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RECONASS Report Summary

Project ID: 312718
Funded under: FP7-SECURITY
Country: Greece

Periodic Report Summary 2 - RECONASS (Reconstruction and REcovery Planning: Rapid and Continuously Updated COnstruction Damage, and Related Needs ASSessment)

Project Context and Objectives:
RECONASS concept drives towards providing a monitoring system to accurately assess the structural condition and related needs of single or grouped facilities. The RECONASS system encompasses novel technologies originating from different domains that are seamlessly interworking with the aim to shorten the required time of assessments preserving precision and to establish an efficient updating process. The overall technology to be implemented in RECONASS is focusing on the case of reinforced concrete buildings that constitute the main type of construction of critical buildings in both earthquake prone countries of Europe, as well as, in rest of Europe and North America.
The RECONASS system proposes a multidisciplinary synergistic approach by researching, adapting, extending and integrating cutting edge technologies as follows: a compact and highly energy efficient local positioning system (LPS) cooperating with a set of strategically placed strain, acceleration and temperature sensors to result in the aggregation of sensor information through a robust, secure, intelligent and resilient communication module. Additionally, a remote sensing approach complements the aforementioned data extraction methodologies, using air borne and space borne systems. Last but not least, capitalising on the data derived from all above systems, subsequent data fusion and overall structural and non-structural assessments will be enabled within an interoperable Post Crisis Needs Assessment Tool in regards to Construction Damage and related Needs (PCCDN); the latter being a platform that includes both an assessment and an economic loss and needs module that provides in parallel the graphical user interface depicting comprehensively in 2D/3D and narratively to the end-user the overall structure’s status, as well as additional information of the surroundings (e.g. meteorological data, news updates) while linking the proper agencies for response, reconstruction and rehabilitation.
In more detail, the RECONASS work proposes a monitoring system for constructed facilities that will provide a near real time, reliable, and continuously updated assessment of the structural condition of the monitored facilities after a disaster or attack, with enough detail to be useful for early and full recovery planning. The above assessment will be seamlessly integrated with automated, near real-time and on-going estimation of the physical damage, loss of functionality, direct economic loss as well as needs of the monitored facilities and will provide the required input for the prioritization of their repair. Another aim of this work is, based on near real-time estimates of the structural damage of monitored facilities, to develop a methodology and the corresponding software implementation for the automatic, near real-time estimation of the resulting non-structural damage. Equally importantly, the functionality of the facility, total volume of debris from both structural and non-structural components in the monitored facilities, the cost and duration of structural and non-structural repairs as well as construction manpower and materials needs are evaluated. Moreover, RECONASS combines sensor-based damage assessment of the monitored facilities with remote sensing data to retrieve a holistic assessment on the damage. Additionally, the system provides seamless interoperability among heterogeneous networks to ensure that the required information from the monitored facility can reach the base-station in stringent time-constraints even under difficult conditions, such as post-crisis situations (e.g., in a post-earthquake situation). Finally, a post crisis needs assessment tool in regards to construction damage and related needs (PCCDN) is proposed that will primarily collect information from all the monitored facilities in the affected region (e.g., the parliament, the Ministry of the Interior, hospitals, bridges). Subsequently, PCCDN will process the information in order to provide recovery stakeholders with near real-time, reliable, continuously updated information, in the form that each one of the stakeholders’ needs it. Example outputs include but are not limited to the following: structural and non-structural damage, shoring and demolition needs, loss of functionality, direct economic loss and the resulting needs in construction labor and materials for the monitored buildings.

