation ( needed for proper application with equipments ) and modifying the percentage of drying agent, AC 100 or CaCl2 , or a mixture of both. These tests will carry out to find the final formulation.
We must not forget that although the paint application with industrial equipment allows get a thickness smaller layer, increasing drying rate. According to regulations, the thickness of the paint layer should be 500 μm and performed on crystal, so they are the conditions where roadmark product has to be optimized, between others parameters shown in normative selected.
Then, the final formulation will be tested in controlled conditions to calculate the final properties which has to be in accordance with the rules set for the road signs. (This legislation has selected in deliverable 1.1, for drying time UNE EN 135202:2010)
This regulation is indicated for paints and cold plastics that will be used in a horizontal horizontal signalisation. But this normative doesn't include, other tests, study other parameters, in cases when the composition of the paint varies, as the ROADMARK paint developed. Perhaps the currently trials included are not the most suitable for this type of painting.
Therefore, when the paint meets current regulations, the consortium could be put in contact with standardization bodies, in order to study adapt the normative to cementitious paints.

2. Selection of best performing curing technique and tribological characterization.

It corresponds to task 4.3.

Task 4.3
Duration: month 16 to month 20.
Task leader: CENTI
Partners involved: CENTI, SETAS, CHEM.
This task was focused on the evaluation of the friction and wear properties (topography) of the best paint formulation, which was defined in previous tasks. The results obtained in this task will then be used as input parameters for simulation studies (Task 4.5).
To achieve the objectives established in task 4.3, the following characterization tests were performed in order to evaluate the properties of the best paint formulation previously selected:
- Wear resistance-abrasion;
- Water resistance;
- UV Aging;
- AFM;
- Profilometer;
- SEM.
In this report, the results obtained within Task 4.3 (WP 4) of ROADMARK project were presented. In this task, the enhanced formulation assigned as R10 was characterized regarding to its surface properties by Profilometry and SEM, and in terms of wear resistance-abrasion, water resistance and accelerated aging. Additionally, samples R4.7, R4.8, R4.7 G b2 and R4.7 b (D3.1 and D3.3) were also tested in terms of water resistance and accelerated aging.

So we highlight the results and conclusions:



Wear resistance - Abrasion

The resistance to wear was determined according to standard ASTM D 4060. In this test, a freshly prepared R10 mixture was applied over aluminium disks (100 mm diameter, with a 7 mm central hole) using a 400 μm Meyer bar. The coated disks were left to dry during 48 hours at (23 ± 2) °C and at a relative humidity of (50 ± 5)%. After this time, the test specimens were placed in a Taber abraser equipped with Calibrase® abrasive wheels Nº CS-10. The load applied to the abrasive wheels was 1000 g, and the suction applied 50. The number of wear cycles recorded for all test specimens was 500 and 1000 cycles.
In order to remove any particulate that could adhere to the wheels during the test and thus influence the mass values achieved, after every 500 cycles and before starting a new sample, the abrading wheels were resurfaced with an abrasive disk that was placed on the turntable.
- In this test, sample R10 presents a maximum loss in weight of (236.3 ± 36.4) mg in 500 revolutions when abraded with CS-10 Calibrase® wheels with 1,000 gram load on each wheel.
- The wear index achieved for the same number of revolutions was (472.5 ± 72.7) mg per cycle.


Profilometry Analysis

Surface profilometry is a technique used for measuring the 2D topography of solid surfaces. The technique measures the surface’s profile in order to assess its characteristics (for instance, to quantify its roughness), by using a diamond stylus or needle. This diamond stylus is moved along the sample’s surface, keeping a constant contact with the surface, accordingly to a previously specified distance and contact force. The profilometer can measure small surface variations in vertical stylus displacement as a function of position.
For this characterization technique, the R10 samples from the wear resistance-abrasion test, namely aluminium disks with a 400 μm thickness layer of paint, were used (topic 4.1). The measurements were performed on an Alpha Step D-100 Profilometer (KLA Tencor). The sample surface was investigated by means of a needle with a diamond point and 2.5 μm radius.

The profile of the tested sample was recorded according to the following conditions:
- Scan length: 10 mm
- Scan speed: 0.20 mm/s
- Height Range: 100 – 1200 μm
- Applied force: 5 mg

- This technique allowed the assessment of the surface macrorugosity of sample R10 before and after the abrasion test.
- As expected, the sample surface has become smoother after the abrasion test. The rugosity value obtained for the original R10 sample was 53 μm, whereas for the zone after abrasion, the value was 5.6 μm.

SEM analysis

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is a powerful imaging technique in the analysis of materials, since it allows the observation, at high magnification and depth-of-field, of surface topography and features, microstructure, texture (external morphology), defects, grain boundaries of materials in several forms, crystalline structure. It can also provide the mapping of chemical elements on the materials surface (using EDS), and determining crystalline structure, and crystal orientations (by using electron backscatter patterns).
In this task, SEM-EDS analyses were performed in sample R10. The analysis was performed using a High resolution (Schottky) Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope with X-Ray Microanalysis and Electron Backscattered Diffraction analysis: Quanta 400 FEG ESEM / EDAX Genesis X4M. The samples were coated with an Au/Pd thin film by sputtering, using the SPI Module Sputter Coater equipment (for 120 sec. and with a 15mA current). Each image contains a databar with the most important analysis conditions.
- From the SEM-EDS analysis, it was possible to verify with more detail the sample surface, which is rough and uniform. With the elemental mapping analysis performed by EDS to the formulation it was possible to identify as expected a multi-element profile.


Water resistance

The water resistance’s evaluation of the paint formulations was based on the standard ASTM D870 “Standard Practice for testing water resistance of coatings using water immersion”. According to this procedure, coatings are partial or completely immersed in distilled water at ambient or elevated temperatures.
Before immersion, test specimens of each formulation (R4.7, R4.8, R4.7 G b2, R4.7 b, and R10) were prepared by applying a specific 400 μm thickness layer of each onto previously cleaned aluminium plates, and left to dry for 1 month (total curing time) in controlled conditions. After this time, the plates were placed in a support within a water tank previously heated at (38 ± 1) °C (this temperature was maintained throughout the test) and containing a stirrer to allow the water circulation. The edges and back of the plates were protected, avoiding corrosion of those parts. Then, the plates were immersed in the water for approximately three-quarters of their length and in parallel to the flow of water in the tank.
The support was placed 30 mm from the bottom and sidewalls of the water tank, and all test specimens also 30 mm apart between each other.
The immersion test was performed during 48 hours. After this time, the test specimens were removed and left to dry. Their evaluation was performed 5 min after removal from water, as well as after 24 hours (recovery period) in order to check permanent effects of the exposure.
The test specimens were visually evaluated according to colour change, blistering, loss of adhesion, softening, or embrittlement.

