Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

FP7

MAPICC 3D Report Summary

Project ID: 263159
Funded under: FP7-NMP
Country: France

Final Report Summary - MAPICC 3D (One-shot Manufacturing on large scale of 3D up graded panels and stiffeners for lightweight thermoplastic textile composite structures)

Executive Summary:
The objective of MAPICC 3D project is the development of novel industrial automated and cost efficient integrated processes able to produce high performance multifunctional light weight structural thermoplastic composites at high quality. The processes are based on new technologies for the in line production of upgraded 3D textile preforms and composites from thermoplastic hybrid yarns comprising various fibres (glass, polymeric reinforcing fibres). The composites are dedicated to application areas such as industrial transport (automotive, railway and aeronautic), building and energy applications.
The main advantage of these new technologies are the direct production of 3D preforms with controlled 3-directional fibre placement in a fully interlaced manner, the capacity to predict properties of the final composites, and the possibility to integrate quality sensors, tubes or wires. Furthermore, it will be possible to produce curved panels and beams with complex cross sections at a high quality level and with high design flexibility at low manufacturing costs, low manual operations and ensuring a high reliability.
More precisely the innovative concept of MAPICC 3D is based on the:
- development of thermoplastic hybrid yarns consisting of matrix and reinforcing component potentially also including a functional material component,
- development of technological concepts able to precisely steer the fibres in 3D and tailor the mechanical properties of composites,
- development of modelling tools able to predict the final properties of designed 3D preforms and final composites and allow easier design of customised end products and better synchronisation SME/OEM,
- development and demonstration of equipment able to produce 3D preforms of stiffeners and panels directly,
- development and demonstration of highly efficient automated and highly adaptable manufacturing system for high volume production of textile preforms and out of that thermoplastic composites at industrial scale (using high pressure and temperature)
- demonstration of real applications possibilities for of lightweight composites as replacement for metal structures in automotive, railway and energy industry.
MAPICC 3D process is expected to ensure:
- A highly reliable production rate of between 5 and 20 m2/h, at acceptable cost; depending on the complexity of the preform structure
- A productivity improvement of 30% compared to current 2D preform methodologies
- An optimisation of logistics and improvement of logistics of time to market by 15%.
- A composite with highly improved and reliable mechanical properties, which are able to replace selected metallic structures in transport, energy and building industry and
- A substantial reduction of waste with a rational use of raw materials.
The major INNOVATION of MAPICC 3D is to manufacture the preforms directly, avoiding all joining steps to enable a weight reduction of structures. Even if the cost of the technology investment may be higher, the final price of the composites will be lower than existing manufactured composites with current technologies due to the absence of expensive manual joining steps. Moreover, delamination risks of complex forms can be reduced while improving performance and cost effectiveness. The important potential markets around lightweight complex structures quantize a rapid redemption of investment. The project comprises 20 partners from 10 countries including 7 large Industries, 6 SME’s, 6 Universities and 1 association. It integrates the whole manufacturing chain from raw materials selection to design; including hybrid yarn developers, 3D preforms technology developers, modelling/simulation tools specialists, automatic systems, industrial equipment suppliers and industrial end users of lightweight materials.