Project Results:
The RECONASS technical work commenced with WP1 on User Requirements and System Architecture which produced the system requirements and specification to result in the overall architecture that governs the RECONASS integrated system. WP1 has also produced the various end user categories (namely A) Governmental Emergency / Disaster Response Organisations, B) Non-Governmental Emergency / Disaster Response Organisations, C) Public Operators of Critical Buildings, D) Private Operators of Critical Buildings, E) Organisations involved in the development of remote sensing based damage maps, F) Organisations involved in synoptic damage prediction based on acceleration measurements, insurance companies, etc.. ) for which RECONASS can be operationally utilised. However, WP1 is well concluded since the first year of the project; hence no research activities are to be reported in the 2nd Annual Management Report. The only activity realised is the revision of D1.1 according to the recommendations received by the EC after the 1st RECONASS Review Meeting. Noteworthy, the activities concerning engagement and expansion of the RECONASS End-User Group, the latter formed under this WP, are now realised mainly in WP9 regarding dissemination and partially in WP7, WP8 to ensure that the RECONASS results are demonstrated, evaluated and promoted to our own end user community.
The work in WP2 includes the design, development and prototyping of the full monitoring system comprising of the local positioning system, the accelerometers, the strain sensors and the temperature sensors interconnected over a multilayer communication module that is built of wireless/local sensor networks, local area networks and a wide area network. The WP2 work for the period is reported in D2.2 on LPS and sensor node defining the prototypes, the topology and the circuit design of the particular system components. So far, prototyping of the local positioning system and the proposed tags-coordinator LPS topology and structure has been realised; as well as of the strain, acceleration and temperature sensors. In more detail, WP2 on RECONASS Monitoring System- Accurate Positioning – Secure Communication is implemented by the sensor and communication providers. The particular WP has been active since M8 and upon the submission of D2.1 in M11 (performed during the 1st year) which essentially marks the specifications and architecture freeze for the sensing and communication system significant progress has been realised. Within the 2nd reporting period D2.2 has been delivered which serves as an accompanied report of the LPS, strain sensors, temperature sensors and accelerometers’ prototypes. Towards such progress extensive laboratory testing, firmware development, short-scale manufacturing has been realised. At the same time the sensors prototypes have been successfully tested against blast impact, mainly for their durability attributes, in the component testing held in Sweden. The tests of the Local Positioning System (LPS) prototypes (8 nodes have been manufactured) in the laboratory environment gave excellent results both in precision and accuracy readings, advancing the current state-of-the-art. All other sensors, namely the accelerometers, the temperature and the strain sensors have been tested and benchmarked fully achieving the requirements posed by the structural engineers (see D1.4). In regards to the communication module, the hardware to permit the full range of availability, reliability, robustness and performance requirements has been specified.
Additionally, up to the conclusion of the 2nd period the communication module nearly its full set of functionalities for in- and out- building communications in a robust, reliable and resilient manner. Moreover, physical and remote connectivity has been established between all network entities of the RECONASS communication module in a miniaturised version of the overall RECONASS system.
During the 2nd reporting period, WP3 on Damage, Loss and Needs Assessment was completed, as planned, with Deliveries D3.1, D3.2 and D3.3. The work includes: (a) tangible results in regards to non-linear analyses of component testing and development of algorithms correlating tag position with the structure that has emerged from the disaster. In that sense, T3.1 concluded as planned, with the delivery of D3.1. In D3.1 the results from the FE analyses showed good agreement with the component testing measurement data – under T7.3.1 – for the structural response of both single slabs and the multi-node concrete frame. (b) structural assessment under operating, seismic, blast and fire loading, exclusively based on measurements from the RECONASS sensors that is being reported in D3.2 and (c) assessment of the loss and needs of buildings damaged under any of the extreme events under consideration. This assessment, which is reported in D3.3, is based on the structural response of the building and includes all structural and non-structural elements. Moreover, it is based on a detailed taxonomy of all of the above components, that, in order to facilitate global use of the models is consistent, as much as possible, with existing taxonomies developed for national or global use.
WP4 on Remote Sensing damage assessment is being addressed by a single partner (ITC). The tasks T4.1, T4.2 and T4.3 commenced in the previous reporting period, and they are still running in parallel in M15-M28. In this period, main focus was given on T4.1 and most of its work was completed and delivered in D4.1. T4.1 is focused on developing a methodology for building level automatic damage scoring by assessing the exterior damage evidences using the images captured by drones and the 3D point cloud information derived from them. In this reporting period, methods have been developed for 1) automatic detection of damage evidences such as debris/rubble piles and spalling from images, and 2) automatic 3D modelling of building from point cloud and images that facilitate to perform building-level comprehensive damage scoring. Based on these works, an article has been published in an ISI journal, and one more journal articles are being prepared. In this reporting period, most of the open issues regarding the sharing of information between WP3 (the damage information from sensors) and WP4 (image-based information) have been addressed through teleconferences and in plenary meetings with the concerned partners. Also, good progress has been made in T4.2 and T4.3 which are described in detail in the subsection for WP4.