- In this test, all ROADMARK formulations did not show significant differences after water immersion, which indicates that the paint formulations tested are resistant to water in the tested conditions.

Accelerated aging test:

The procedure for accelerated aging tests was performed according to International Standard ISO 4892-3, which procedure is also indicated in European Standard EN 1871. In this test, UV-Emitting Fluorescent Lamp (in particular UVA-340 or UVB-313 lamps) are used, being incorporated in a QUV chamber (accelerated exposure equipment).
For this test, two procedures were performed:
i) Sample testing at CHEMCOLOR facilities using the standard method of ASTM G151 (QUV-A chamber; 120h in cycles of 4h of radiation at 70°C (32 W/m2) and 4 hours at 50ºC 95% RH (0 W/m2));

ii) Sample testing at CENTI facilities using an adaptation of the standard ISO 4892-3 procedure (adapted chamber - oven equipped with an UV lamp (Philips, 36 Watt); 120 h in cycles of 8 hours of radiation at (60 ± 2) °C and 4 hours of radiation at (50 ± 2) °C).

The formulations R4.7, R4.8, R4.7 G b2 and R4.7 b were used for both procedures, whereas the R10 was only used in the second procedure (ii). The test specimens for each formulation were prepared according to ANNEX A. ( View D4.2)
After the test time, the Luminance and chromatic coordinates of the test specimens were measured using a (i) Spectraflash SF 600 Plus CT spectrophotometer at CHEMCOLOR, and a (ii) Spectraflash SF 450 spectrophotometer at CENTI, (both from Datacolor International) with a standard illuminant D65/10 °, according to standard EN 1436.
- For both procedures used, after ten days of UV exposure, a slightly increase in the colour coordinates was observed; however, the colour coordinates obtained still corresponds to white colour.
- The difference in luminance factor for the sample corresponds to class UV1 (Δβ ≤ 0.05).

Regarding AFM analysis, the results will be included in the deliverable of WP5 and its comparison with Profilometry for the analysis of surface roughness will be conducted.

3. Real scenario simulation. Traction and durability behavior of new product vs. SOA product.

It corresponds to task 4.5.

Task 4.5
Duration: month 19 to month 22.
Task leader: CENTI
Partners involved: AIDO, PAC, CENTI.


This task focused on simulating, by a numerical approach, the behaviour of a road marking material composition when exposed to realistic ambient conditions and driving manoeuvers.
Prior to the simulation studies, mechanical properties of the road marking material, obtained from WP 3 and previous tasks of WP4, were used for numerically characterizing the material to be simulated. Also the tyre properties and the nature of the contact between tyre and new road marking material were defined.
To achieve the objectives established in task 4.5, the following numerical studies were performed in order to evaluate the performance of the previously selected ROADMARK formulation:
- Sensitivity analysis on Poisson’s ratio of the new road marking material;
- Influence of the driving manoeuvres and ambient conditions on stress distribution in the new road marking material;
- Influence of adhesive/abrasive wear in material removal from substrate

METHODOLOGY
PROPERTIES OF THE ROAD MARKING MATERIAL
The properties of the ROADMARK material sample R4.10, necessary for the mechanical characterization of the material in the numerical studies, are given in Table 1. For some properties, a sensibility analysis is performed (because they were not available at the time of the present studies) and their values are varied, according to shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Properties of the road marking material –
Linear elastic behaviour properties:
Density [kg∙m-3] 1320
Young’s modulus [Pa] 48x106
Poisson’s ratio Variable – from 0.15 to 0.45
Failure properties:
Compressive strength [MPa] 9.7
Wear factor1 [N-1] 1.03 x10-5
Geometry properties:
Thickness [m] 0.005
the elastic behaviour of the material is modelled in order to obtain the stress distributions for different loading conditions
PROPERTIES OF THE TYRE
In order to study the behaviour of the ROADMARK coating material when exposed to severe loads (as a worst-case scenario study), a truck tyre of size 385/ 65R22.5 was considered. In a truck, different tyres are used for different functions/positions, (see table 2 below)
Tyre width mm 389
Maximum inflation pressure kPa 830
Maximum load (@ max. inflation pressure) kg 4250


SCENARIOS: TYRE-ROAD MARKING MATERIAL INTERACTIONS
CONTACT AREA
The interactions between the tyre and the road marking material occur in the contact area between them. When the tyre is steady on the material, only normal forces are exerted over the contact area (no friction forces). Also, this area depends on the tyre deflection, which, in turn, varies with the type of tyre and vehicle load.

=/ =××⟺=××

For the maximum load, obtained with maximum inflation pressure, according to Table 2, a contact area length of 129 mm is obtained.