Project Context and Objectives:
a) The current context in complex lightweight composite structure production
One of the priorities in transport but also others industries (building and energy) is to develop lightweight complex structures with high mechanic and quality performances, in order replace the metallic heavy pieces. In fact, the demand of energy efficient environment friendly vehicles for transport industries is increasing. Such vehicles are expected to be lightweight for less energy consumption as well as for minimum CO2 emission, high performance, reliability, recyclability, cost effective production, safety and comfort. An important issue is to reduce the material types, to enhance recycling, but without scarifying the notion of performance at affordable cost. The needs concerning composites structure is increasing; however there is still major breakthrough limit acting against their development, which are the following:
o high cost production
o long and labor-intensive production,
o quality issues
o lack of versatile and flexible process
o tailored properties difficult to achieve with current technologies
o low qualified skillness.
Moreover the lack of modeling tools to virtually prototype products, to evaluate the manufacturability and performances properties, prevents the synchronization of SMEs and OEMs for manufacturing of high volumes of customized lightweight complex composite products.
b) Limits of 2D preform production
The composite industry uses currently 2D preforms, as reinforced textiles structures. 2D preforms are usually manufactured using woven, braided and unidirectional structures implying high strength, stiffness and damage tolerance in impact loading. Knitted fabric composites, for instance, have the highest deformability and impact resistance among the textile based composites. Due to the unidirectional structure of 2D preform, in order to achieve requested mechanical properties of final composites, the production steps are composed by long and complex operations: cutting, performing, impregnation, curing, trimming and joining (fig 1).
c) 3D preforms production: a new challenge for low cost and tailored complex lightweight composite structures
In order to achieve the lightweight composite structures composites particularly for transport applications, the following barriers should be overcame:
o Development of new textiles technologies able to produce at high speed 3D fibrous structures with tailored yarn paths to improve mechanical properties of composites parts.
o Development of virtual tools able to model the 3D structure and to predict the mechanical behavior of final composites, according to textile architecture and the resin choice
o Improvement of the level of security and quality during the whole life of composites structures, by dynamically controlling the state of the structure
o High volume composite production rate with a minimum of raw material rejection
The major challenge for industrial scale 3D shaped structure manufacturing consists in developing integrated textile structures and automated technologies able to manufacture directly in three dimensions (X, Y, Z) the preforms of composite which constitutes the skeleton of composite structures.
d) The concept proposed by MAPICC3D project
The new concept of MAPICC3D for 3D high volume production of composite lightweight are based on:
o the development of a new technology, steering the placement of fibres in 3 directions X, Y and Z, able to produce complex 3D performs : stiffeners and panels (fig 1.2) These two types of part are generic and cover the major need of structural components requested by transport industries but also for other industries (energy, building).
o the adaptation of up-graded thermoplastic hybrid yarns, which can act both as matrix and reinforcing phase, and which can also host a functional material component. This material will be specifically adapted to the new technologies and avoid the polluting step of impregnation by a liquid resin
o the development of modeling tools to design, characterize and predict the behavior of 3D preforms
o the automatic process manufacturing of selected complex lightweight composite structures
Inconvenient of 2D performs Advantages of 3 D performs developed in MAPICC 3D
• Steer the position of yarns in two directions X,Y
• Damage on tensile stiffness, strength and failure mechanisms of fibre yarns ( A 30% loss of strength of load-bearing dry yarns respectively 50% in the z-binder)
• Problems of delamination
• Preforming is a costly and complex task
• Steer the position of yarns in three directions X,Y and Z : improved mechanical properties
• Avoid the steps of cutting, forming, joining during the realisation of the composites process : less of wastes and scraps (Expected rate : 80 % of total volume of waste with current process)
• Obtain directly in one shot the 3D preform : no discontinue process
• Possibility to design complex shape directly
• Possibility to obtain improved mechanical 3 D performs with cheaper fibres
• Avoid the mechanical damages of yarns during the textile process
• Master the quality of production, master the variability of properties of composites, reduce defects in products
4.1.2.2 - Objectives
Objectives of MAPICC 3D
The objective of MAPICC 3D project is to develop novel industrial automated and cost efficient integrated processes able to product high performance and quality multifunctional light weight structural thermoplastic composites. The new processes are based on a new technologies of upgraded 3D textile preforms (Fig 1.3) produced on line with thermoplastic hybrid yarns from various fibres (glass, polymeric, carbon reinforcing fibres) dedicated to industrial transport (automotive, railway and aeronautic) but also building and energy applications.
The main advantage of this technology is the direct production of 3D performs with controlled 3-directional fibre placement in a fully interlaced manner, the capacity to predict the properties of the final composites, and the possibility to integrate quality sensors, tubes or wires and the capacity to produce curved panels and beams with complex cross sections of high quality, high design flexibility, low manufacturing costs, high reliability and low manual operations.

