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JOULES Report Summary

Project ID: 605190
Funded under: FP7-TRANSPORT
Country: Germany

Periodic Report Summary 2 - JOULES (Joint Operation for Ultra Low Emission Shipping)

Project Context and Objectives:
The JOULES-project has been initiated in the context of the strategy of the European commission to reduce CO2 emissions, save energy and foster the uptake of renewable energies in the 20-20-20 scenario for vessels built by European shipyards. In a long term perspective up to 2050, a further significant reduction of CO2 emissions is needed also for the maritime industry (at least 40%, if feasible 50%, acc. White Paper for Transport COM(2011) 144) to contribute for a more sustainable development).

The JOULES project is focusing on the integration of energy saving technologies in the early design stage, using advanced simulation models to be developed for the energy grid of the ship. The optimum combination of energy consumers incl. energy recovery systems is expected to significantly improve the vessels’ overall energy efficiency. Technology providers, modeling experts and yard partners will work closely together to produce in total 11 application cases in 5 application areas (Ferry, Cruise Ships, Work Boats, Offshore Vessels and Cargo Vessels). The aim is to achieve not only an emission reduction for CO2 as stipulated in a short term 2025 scenario (appr. 23% in average for all application cases) and future 2050 scenario (appr. 50% in average for all application cases) but also to reduce other air emissions like SOx, NOx and PM as far as practicable at the same time.

The operating profile and in particular part load conditions were identified to provide additional potential for increase of the overall energy efficiency of ships by the simulation of the energy grid. Furthermore, the use of future alternative fuels like LNG and fuels based on renewable energies shall be addressed as already outlined in the 20-20-20 strategy. For this reason, the whole life cycle of fuels from well to propeller shall be considered and the impact on energy consumption and CO2-emissions for fuel production (from well to tank) was identified to play an important role for the future uptake of fuels from renewable energy sources.

The results of the simulation of the ship concepts as developed in the application cases will be used for an assessment of main KPIs like Net Present Value, Cumulated Energy Demand, Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and PM10 for the life cycle performance, using the LCPA (Life Cycle Performance Assessment) tool as developed in the previous EU BESST project. This tool allows for the comparison of different technical solutions taking into account various financial input parameters like fuel costs, investment costs, discount rate etc. Within the JOULES project, the LCPA tool needs to be enhanced in order to be able to use the results from the simulation of the energy grid. Furthermore, the “well to propeller” concept will be applied in the LCP assessment especially when using alternative fuels. A suitable way of representing the external costs of air emissions will be integrated in order to be able to fully compare new technical solutions with existing state of the art technologies in a holistic way.

Finally, using the results from the LCP assessment of the eleven different application cases, the most promising technologies will be further studied in up to 4 demonstrator cases.

The JOULES project is expected to contribute to the overall objectives by applying energy grid simulation for the 2025 and 2050 designs to increase the overall energy efficiency of European built ships. Alternative fuels including those from renewable source are expected to play an increasingly important role over time to reduce CO2 emissions as required. However, a holistic assessment of the future design concept is necessary and will be applied in order to identify any possible trade-offs in achieving the objectives for reduction of CO2-emissions.