TYRE-ROAD MARKING MATERIAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION
In order to address the influence of the tyre track, an exact three-dimensional representation of the tyre geometry is necessary. The results will be valid only for the tyre simulated.
When the sensitivity analysis is performed for load (+/- 10%), also different values of contact length will be obtained, as shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Contact length resulting from variations in loading condition Load [kg] Contact length [mm]
4250 129
3825 (-10%) 116
4675 (+10%) 142


ENVIRONMENTAL SCENARIOS AND DRIVING MANOEUVRES
If the tyre is moving, forces of different nature are exerted on the contact area, such as reaction and friction forces (due to rolling and sliding movements). The friction forces can be calculated from Coulomb’s law of friction =×
where is the coefficient of friction

In order to assess the influence of the driving manoeuvres and ambient conditions (rain, ice, dry), the coefficient of friction will be varied and values typical of the formerly mentioned conditions.
Table 4. Typical coefficient of friction for different driving manoeuvers and ambient conditions
Driving manoeuvers/ambient condition Typical coefficient of friction
Stopped 0.00
Rolling truck tyres 0.01
Slippage in glare ice at 20 MPH (~32 km∙h-1) 0.05
Slippage in dry asphalt at 60 MPH (~96 km∙h-1) 0.40
Slippage in dry asphalt at 40 MPH (~64 km∙h-1) 0.75
Slippage in dry asphalt at 20 MPH (~32 km∙h-1) 0.85

WEAR BEHAVIOUR
The constant or repetitive exposure of road marking material to friction can cause progressive loss of material.
The adhesive/abrasive wear process can be simulated based on the Archard’s wear law ℎ=∙∙ . The adhesive/abrasive wear behaviour of the road marking material will be modelled following Archard’s

MODELLING METH
GEOMETRY
Under the aim of the present study only normal and longitudinal forces (vertical tyre loads and friction between tyre and road marking material) are considered for predicting the performance of the new ROADMARK material.
A domain corresponding to the road marking material was considered, above an asphalt domain
DOMAIN CONDITIONS
The behaviour of the road marking material was modelled as a linear elastic and isotropic material. Since a two-dimensional modelling approach was followed, plane strain was assumed. The properties of the material are as shown in Table 1.
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
The boundary conditions characterizing the present studies are shown in Figure 5. The load condition was divided in its normal and tangent values, regarding the vertical load, corresponding to the weight imposed by the tyre, and horizontal load, corresponding to the rolling/sliding friction between tyre and road marking material.
MESH TESTS
A mesh test was conducted in order to guarantee that the numerical results were grid independent. The mesh was refined and results analysed near discontinuity/critical zones table 5 Properties of the meshes analysed in the mesh tests


Total number of elements in road marking material domain 2275 2875 3876 4782 3661
Maximum size around zone 1 thickness/10 thickness/20 thickness/50 thickness/100 thickness/40

The results obtained within Task 4.5 (WP 4) of ROADMARK project were presented. In this task, the mechanical behaviour (load bearing capacity, cohesion and wear) of the formulation assigned as R10, when exposed to realistic weather conditions and driving manoeuvers, was predicted by numerical simulation.
From the obtained results, the following main conclusions can be made:
- Poisson’s ratio
- The Poisson’s ratio (property of the material) showed high influence in the stress distribution in the road marking material;

- Higher Poisson’s ratio values resulted in lower stresses magnitudes and non-uniform horizontal stress distribution, by presenting stress peaks in the limits of the contact area between tyre and road marking material;
- Lower Poisson’s ratio values resulted in higher stresses and no stress peaks were observed in the limits of the contact area.

- Driving manoeuvers and ambient conditions
- Driving manoeuvers/ambient conditions characterized by a high coefficient of friction, such as slippage in dry asphalt, results in higher stresses than those characterized by low coefficient of friction, as expected;
- For conditions characterized by low coefficient of friction, such as a tyre stopped on the road marking material (=0), a tyre rolling ( =0.01) or a tyre slipping in glare ice ( =0.05), the obtained stresses are low and almost horizontally symmetric.
- For conditions characterized by high coefficient friction, such as slippage in dry asphalt at 96, 64 or 32 km∙h-1 ( =0.40, 0.75 or 0.85, respectively), the stress distribution in the top of the road mark is not horizontally symmetric, being higher in left than in right limit of the contact area (tyre is moving/slipping from left to right);
- The analysis of driving manoeuvers/ambient conditions was performed for two limiting scenarios: one typical of lower stresses (high Poisson’s ratio and lower vertical load) and other typical of higher stresses (high Poisson’s ratio and higher tyre load).
- For the first scenario (lower stresses):
- Lower coefficients of friction result in lower stress but present stress peaks in the limits of the contact area;
- Higher coefficients of friction result is higher stresses and stress peaks are not observed.

For the second scenario (higher stresses):
- Lower coefficients of friction result in lower stresses and no stress peaks are obtained in the limits of the contact area (stressing the conclusion obtained previously for the Poisson’s ratio sensitivity analysis);
- Higher coefficients of friction result in higher stresses and present an asymmetric horizontal stress distribution with “stress valleys” in the right limit of the contact area.
- − For all the scenarios simulated the obtained von Mises stresses were lower than the compressive strength of the material, indicating that the material is not expected to fail under compression.

- Adhesive/abrasive wear
- The durability of the road marking material against wear will depend on the thickness and on the wear factor of the material layer. The latter will depend on the load and on the tyre surface (abrasive material in contact with the marking layer).
- For a 5 mm thick layer of road marking material, the wear factor obtained experimentally, with an abrasive wheel, resulted in approximately 60 000 cycles of abrasion necessary to remove all the marking material from substrate. If the wear factor is lower (as expected for vehicles tyres), the same marking material thickness would last longer: approximately 70 000 and 124 000 for 10% and 50% lower wear factors. A wear factor 10% and 50% lower than the obtained experimentally would result in an increase of 11% and 100% in the number of cycles necessary to remove the marking material from the substrate.


5. Work Package 5

The objective of this WP was to manufacture small quantities of best performing material, for testing of the technology by End Users SETAS and CHEM and reengineering if necessary. The results would enable recommendation of the best performing coating for official certification.

Another objective was to proceed with official certification of selected material after industrial testing, according to normative BS EN 1871 and make a validation of the product within the target community and other potentially interested end-users and to make a full cost analysis of the technology.

Production of new Material and Application Procedure.
This goal was considered in the Task 5.1. and 5.2.
Task 5.1.
Duration: month 18 to month 24
Task Leader: CHEM
Partners involved: PAC, CHEM, FIIDS, AIDO

Task 5.2.
Duration: month 20 to month 24
Task Leader: PAC
Partners involved: PAC, CENTI, FIIDS.

The objective of this work package is the realization of a small batch of roadmark paint for application in real scenarios. For this, the best formulation achieved in previous WPs has replicate for an optimal application of the product in concrete and asphalt areas.
A good film achieved, a quick application, workability of the mixture, are characteristics to taking into account in real application in addition to meeting the requirements that regulation fixed.
After reaching the final formulation R4.16, a small test application in paint application equipment was performed.
The particle size of the sample continued obstructing the guns in airmix and airless equipments, so that it includes a step of grinding the sample, to reduce the particle size of the compounds and thus avoid clogging.