More precisely the innovative concept of MAPICC 3D (Fig 1.4) is based on:
- Development of thermoplastic hybrid yarns which can act both as matrix and reinforcing phase including a functional material component,
o The part of glass fibres will play the role skeleton of preforms, and allow to reinforce the composite structure. The thermoplastic part will play the role of polymer matrix. The proprietary thermoplastic/glass fiber technology is designed to produce reinforcements with superior mechanical properties, particularly in regard to stiffness-to-weight ratio and impact resistance. Use of thermoplastic materials, possible in special forms as bicomponent yarns, in composite materials to obtain the same mechanical and structural specifications as the more conventional used materials. A significant environmental advantage of utilizing thermoplastic composites and vacuum bag closed molding technology is that no emissions are produced during the curing process.
- development of a technological concept able to precisely steer the fibres in 3D and tailor the mechanical properties of composites,
- development of modelling tools able to predict the final properties of designed 3D performs and final composites and allow easier design of customised end products and better synchronisation SME/OEM,
The consortium will benefit of the following tools
• modeling tool in order to understand the mechanism of the new technologies and to represent the 3D preform
• predictive tool in order to virtually evaluate the mechanical performances of final 3D preform and final composite structures
• reverse engineering tools : industrial partners could according to the requirement of final composites structures and conditions of use, design by reverse engineering the 3D performs and find the optimal configuration. The cost and the speed of production factors will be included in the optimal design of the preform
- development and demonstration of equipment able to produce directly 3D performs of stiffeners and panels,
- development and demonstration of highly efficient automated and highly adaptable manufacturing system for high volume production in industrial scale of thermoplastic consolidation of textile performs (using high pressure and temperature) to produce on line the composite structures,
- demonstration of real applications of lightweight composite manufacturing for metal structure replacement in automotive, railway and energy industry .
MAPICC 3D process is thus expected to ensure:
- A highly reliable production rate comprised between 5 and 20 m2/h, at acceptable cost, accordingly to the complexity of preform structure
- A productivity improvement of 30% comparing to current 2D preform methodologies
- An optimisation of logistics and improvement of logistics of time to market of 15% .
- A highly improvement and reliable mechanical properties able to replace metallic structures in transport, energy and building industry.
- A substantial reduction of waste with a rational use of raw materials
The major INNOVATION of MAPICC 3D is to realise the preforms directly, avoiding all joining steps to deal with the weight reduction of structures. Even if the cost of technology investment could be higher, the final price of composite will be lower than existing manufactured composites with current technologies due to the absence of expensive manual joining steps. Moreover delamination risks of complex forms can be reduced improving costs. The important potential markets around lightweight complex lightweight structures quantize a rapid redemption of investment.
The project gathers 20 partners from 10 countries including 7 large Industries, 6 SMEs , 6 Universities and 1 association. The project integrates from the whole chain from raw materials selection and hybrid yarn development, to 3D performs technology developers, and modelling/simulation tools specialists and from automatic systems and industrial equipment suppliers to industrial end users of lightweight materials from transport and energy industry.
Figure 1.5 presents the implementation of MAPICC 3D technologies in industrial fields and compare with the current composite production chains:

Project Results:
a) Main Exploitable Results
At the end of the project, the following Key Exploitable Results (KERs) have been identified:
Exploitable Result IPR owners of the ER Partners planning to exploit Planned additional partners Main risks to be addressed
1 AUTO MAPICC ENSAIT, MECAPLAST, TTF, TENCATE ENSAIT, MECAPLAST, TTF, TENCATE, TUDD/IFKM, TUDD/ITM, POLIMI TBD
Car maker Market risks
Technology risks
Financial risks