Project Results:
Component modelers have continued to provide simulation models along the requirements as worked out in period 1 of the project. The quality assurance process as established in period 1 has been exercised to verify a large number of simulation component models as uploaded in the JOULES component database. The web based component database as further developed and enhanced in period 2 is the central software tool to allow easy exchange of standardized simulation models (via FMI-standard ) between suppliers and later users. For some interesting components of the ship´s energy grid with little background knowledge, validation experiments had been identified in period 1 and subsequently performed in period 2 of the JOULES project. Significant improvements of existing component models could have been achieved through these seven validation experiments and in general a better understanding on possible uncertainties when using such simulation component models. As a result from a. m. activities, a large number of component models were ready at the end of period 2 for use in the application cases.
The eleven application cases (Ro-Pax Ferry, Urban Ferry, Cruise Liner, River Cruiser, Mega Yacht, Tug, Dredger, Offshore Patrol Vessel, Offshore Support Vessel, Arctic Cargo Vessel and Wind Assisted Cargo Vessel) have worked out their integrated simulation models on ships´ level for baseline, 2025 and 2050 designs. Further refinements are necessary in order to fine tune the full integration of all individual simulation component models needed. Results of modelling will allow the judgement on the reduction potential for CO2 emissions depending on the technologies (e.g. renewable energies, primary energy converters, secondary energy converters, abatement technologies, energy storage devices and propulsors) and the operational profile. This also includes uptake of future alternative fuels in order to manage higher reduction potentials on the long run. Preliminary results are available for most of the application cases.
In parallel, the LCPA-Tool has been further developed and the software programming was in the center of activities. Due to complexity and valuable input from partners / advisory group, the scope of features has been increased compared to the initial design and needs continuous further refinement. Nevertheless a high sophisticated tool covering the full screening LCA methodology (including well to tank data for fuels) as defined in period 1 together with an economic evaluation is ready for final use.
The LCP-Assessment for the application cases has started and modelling of baseline vessel, 2025 and 2050 vessels are under way. Some preliminary results show that the short term reduction of CO2-emissions by 2025 can generally be achieved using the integrated simulation approach on ship level together with the introduction of various energy saving technologies. However long term results with high reduction targets for CO2-emissions can only be achieved when using alternative fuels from renewable energy. This becomes increasingly important, because the climate target of the Paris Accord as adopted in December 2015 also implies a complete transition of the whole maritime industry to carbon neutral fuels (and or electrification with energy from renewable sources where possible) in the beginning of the second half of this century. In some cases, sailing ships must again be considered as serious option.
Three demonstrator cases have been selected following a formal process for application which started in June 2015. However some difficulties in managing the share of contributions as well as availability of partners resulted in a delay of describing the final layout of two of the demonstrators.
The Advisory Group has been informed with respect to state of the art modelling for components, systems modelling and full integration on ship level during an advisory group meeting in January 2016.

Potential Impact:
The introduction of simulation technologies in the early design stage for energy grids is expected to be further matured until the end of the JOULES project. This will allow partners and in particular shipyards to introduce further added value into the ship design process. It is expected that the methodologies as developed in the JOULES project will be applied even in the contract phase for newbuildings in order to find optimum solutions with respect to overall energy consumption of vessels for the whole life cycle.
The simulation component database is expected to be finally developed as a standard platform for the exchange of simulation models in the maritime industry. Experiences from application of the FMI-standard within the project have been reported to the relevant standardization organization and the intention is to contribute to the future development of the FMI-standard.
The validation of the potential impact of dedicated technologies by three demonstrators to be established in the final phase of the project will contribute to a better understanding, how big uncertainties may be when predicting the energy consumption by simulation.
The work carried out by the application cases has identified significant trends (pathways), how the requested reduction of CO2 emissions by use of dedicated technologies might look like for different ship types. In addition, the necessary uptake of renewable future fuels depending on ship type has to be considered as expected result from the activities of the application cases.
The LCPA tool will finally be used to assess the 2025 and 2050 designs as developed by the application cases against the baseline designs. From the results achieved so far it can be stated that the quantitative prediction of values for the KPIs as introduced is very much depending on ship type, operational profile, use of future alternative fuels (including fuels from renewable energy), technology used and fuel price projections. A particular result is expected by identification of trade-offs between CO2-emission reduction technologies (and other end-of-the-pipe technologies for reduction of harmful emissions like scrubbers, SCR and particle filters) and the cumulated energy demand. Making these trade-offs transparent will enhance the understanding of the complexity of introducing future technologies and alternative fuels into the maritime industry. Through this holistic approach, the transition of the maritime industry towards more sustainability and finally to a carbon neutral industry will be supported.

Based on a. m. findings, political recommendations will be formulated for necessary short term improvements of energy efficiency to comply with the JOULES targets for 2025 emission reduction and for the long-term uptake of alternative/renewable fuels resp. energies to achieve significant CO2-reductions as requested in the 2050 scenario.

List of Websites:

Reported by

Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft mbH & Co KG


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