From the best formulation R4.16 obtained at laboratory scale it was decided to produce a larger scale manufacture.
Once we have established the development of mineral-based paint for horizontal road marking application, we need to know if the Roadmark paint can develop optimally to semi-industrial scale.

In order to work on a larger scale several tests were performed to obtain the optimum production process.

The product must be dispersed, grinded and homogenized given the powder nature of the paint. At the same time, the process has to be quick and easy. The obtained paint may be used with equipment currently used in industry

At first, the main components are added: mica, silica powder, white cement and Ac-100, which are introduced to reactor-mixer, where it is stirred for 20 min at about 150 rpm.
At the second step, the minor components are added, additives: TiO2, hydroxyapatite, gypsum and calcium oxalate. Similarly, are maintained under stirring for 30 min at 15 rpm.
That is, we added twice in the same stirrer all components except the latex.
In a third step to homogenize the particle size of the mixture (granulometry) we spent the powder mixture through the mill for 30 minutes
In a fourth step, we add the latex stirring, in a second mixer with the same conditions 20 min at 150 rpm.
Finally, we perform quality control and pack.

From the best training obtained and tested indoor (laboratory scale), it was decided to make the application in road to test results and properties of the new product developed.
First the coat powder with the corresponding water was mixed, then liquid paint was added to the tank application machine.
Many applications were made in the industrial park of Alcacer (Valencia) due to its proximity to the facilities of the RTD’s FIIDS and AIDO. We acquired all the necessary licenses to mark new crosswalks in the industrial park of this town. It was Sprayed with high pressure pot, roller, mason trowel & brush.
Application with the spray gun machine tests were also carried out: good adherence was observed in the repainting and new marks application. The desired level of reflectivity is achieved by addition of glass beads. They were applied manually after the spraying.
The tests with Manually application with Zapaton (extensor applicator) were also realized.
Simultaneously, applications were made indoor, painting road markings in a simulated parking. It is applied on a cement substrate (floor). It applies to 18 ° C and 60% humidity. The application pressure was between 1,5 or 2 atm. And the diameter of Nozzle orifice was 3 mm.

As we have seen in the application part on road and parking in a real scenario, the inorganic paint has good application both gun of high pressure such as brush, roller, trowel and Zapaton (extensor applicator) which demonstrates the adaptability and versatility of our product.
With any of these methods a good application, workability, adhesion to the substrate (asphalt or cement), fast drying, good workmanship, level surface, retroreflectivity, luminance, and color homogeneity is achieved.
The blend is performed in situ and this ensures good condition and reactivity of the product and not as it happens with traditional liquid products that can have storage problems especially with prolonged or sudden temperature changes.
With either method of application mentioned above is achieved meet the requirements set by the European standard road marking both drying time, as covering power, accelerated aging etc. It is also a product with a nonvolatile content of 0.9868 as it is a product that is water and a small amount of petroleum products

Conclusion: As for the application enables adaptability and adaptation to the different current methods of finishing, either with gun in high pressure boiler, brush, roller, extensor aplacator (Zapaton) or even trowel.
It allows a very good finish on all surfaces even if they are in bad shape (cracks, chips). This is due to their inorganic nature, its compatibility with different substrates (adhesion), high filling power and his capacity to act as a binder (binder) with loose particles on the road that are incorporated into the cementitious matrix of painting itself.

Applying paint to the methods described above achieves good application workability, adhesion to the substrate (asphalt or cement), fast drying, good finish, surface leveling, retroreflectivity, luminance, and color homogeneity.



6. Work Package 6

During the 24 months of the ROADMARK project a varied dissemination strategy has been in place for effectively communicating the benefits and positive impacts of the ROADMARK results to different target audiences, in order to contribute to stimulating market pull, to generate consumer interest and awareness, as well as to maximise the impact of the non-confidential knowledge generated during the project.
PAC is the responsible of the WP6: Dissemination & Exploitation of project results, but all other partners collaborate and participate in the dissemination and exploitation activities at various degrees of responsibility. Mr. Pedro Almeida from the SME participant, IMPERIO, has been acting as the Dissemination Manager for the project, leading the partners in the Dissemination Plan presented in the previous document D6.3 -“Interim Plan for the Use and Dissemination of the Knowledge and Future funding and investment plan”, and ensuring that the activities are adequately implemented, and that their impact monitored. He has also led the consortium in ensuring the quality of all dissemination materials content, and, together with the IPR Manager (PAC), protecting the confidential nature of information, which if disclosed could jeopardise the commercial exploitation of the results for the participating SMEs. Thus, the agreement of the all partners was sought before any public disclosure was performed, in order to guarantee a careful dissemination and prevent too early disclosure of the main technological developments.
Additionally, the following sentence has been added to all dissemination materials, publications and in the project website (http://www.roadmark.eu/): "This project has received funding from European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 605847".

A communication strategy has been in place for effectively reaching each of the target audiences which has been customised to the target general profile. This strategy was based on the outline plan presented in previous D6.3 -“Interim Plan for the Use and Dissemination of the Knowledge and Future funding and investment plan”, which has been used as the starting point and built upon during the project.
In particular, the stakeholders involved and the direct impact of the project on them are:
• The end-users SETAS and CHEM
• The supplier industries PAC, IMPERIO, and MOBI
The RTD performers (AIDO, FIIDS, CeNTI) achieves a foreground to exploit in other sectors
The target audience for the non-confidential information about the ROADMARK project has been divided in two markets: the Eastern Europe markets ensured by company SETAS and the Central Europe ensured by company CHEM.
A major element of the communication strategy was centered on the positioning and careful branding and widespread dissemination of the ROADMARK name, as a powerful dissemination tool towards industry, consumers and policy-makers alike. Strong branding and solid supporting materials and literature, namely project logo; project poster; project leaflet , project website were designed, and were widely disseminated to intensify awareness about ROADMARK to the different target audiences.
In keeping with the Communication strategy outlined in previous topic A2, a comprehensive programme of dissemination activities, following the steps indicated in deliverable 6.8, has been performed during the project by the Consortium. Further major dissemination events are forecasted during the marketing phase of the ROADMARK product.