WP5 on the RECONASS disaster management platform for critical buildings (i.e. the PCCD tool), the activities have also progressed following the project schedule commenced on M8, focusing on the identified end-users requirements in order to define the functional, operational and performance requirements for the software system. With the PCCDN tool acting as the intermediary between the monitoring system, the damage loss and needs assessment and the remote sensing, an open architecture was adopted and the implementation of the PCCDN tool has started, in line with the projected efforts encompassed by T5.1 and T5.2.
During this period of work (M15-M28), WP5 produced the prototype of the Enterprise Service Bus, being the core entity of the overall platform that hosts the various senor services and the relevant data fusion to provide the end users with an intuitive building monitoring interface. Additionally, the entirety of sensor services (observation, alerting and tasking) have been implemented and tested in laboratory conditions. In parallel the graphical user interface has been developed and passed several iterations with the assistance of selected end users (including THW, being a RECONASS partner) to result in the most user-friendly form. Noteworthy, the RECONASS platform to be delivered to the end users features security measures that ensure authorized and unsusceptible access for nodes and users under any circumstances.
WP6 on System Integration commenced in the reporting period of interest. This WP ties together the totality of the RECONASS components to result the integrated RECONASS system. Significant progress has been realised since a miniaturised instance of the overall system has been integrated in a controlled environment supporting the basic functionalities that RECONASS should meet (aggregation of sensor measurements, interface hand over, end to end values exchange and insertion to the assessment modules to name a few). Noteworthy, within the 2nd period of work the casing of the sensors has been finalised and the relevant assembly has been performed.
WP7 on System Evaluation was kicked off on M8 as originally projected by the DoW. During the 2nd period a preliminary work plan has been produced (T7.1) for the upcoming RECONASS evaluation phase and the preliminary demonstration and table top exercises (T7.2) have been created to guide the relevant demonstration activities in M30 in Wesel/Germany (2nd End User Workshop). The laboratory evaluation of the Local Positioning System (LPS) and strain, temperature and acceleration sensors was followed by the component testing performed at FOI Grindsjön testing facilities from M16 to M21. The component testing results have been reported in deliverable D7.1, delivered in M22. In parallel to the component testing, the pilot test was planned including the overall instrumentation activities of the building to be subjected in blasts. The pilot test will be realised in Älvdalen under the supervision of FOI, being the event hosts, whilst the Pilot plan produced features site, logistics, installation, interfacing and instrumentation specifications to support a successful pilot execution.
WP8 comprises of horizontal activities dealing with exploitation and IPR matters, started from day one of the project. The main focus during the 2nd period of the project has been given into promoting and utilising the exploitation channels of RECONASS, established from the project’s start. More specifically, RECONASS advanced its liaison activities by clustering with DESTRIERO, STREST, INACHUS, ICARUS and EUCONCIP projects. Such projects investigate similar aspects of disaster management activities and significant knowledge exchange was realised. Moreover, the RECONASS consortium is targeting a product wise approach for the ultimate system; hence a product website was collaboratively designed. Further to this, several selected end users have been approached to gain exploitation related requirements in the form of questionnaires and interviews. Such requirements are expected to facilitate the final system set up to support commercialisation perspectives.
In parallel and towards promoting the RECONASS solution in a standardised way, the consortium has applied for participation in CEN-CENELEC’s JWG 8 on Privacy by design. A relevant plenary meeting has been realised to freeze the relevant group’s work programme in Paris and the application for project liaison is currently in progress.
WP9 on Dissemination Activities, running throughout the project’s duration, has initially focused on setting solid bases for all types of dissemination channels to be used. The significant dissemination results in this reporting period are the enrichment of the project website, the penetration of RECONASS in the social media world through LinkedIN and Twitter, the communication with the outside experts forming the relevant internal group and the production of the 2nd & 3rd RECONASS newsletters that present RECONASS’ progress to a wide audience. Noteworthy, several publication in well-known journals and conference proceedings have been performed to validate the research activities that exceed the state-of-the-art in the respective domains. Last but not least, within the 2nd reporting period the end user group has been further expanded, including at the moment a total of 32 end users from various domains of disaster management.
WP10, being the project management WP, has been active since day one to ensure the smooth project management and execution of the project tasks while at the same time update partners on the project technical management, quality management, logistic and administrative procedures and processes. The project plenary meetings have been organised together with the project steering committee meetings whenever required. Reporting/administrative processes have been precisely followed by the coordinator as reported in D10.5 and D10.6. A quality and security procedures plan has been established and reported within D10.1 whereas the internal repository has been created, reported in D10.2 and utilised by all partners for their day to day documents’ transfer. During the 2nd reporting period several plenary meetings have been realised: the first was in conjunction with the component testing performed in Sweden (April 2015), the second was held in Chelmsford on 17-18 of November 2015 and a third one in conjunction to the 1st integration meeting was realised in Zurich on 17-19 of February 2016.