2 TRUCK MAPICC ENSAIT, RTU, TTF ENSAIT, MECAPLAST, RTU, TENCATE, TUDD IFKM, TUDD ITM, TTF TBD Market risks
Technology risks
Financial risks
3 AERO MAPICC ENSAIT, RTU, TTF, TENCATE, REDEN ENSAIT, RTU, POLIMI, TTF, TENCATE, REDEN TBD
Aircraft producers Market risks
Technology risks
Financial risks
Partnership risks
4 RAIL MAPICC ENSAIT, ALSTOM, TTF ENSAIT, ALSTOM, TTF TBD Market risks
Technology risks
Financial risks
5 TOOLS MAPICC ENSAIT, STEIGER, TUDD/IFKM, TUDD/ITM ENSAIT, STEIGER, TUDD/IFKM, TUDD/ITM TBD
Industrial partner Market risks
Technology risks
Financial risks

Apart from the KERs listed above some other MAPICC3D results are going to be exploited. Those include the software developed by ESI Group, for composite manufacturing that will be exploited by this partner in further work.
1 – AUTO MAPICC
Oil pan is a good example regarding the price challenge to reach for automotive part. Most of the oil pan for vehicle are in steel, so the production process is well optimize. Car maker have tools and the technical knowledge to develop such part with the help of steel supplier. Steel price as row material is cheaper that polyamide (grade of thermoplastic request because the oil pan need to support the temperature of hot oil). So basically if the compare only the oil pan in steel with a thermoplastic one the price of the steel is lower. But with a thermoplastic solution we can propose the integration of several function, that the car maker has to include during the mounting of the car. At the end we will be able to provide the full function, and the customer could save time in the mounting. By this way we can challenge the price of the steel oil pan with a thermoplastic composite solution.
Different design of oil pan are existing, from basic case to other more complicated which are linked with the gear box or and engine bracket. In this case oil pan is a structural part. And we need to introduce composite thermoplastic to give this structure.
The substitution of steel for oil pan, will be possible thanks to the high mechanical properties of MAPICC 3D output products. The new MAPICC 3D composite structure will ensure:
• Resistance to gearbox dynamical efforts;
• Improvement of powertrain rigidity;
• Resistance to stone impacts;
• Perfect sealing from -30°C to 160°C
Different architectures have been investigated addressing a system made with the engine, gear box and oil pan. The aim was to study the opportunity of a possible business if a structural part could be finalised with the help of composite thermoplastic.
We see that nowadays more than 70% of the engine architecture have a link between the oil pan and the gear box. It’s means that the oil pan should be able to support the strength coming from the gear box, which are definitely all the couple issued from the engine.

ESI made a full simulation with one example of oil pan on which Mecaplast has worked 5 year ago (the target of this study was to countertype a steel oil pan by a thermoplastic).
In the case of the plastic part necessary strength and structural stiff was obtained using a complex ribbed geometry. This reinforcement could either be the fabrics produced by Dresden, or the fabric from ENSAITS. Using this approach the intention is to replace the complex ribbed geometry with a uniform geometry (similar to the steel case), with fabric reinforcement now replacing the function of the ribs.
ESI input the data of the knitted fabric of TUD in his simulation software.

Example of the simulation of the draping of the fabric
So we have at the end produced some over molded part on a press injection machine:

As a conclusion:
With MAPICC project Mecaplast test the production of thermoplastic composite part on a press injection machine in industrial condition. We have investigated organ sheet made with commingled yarn, and we have seen the possibility to have simulation test during the development of the part.