Potential Impact:
POTENTIAL IMPACT AND MAIN DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES AND EXPLOITATION RESULTS
Environmental Impact. Voc reduction
In relation to the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), the European Commission has limited in 2004 the content of the VOC solvents in certain paints and vehicle refinishing products by Directive 2004/42/EC. First solvent content limits came into force in 2007; a second phase started in 2010 with partly lower limits. In 2009, the European Commission published a report evaluating the Directive implementation and assessing options for further reduction of VOC emissions from solvent containing products. In 2010, the Ökopol Institute for Environmental Strategies GmbH, based in Hamburg (Germany), was contracted by the European Commission to carrying out the missing impact on option 16. On the basis of the mentioned report we made some calculations on VOCs potential reduction for the targeted countries in the short term and Europe 27 as a whole. Assumptions.
• During the 2018, the consortium want to be active in the following markets; Spain, Portugal, Slovenia, Croatia and Austria.
• The VOC emissions from the current solvent-based paints rounds 400 g/l (equal to about 25 wt-%). According to a new normative, recommendations for VOC reduction for year 2020 associated to water-based paints is considered 60 g/l (equal to about 4wt-%)
• Calculations have been made considering road marking in 2015 and the current proportion between all types of road paintings and the ecological water base paints in those countries. An extrapolation has made to 2020 keeping the same proportion as of today. At same time, another scenario has been displayed with a different proportion on water base products, increasing the market penetration (faster in hot countries and slower in cold countries). So, 2020 has been selected as the year to compare both scenarios
Social Impact. Health Implications
The implementation of a new limit for VOC content in road marking paints will result in a reduction of anthropogenic VOC emission. This expected to result in a marginal reduction of average ground level ozone concentration in EU-27. Considering the scenario explained in the VOC reduction paragraph, the health benefits are expressed hereinafter for the whole EU-27, the overall targeted group (Spain, Portugal, Slovenia, Croatia and Austria) and the impact according to the company share (5,5%) Recent studies has demonstrated that a good quality in road marking reduce substantially the number of accidents by half.
Economic Impact
Major impact is described hereinafter. Impact is due to the progressive introduction of the water-based paints in the road marking business in the selected countries (those were partners are currently active). This is the strategy in the short term. Impact is described from a global viewpoint affecting at micro level to the proponents. The Economic impact is analysed from the vision of the different stakeholder (public authorities, manufacturers, applicators, SMEs, professional users), etc. In the long term, the partners will explore new markets in Europe and in a minor extend, outside (North Africa)
1. - Stakeholder: On Public Authorities
Why it is implied: They are the users of the road marking and monitor compliance with with directive requirements
Impact effect:
a. Regional road authorities need to adapt their application techniques to water-products maybe increasing.
b. Water-based products are more expensive than solvent-based; however material consumption is about 6% to 8% lower. Besides storage costs are lower as no preventive measures are needed with water. Besides, solvent-based are linked to oil prices. Thermoplastics and Plastics are more expensive although last for more time.
c. Economical impact depends also in the local more. In Spain and Portugal highways are usually conditioned with thermal and/or cold plastics but other roads usually apply solvents. In Austria and Slovenia, most roads use solvent-base paints so the economic impact due to change is higher. Certification also cost money
d. In some countries there is already an obligation to monitor VOC emissions. In that cases, it is expected low additional costs resulting from training of staff, additional administrative costs and inspections, as they are already prepared.

2. - Stakeholder: Impact on Manufacturers
Why it is implied: Manufacturers will provide the water-based products
Impact effect:
a. Moderate adjustment and adaptations of existing production facilities for water-based paints will be needed when production volumes will go up (reaction from proponent competitors)
b. In some cases, some additional investment for research or equipment to produce the water-based paints will be required.

3. - Stakeholder: Impact on applicators
Why it is implied: Companies who apply the painting and new product and tools
Impact effect:
a. The costs for an adaptation of the application technologies depend very much on the kind of application technique (e.g. hand-held application machine or application truck) and year of purchase (age) of the equipment in use.
b. Those equipment using water-based paints need to be stainless steel as these paints are aggressive and abrasive. The more recent the equipment is, the more it is adapted to water-based. This is because new equipment can change the relevant parts individually (e.g container of the painting with an estimated cost of 7.000 €, the stirring unit can be estimated around 1.500€ to 3.000€., paint sieves and piping could cost about 5.000€. In total adaptation is up to 30.000 €.
4. - Stakeholder: Impact on competitiveness and trade in relation to commerce with non-EU countries
Why it is implied: Internalization
Impact effect:
a. The impact on competitiveness in relation to commerce with non-EU countries will presumably not be affected notably
b. Imports. The road marking segment in Europe is more a regional business. Imports from abroad are exceptional
c. Exports. EU companies will continue having the possibility to export solvent or water based products. Some regions outside Europe will maybe adapt their regulation to the VOC directive.

5. - Stakeholder: Impact on internal market and competition
Why it is implied: EU competition
Impact effect:
a. There are two major types of manufacturers; road marking manufacturers (produce all kinds of road marking (solvent, water, thermo and cold plastics) and paint manufacturers (paint formulators), producing all kind of paints (industrial paints, construction paints, road marking paints). It is considered that 50% of road marking market is covered by big players (road marking specialist), 25% by medium to small marking specialist and the rest (25%) by paint manufacturers. Thus the impact on the functioning of the internal market and competition could be estimated as relatively small , because road marking specialists would intensify the production of water-based products already in their product portfolio. Paint formulators will lose some share and there will be some space for new comers with advanced products as the one from the proponent.

6. - Stakeholder: Impact on SMEs
Why it is implied: New comers with new products
Impact effect:
a. Small SMEs producing solvent-based products will have to adapt their production capacities to the new scenario (with higher penetration of water-based). This situation will lead to problems for small existing SMEs which has to depreciate all their previous investment. However there will be some room for new comers investing exactly following the new trends.