Potential Impact:
1. To analyse state-of-the-art post-crisis damage and needs assessment tools and their deficiencies as well as to capture the needs of a wide stakeholders group to design a novel structural monitoring/assessment system
- Stimulation of innovation in structural health monitoring in the EU
- Creation of a database/inventory with lessons learnt to boost creation of reliable structural health monitoring systems
- Safer operation of buildings (incl. critical infrastructures) with reduced and more targeted assessments
- Reduced costs for buildings’ inspection and assessment (replace both the initial and in-depth on-site structural assessment)
- High value facilities as a target for terrorist attacks will be monitored with the RECONASS monitoring system limiting downtime costs and enabling prevention
- Increased competitiveness of structural health monitoring industry by speedy and reliable assessments
- RECONASS will improve reconstruction and recovery capabilities by providing relief units with an interoperable tool that is faster and technologically improved as available today
- Increased citizens’ safety via safer buildings
- Deliver new or improved capabilities for users, less aiming at strengthening competitiveness
- Relief organizations, insurers and banks can begin funding restoration efforts at a much earlier date
- Reconstruction activities will start earlier
- It will be easier to obtain international financing soon after the disaster when the disaster is still in the news
- Emergency response crews will be provided with critical and timely information on damage in monitored facilities so that danger can be pinpointed and emergency response directed with precision
- Disaster cost will be reduced by preventing monitored structures from collapsing to limit damage to adjacent structures and additional loss of life when explosive devices impact highly populated urban centers
- Disaster costs will also be reduced when providing shoring to weakened monitored buildings to protect them from the aftershock sequence
- Safety will be promoted when dangerous monitored buildings or portions thereof will be demolished
- Knowledge of the structural condition of monitored buildings will reduce likely building-closure durations and consequently business interruption costs
- Identification of the safe monitored buildings for immediate use will help the government find the physical infrastructure needed to provide essential services
- Knowing the functionality of hospitals immediately after the disaster will help the government direct injured victims to available hospital capacity
- RECONASS information to all major recovery stakeholders (in the form that they need it) will help them acquire a common picture of the situation
- Use of the RECONASS system will provide better situational awareness in case of any disastrous event helping to save lives, environment and culture
- Effective handling of recovery from a very early date will help increase the level of confidence to the government which can have economic implications, e.g., in the case of tourism
- Early, effective handling of the reconstruction and recovery process will have long term financial repercussions