7. - Stakeholder: Impact on professional users
Why it is implied: Professional users will need some training
Impact effect:
a. Professional users (applicators) might experience a change in their seasonal capacity utilization and seasonal road marking strategy. Depending on climate conditions they will be obliged to use one or other system. This is specially the case of some countries using nowadays exclusively solvent-based systems as Austria, Slovenia, etc. Moderate impact will be in countries as Spain or Portugal as dual technologies are already in application.

8. - Stakeholder: Impact on specific countries / regions
Why it is implied: Due to climate conditions
Impact effect:
a. Some regions with problematic climate terms (e.g. mountainous regions like Austria ) not applying alternatives to solvent-based products to a significant extend, or small countries (e.g. Slovenia, Croatia) with a strong market structure for solvent-based road marking systems, are expected to feel stronger impacts (on administrative structures, authorities, market, professional users, etc). However, there is an important opportunity in those countries as first enters.
MAIN DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES
During the 24 months of the ROADMARK project a varied dissemination strategy has been in place for effectively communicating the benefits and positive impacts of the ROADMARK results to different target audiences, in order to contribute to stimul interest and awareness, as well as to maximise the impact of the non generated during the project.
All project partners have been taking part in the internal dissemination (dissemination within the project) as well as in the external dissemination (dissemination to all relevant stakeholders in the EU community) of the project during the whole project run time. Both, internal dissemination as well as external dissemination is of great importance during the whole project. Therefore, several communication and dissemination channels and media, such as EU web sites and information publications, peer reviewed scientific journals, general public media publications, were used to obtain maximum impact in the promotion of the activities developed within the project.
A communication strategy has been in place for effectively reaching each of the target audiences which has been customised to the target general profile. This strategy was based on the outline plan presented in previous D6.3 -“Interim Plan for the Use and Dissemination of the Knowledge and Future funding and investment plan”, which has been used as the starting point and built upon during the project.
In particular, the stakeholders involved and the direct impact of the project on them are:
• The end-users SETAS and CHEM.
• The supplier industries PAC, IMPERIO, and MOBI
• The RTD performers (AIDO, FIIDS, CeNTI) achieves a foreground to exploit in other sectors.
The target audience for the non-confidential information about the ROADMARK project has been divided in two markets: the Eastern Europe markets ensured by company SETAS and the Central Europe ensured by company CHEM.
A major element of the communication strategy was centered on the positioning and careful branding and widespread dissemination of the ROADMARK name, as a powerful dissemination tool towards industry, consumers and policy-makers alike. Strong branding and solid supporting materials and literature, namely PROJECT LOGO; PROJECT LEAFLET; PROJECT WEBSITE were designed, and were widely disseminated to intensify awareness about ROADMARK to the different target audiences.
LOGO AND LEAFLET
As mentioned, a visual identity to reflect the project vision and key concepts has been developed. This logo must be used in all communication channels and materials produced according to the needs of the project.
The logo of ROADMARK consists of a graphical part, which attempts to emulate the project, and the name of the project. Two versions are available, with and without the name of the project.
The logo is flexible and can be used in very small (for example on flyers and leaflets) and also in large versions (posters). When used it:
• The anagram can be separated of the name of the project.
• Preferably, it should be placed on white ground, trying to avoid to make it look like a stamp.
• The colors must be respected.
Furthermore, the logos of the different partners’ institutions will be used for activities and events in the ROADMARK context.

PROJECT WEBSITE
With the objective to disseminate the Roadmark project and their results, a webpage of the project has been developed.
This deliverable shows the initial results of this task, developed under the Work Package 6 “Exploitation & Dissemination”.
The webpage has been established and will be maintained throughout the duration of the project.
The webpage has been structured in the following parts:
. Homepage.
. Project, with general information about the project
. Consortium, with information about the different partners of the project
. News & Events, space to update thought the project life with relevant news and events related to the project subject
. Contact
Domain: www.roadmark.eu
OTHER DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES
In keeping with the Communication strategy, a comprehensive programme of dissemination activities has been performed during the project by the Consortium. These activities are listed in the following chart:
-Exhibition in the R&D Centers Summit. Date: 15/11/2013. Place: Istanbul Congress Center, Turkey. Type of Audience: Scientific community (higher education, research). Leader: SETAS.
- Exhibition in an R&D Project Event. Date 14/05/2015. Place: Tekirdag, Turkey. Type of Audience: Scientific community (higher education, research). Leader: SETAS.
-Articles Published in the Popular Press: EU investigates new tools to improve road safety. Date: 05/07/2014. Place: http/www.innovaspain.com, Spain. Audience: Scientific community (higher education, research), Civil Society-Medias. Leader: AIDO.
-Articles Published in the Popular Press: The EU is working on innovate paintings to improve safety on the road. Date: 04/07/2014. Place: http/www.innovaspain.com, Spain. Audience: Scientific community (higher education, research), Civil Society-Medias. Leader: AIDO.
-Press releases: New paints to enhance safety on the road signs. Date: 04/07/2014. Place: http/www.redit.es, Spain. Audience: Scientific community (higher education, research), Civil Society-Medias. Leader: AIDO.
-Articles published in the popular press: New paints to enhance safety on the road signs. Date: 04/07/2014. Place: http/www.aido.es, Spain. Audience: Scientific community (higher education, research), Civil Society-Medias. Leader: AIDO.
-Articles published in the popular press: Road signs indelible. Date: 08/07/2014. Place: http/www.ecocultura.tv, Spain, Paraguay. Audience: Scientific community (higher education, research), Civil Society-Medias. Leader: AIDO.
-Articles published in the popular press: The EU is working on innovate paintings to improve safety on the road Date: 04/07/2014. Place: http/www.investigacion.alegreweb.com, Spain. Audience: Civil Society-Medias. Leader: AIDO.
- Exhibition in FICIS 2015- “Forum International Comunidades Inteligentes e Sustentáveis (1st edition) Date: 16/04/2015. Place: Braga, Portugal. Audience: Industry-Civil society-Policy makers. LEADER: IMPERIO.
-Exhibition in TECHTEXTIL 2015. Date: 04/05/2015. Place: Frankfurt Main, Germany. Audience: Scientific community (higher education, research), Civil Society-Medias. Leader: CENTI.
-Exhibition in Modtissimo 2015 (46th edition). Date: 30/09/2015. Place: Porto, Portugal. Audience: Industry, Civil Society-Medias. Leader: CENTI.
- Organization of Workshop: networking activities. Date: 01/09/2015. Place: Europe. Audience: Scientific community (higher education, research) Industry LEADER: IMPERIO.
- Organization of Workshop: networking activities. Date: 27/10/2015. Place: Valencia, Spain. Audience: Industry LEADER: PAC.
-Interview: Face to face meetings. Date: 01/10/2015. Place: Slovenia. Audience: Industry LEADER: CHEMCOLOR.
-Interview: Face to face meetings. Date: 01/09/2015. Place: Israel. Audience: Industry LEADER: MOBICHEM
-Wikipedia page on the project: As commented, the Wikipedia page could not be submitted cause of the website policy.
EXPLOITATION RESULTS
A full business plan has been developed for the project as a whole and for the single participants. As a result of this process, the market has been distributed among the co-owners as well as the production capacity. In summary the following assumptions has been taken:
PROVAC. Manufacturer for markets in Spain and Portugal, commercialization rights in Spain.
CHEM. Manufacturer and distributor in Slovenia, ex Yugoslavian republics and Austria.
IMPERIO. Contribution to production (cement). Distribution rights in Portugal and other future markets.
AIDO. Technological Centre. Supporting research in Spain
FIIDS. Technological Centre. Supporting research in Spain
CENTI. Technological Centre. Supporting research in Portugal.
SETAS. Contribution to production coatings
MOBICHEM. Supply the latex material.

In relation to the Business Plan, two types of containers has been selected (buckets of 25 litres and sacs of 750 litres for bulk distribution). Selling prices will be 2,2 €/Kg in the case of the buckets and 1,8 €/kg for the sacs. The cost of raw materials including transports has been fixed in 1,4 €/kg.
The deliverable 6.8 shows the whole Business Plan and main indicators.
The Directive 2004/42/EC extended with the Ökopol Institute study in 2010 suggested 17 options for VOC emissions reductions. The 16 was addressed to the road marking business. It showed that technical alternatives to solvent-based road marking were European-wide available, and alternatives (comprising water-based systems, cold plastics and thermoplastics), had high technical performance and a significant potential for VOC emission reduction.
Scandinavian countries have effectively banned the use of solvent-based road markings, and are nearly completely reliant on thermoplastics. The Netherlands, Austria and Germany have limited the solvent-based paints. It is difficult to directly compare the USA and Canada’s limits because of the exclusion of acetone from the VOC classification; due to harsh winter conditions, Canada allows the use of solvent-based paints but limits their use in summer.
The Ökopol Institute explored the concerns that water-based paints were technically inferior. They concluded that improvements in water-based paint may mean that such arguments are not necessarily valid and that water-based systems offer similar performance characteristics to solvent-based alternatives.
A summary of the situation in the targeted countries is provided hereinafter.
Market Situation
Spain
In Spain, the national road system presents about 164.000 Km of extension: 26.000 km principal/main roads, 72.000 km, national and complementary roads, and 68.000 to regional roads. In short, the horizontal marking market in Spain depends mostly in public tenders for road maintenance covering all aspects (review of the pavement, vertical signs, lighting, handrails, painting, etc) that are generally won by a group of companies (about 35), gathered in ACEX (Association of enterprises for conservation and operation of infrastructure), which in turn subcontract companies from the association ASEFAPI (25 members) covering the 85% of trading paintings in Spain. Besides, the specific horizontal marking sector which affects the road safety is absolutely regulated and there are very strict rules requiring accreditation. In the other hand, according to the AEC (Spanish Road Association) pavements in Spain accumulate 94% of the total deficit in conservation, forcing some investment needs for replacement and strong reinforcement, accounting for 5,828,000 € for the whole Spanish roads. From that figure, the State network responsibility represents 1,883,000 €, and the rest 3,945,000 € by the Autonomic network. The horizontal marking paints requirements, only for roads (excluding city centers) have been assessed in more than 100 Million €. The new product will be, hence offered directly to the ASEFAPI members which are in direct relations with ACEX contractors. Marcas Viales SA is the major competitor in the Spanish market. They are exclusively in the Road marking sector offering all types of products and solutions.
Portugal
In Portugal, the national road system presents 12 010 Km of extension: 12.4% principal/main roads, 50.1% to national and complementary roads, and 37.5% to regional roads. According to the the "Associação Portuguesa de sinalização e segurança rodoviária" (AFESP) who promoted a study about the quality and conditions of the national horizontal roadmarks in 2009, based on retroreflective measurements along 2400 km of road, in 18 different national regions, more than 75% of the roadmarks does not accomplish the efficiency values, necessary to guide the users. So, the situation is quite similar to the Spanish one. In Portugal there are several paint companies with specific paints for roadmarking; nevertheless, these products are not their main focus. Only 2 ot 3 portuguese companies are completely dedicated to road marking products (Barbot, Cin, Ecopaint..). Vougagor is the main paint supplier of Nortemarca road marking company. Nortemarca will be subcontraceted by IMPERIO in this project). In Portugal, thermoplastics are used for roads, whereas acrylic paints are used on parking spaces and similar places, and not in road.
Slovenia and ex Yugoslavian Republics
Total network (km) in Slovenia accounts for somehow 40.000 km, including motorways, highways, and main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and all other roads in a country. The situation of the road marking in these countries differs from Spain and Portugal. Competition is not so strong internally, as the market is dominated by two big companies. Helios, the 7th biggest producer of coatings in Europe (a giant for the Slovenian circumstances). In 2014, Helios was bought by an Austrian Financial holding. They cover the 70% of the market. The second actor is Hempel with the 30%. These two industrial contractors have a great influence in politician decision making and for that reason eco-paint are still out of the market. The road marking sector for Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Serbia is distributed as follows; 2.400 ton of solvent-based paints, 1.000 tons of cold plastics and 800 tons of thermoplastics. Only in Slovenia the market is 700 ton. As a reference, in 2013 in Ljubljana, capitol of Slovenia with 300.000 citizens and 165 km2, the city spent 750.000€ for signalization.
Austria
Total network in Austria is about 27.500 km, although only 2.200 km are of motorway and expressway in the country. The state-owned company ASFINAG founded in 1982 has recently edited a master plan to reduce accidents by 50% in year 2020. Among the measures to implement, road marking is also considered. ASFINAG has decided to promote rumble strips or a similar marking system, although questions still need to be clarified regarding water removal and noise protection. The numerous regional expertise on marking methods and durability will be networked upon and in the future all ASFINAG road markings will be included in a Road Database. So, also Austria, despite their stream conditions are thinking on looking for water-based solutions in the close future. Main competitor in Austria will be Swarco Heoscont, a road marking specialist.
Israel
- National road infrastructure is about 8,000 Km, local and municipal ways excluded (18500 km total)
- Marking regulation is strict, according to the Standards Institution and based on international standards and norms. In terms of materials, quanlity and volumes per road's Km, it should be similar to European countries.