2. To develop an indoor, automated, real-time, wireless, local positioning system that will provide information on the precise 3D localization of tags embedded in the structural elements of an r.c. building
- RECONASS will promote a European leading position in this market
- Extensions of the RECONASS LPS can be applied to other indoor services (e.g. airports’ assets, moving objects, etc.)
- To advance the SotA in the indoor LPS domain (RECONASS explores 3 D accuracies of around 10 cm for distances of up to 50 m in environments with strong multipath propagation)
- The RECONAS LPS approach may be applied to other disaster causes (tsunamis, landslides) in relation to structural health monitoring
- Decrease investment capital for costly positioning applications (e.g. containers tracking in yards, warehouses) utilising the low cost RECONASS tags

3. To specify the location of localisation tags will be embedded in the structural elements of an undamaged structure resulting to optimum assessment after a disaster
- To result in speedy, calibrated and precise assessment for instrumented facilities after a disaster
- To enhance methodologies of predicting positions of buildings’ structural elements
- To pave the way for alternative means of predicting position of structural elements
- To produce new assessment techniques

4. To assess the residual strength of the structural elements and the structural condition and safety of the structure that has emerged from the disaster.
- To enhance methodologies of predicting residual strength of buildings’ structural elements
- To extend residual strength monitoring to other materials and structures (steel, bridges, etc.)

5. To develop a method and the corresponding software implementation for the automatic assessment of direct economic loss due to structural and non-structural damage, building functionality, volume of debris, the duration of repairs and the resulting needs in manpower and materials following a seismic, blast and/or impact loading or fire in a monitored building
- (please see also 1)
- To associate structural damage with economic restoration/reconstruction investments through novel methodologies and subsequent software implementation

6. To design a robust, resilient, seamless and interoperable communication platform that aggregates, processes and transfers under any circumstances the sensorial data to the assessment modules over heterogeneous networks
- To promote SotA in the below domains:
o Heterogeneous networks interoperability and interworking
o Cooperative local area network technologies for improving data transfer
o Self healing and extendable wireless sensor networks
- To utilise such a secure and robust gateway to other security related applications (command and control centres, sensor networks for situational awareness) since it will be developed using an open architecture and utilising various communication networks (infrastructure based and infrastructure less)

7. To use sensor-based damage assessment of the monitored buildings for the calibration and validation of remote sensing methods
- To reach convergence of two different assessment methods enhancing precision of the remote sensing one
- To promote SotA for remote sensing methods given the fact that terrestrial sensorial information may be used
- To extend remote sensing in other facilities and materials, again, converging with sensorial devices’ outputs
- To promote such beneficial usage of UAVs in the future aiding at receiving the necessary legislative and protective measures at a European level

8. To develop the RECONASS back-end, a Post-Crisis Needs Assessment Tool in regards to Construction Damage and related Needs (PCCDN) that will provide the recovery stakeholders with near real-time, detailed and reliable data and information in the form that each one of the stakeholders needs it, on structural and non-structural damage, shoring and demolition needs, loss of functionality, direct economic loss and the resulting needs in construction manpower and materials of monitored buildings that will be continuously updated (due to, for instance, foreshocks, main shocks and the subsequent aftershock sequences in case of an earthquake).
- (please see 1)
- RECONASS information to all major recovery stakeholders (in the form that they need it) will help them acquire a common picture of the situation
- To apply PPCDN to other structural health monitoring domains (bridges, aircrafts, tunnels, etc.)
- To form an inventory of buildings’ capabilities at a National and at a European level
- To allow for liaison of additional platforms through open architecture implementation (e.g. public warning systems, civil protection modules, etc.)

9. To produce a monitoring/assessment system comprised of inter-communicating sensors (tags, accelerometers, strain sensors, temperature sensors), remote sensing methods (aerial & satellite), assessment modules and PCCDN tool
- (please see 1 as it applies to the whole RECONASS monitoring system)

10. To test, validate, benchmark and evaluate the above system in both a component basis as well as a whole in testing small scale structural nodes and in a 1:2 scale demonstrator within a three story r.c. building considering realistic scenarios (e.g. earthquake, terrorist attack)
- To prove the assessment preciseness, reliability and robustness offered by the RECONASS monitoring system
- To allow for optimisation of the system through extensive evaluation of results and methodologies used
- To showcase European initiatives/projects for response and recovery after disasters through dissemination of demonstrator
- To allow for investigating extended usages of the RECONASS system through real data retrieved form actual building demolition

11. To provide a conceptualization of how the sensor-equipped buildings can be used to create a separate sensor network to detect additional threats - To allow for extension of applications derived from additional sensors and their data (e.g. IoT applications for security and welfare)
- To promote and enhance SotA of sensor networks

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