- Most of the marking materials are supplied by the local paints and coatings companies and some import.
- We can therefore estimate the horizontal marking paints demand, local and municipal excluded, to circa 5 Million Euros
Turkey
In Turkey autority is Ministry of Transportation ( Ulaştırma Bakanlığı ) and related organization of management of Roads. Addition Municipalities of Central interested roadmarking.
In 2014 Transportation Ministry bought 20.000 metric tones road paint and Central municipalities bought 5.000 metric tone paint. Genearlly they bought solvent based raoad paint ( % 80 in total amount )
They painted 80.000 km road and market is around 10-15 million euros. ( only dye )
There are 10 big producer in Turkey. Dyo , Polisan , Marshall etc.
Measures to maximize impact
a) Dissemination and exploitation of results
Patent protection for the new water-based eco-paint will be guaranteed in all the targeted markets. The Commercialization Plan has been thought according to the local conditions and the partner involved. There is a short term plan and a medium term one.
Short term plan covers 2020 and 2021
SPAIN and PORTUGAL. Neither PROVAC nor IMPERIO are introduced in the commercial channels required to sell road marking eco-paints. Both markets are highly controlled by a set of companies with large tradition in the painting industry (for all sector) or vertically integrated in road marking (tier 2). These firms are regularly contracted by another group of companies representing the road maintenance services (tier 1). The usual procedure starts with a public tendering covering a road construction or retrofitting where the road painting is included among other services. Pretending to enter in that circuit as distributor seems to be quite difficult, so in the short term, PROVAC and IMPERIO will start to sign distribution agreements with existing companies from the tier 2 group. They will act as product formulators to avoid distrust from these painting companies.
SLOVENIA, CROACIA, BOSNIA and AUSTRIA. CHEM is an SME with a sound and long tradition in those markets, acting as a generalist provider (for construction, industrial sectors and road marking). In these countries the market is dominated by two large firms: Helios and Hempel. They don’t work with water-based paints as the climate conditions and the local culture have traditionally recommended the use of solvent-based products. Anyway, we have seen some signals of the intention to introduce VOC free paints (report from national road Company ASFINAG in Austria and some press notes in Slovenia) and the idea is to sign an agreement with any of those companies for a progressive introduction and substitution of the solvent paints or try to introduce the new concepts into the policy decision makers. In this case, CHEM has its own distribution channels and could survive in this specific market niche as some other SMEs are doing worldwide with eco-paints.
Medium Term plan covering 2022 and 2023
Assuming that PROVAC and IMPERIO have placed a set of direct relationships in the specific market niche of road marking in Spain and Portugal, maybe providing their new product as a white brand distributed by third companies, it is time to reach the national markets with their own name and distribution channel. This is a complex transition which will require maybe a direct contact with a big tier 1 provider. At same time, the portfolio of products shall be extended for specific applications due to two years research, improving the value proposition for the potential purchasers. At that moment, new markets can be explored (France, Netherlands, Luxembourg, UK in Europe and some others in North Africa) where IMPERIO is currently selling cement).
In the case of CHEM, there will be probably a boost in the water-based paints delayed with regard other countries and will be the moment to reinforce the distribution strategy. Also in this case, new markets will be explored as Russia, Italy or Easter countries with a high GDP and large investments to reconstruct the country and improve road infrastructures.
Communication
A dedicated knowledge sharing and dissemination work has been included to ensure that the results of the project are widely communicated. Specific activities include:
Marketing campaign. The new eco-paint is particularly innovative for the market and for partners. Then:
• For the market it is essential to ensure that value proposition is correctly understood and new aspects of the user experience are fully channelled to customers and final users
• For Partners it is essential to give evidence to innovation, while keeping continuity with the solid brand reputation. Product innovation is considerable and must be protected.
The campaign will be defined to channel all such aspects to market. A specific image will be created to distinguish the eco-paint. The new customer experience will be defined for all target users to facilitate communication and acceptance: definition will made in collaboration with the development teams, using prototyping techniques (e.g. story-telling). Appropriate mix of channels will be defined, including direct promotion by salesforce and indirect through distributors and commercial partners. Promotion channels will include fairs, professional magazines and the web.
Technical audience (installers, professional schools, technical workshops, energy agencies, policy makers) Information material will be prepared including technical sheets, brochures, tutorials to learn about the product and utilization, case studies to illustrate application models and benefits, a white paper to detail economic/environmental benefits over the lifetime. The partners will cultivate professional schools (painters, installers) providing information material & sample components. A specific package will be created and distributed starting from the countries where the partners are currently active. Participation is foreseen to workshops of associations/bodies particularly relevant for the application sector in order to build visibility and reach wide audience.
Wide audience (media, website)
Information material will be prepared to be channelled through media and company website. The package will include a dedicated section of the website, press releases and a simplified version of case studies, preferably communicated through videos. Target audience is composed by potential users and interested subjects.


List of Websites:
http://www.roadmark.eu

Calle Germanías 11, políg. Aeropuerto
46940 Manises, Valencia (Spain)
gerencia@provac.es
Phone: +34 96 394 15 58

Related information

Contact

Maria Dolores Corvinos, (Project manager)
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Record Number: 189151 / Last updated on: 2016-09-15