2 – TRUCK MAPICC
Fuel economy is a key driver for the introduction of lightweight materials in the trucks. Hence, weight reduction is strategically important. For the same reasons of car industry, ie consumption of fuel, CO2 level, efficiency for the transport of the goods.
Volvo decide to works on a seat base for its truck because this part is not too big, this is a good example to study the behaviour of composite part regarding light weight, cycle live analyse, crash test, possibility to be weld or glue on the base of the truck.
The actual part is made of steel it has 4 insert to fix the seat on its base. This part is welded on the base during the industrial process.
One of the first goal of the project was to design the part by simulation. RTU has done the simulation in order to define the optimal shape of the part. A prototype mold has been made in 2013, and a first trial done with a fabric made of twintex yarn (blend of glass/polypropylene, avaible on the market).
During present research the advantages of employing topology optimisation in design of truck cabin seat plate made of thermoplastic GFRP composite has been investigated. One of the possible solutions to this issue is creating of 3D woven or knitted fabrics with initially added thicknesses at the most stressed areas.
Woven design has been specially develop by Ensait, to find the best design pattern for truck seat plate.
For a knitted development a new innovative knitting machine prototype in cooperation with the partner Steiger S.A. has been developed and used in project. The machine is characterized by an enlarged space between the needle beds, an active yarn feeding system and an innovative new warp yarn guide rail.
A demonstrator has been finalized, showing the light weight of this technology against steel:

Business case

This business case demonstrate that we still far from Volvo part price target which is roughly 10€ and 14€ if we include the weight saving valorisation.
However this seat plate does not allowed us to integrate more function. The technology development within Mapicc3D “open road”/perspective on further study as: Design one bigger part instead of “x” parts and produce it in one shot saving time, energy as well as reducing the overall emissions to air and water as well as production waste.
But Volvo has also test this part under pull out test, with a chemical bonding and the Mapicc project show the possibility to use composite for such part.
The cost difference with steel shows the request to include composite should integrate additional functions. This means a new kind of development including the introduction of composite from the beginning of the development.

3 – AERO MAPICC
Coexpair is a company involve in aeronautic industry, Coexpair supplies production equipment and engineering solutions for manufacturing of composite parts at lower cost with improved quality. The target of the company is to improve performance: lower weight, lower cost, shorter manufacturing cycle; composites is an opportunity. Nevertheless, the product shall be re-engineered starting from its functional requirement to be successful.
The demonstrator selected by Coexpair was a F shape which could be used for different part in aeronautic. Technologies use by Coexpair is woven carbon fibre with RTM process with epoxy resin.
Prototype have been made with woven product made by Ensait

RTU has performed test on the prototype to characterise the product:

Characterizations have been finalised by RTU, regarding the specification provided by Coexpair.
Conclusion:
Coexpair get an excellent collaboration with Ensait, Reden, RTU and TTF during the Mapicc project. Mould concept upgraded to make the production easier and faster
Activities shown potential in time-saving and process optimization during preforming but some improvement is needed at weaving level (to upgrade the handling of preform without damaging it).

4 – RAIL MAPICC
Alstom is a leader in production of railways transport equipment and Mapicc is a possibility to study the ability of composite thermoplastic to be use inside a car-body structure.
Nowadays Alstom is using a tubular cross in steel to connect tube of the car-body.

Design modification of the part foreseen to adapt it to a textile solution.

Solutions were define to form the textile to the final shape

Thermoforming device have been finalized for the woven structure
For the cross stiffener the consolidation has been made through a water soluble mandrel, and then a thermos-consolidation.
5 – TOOLS MAPICC
Finieris is a company specialized in the production of plywood, a lot of this product are used for transportation for truck or train.
So Finieris has selected for Mapicc project as demonstrator to produce and check high performance plywood with glass fibre and polypropylene composite sandwich panel.
As back ground there was already some studies made:
I-core and v-core all-plywood sandwich plates (2010-2012)

The following prototype was developed:
Using metal bar to give the corrugated shape to the fabric , and after the sandwich made with the plywood go to oven for a heating process.

Several validations test have been made on the prototype like flexural test, mechanical properties and impacts test, to ensure that the sandwich perform the requirement as deck.
Final test have been made on a platform develop by Finieris to check this kind of product

Conclusion:
Mapicc project gave the opportunity to Finieris to develop:
• New type of combined Plywood GF/PP panel
• Validated methodology for sandwich panel design panel design
But now the challenge for Finieris will be to finalise the manufacturing scale up to be able to push this new product on the market.
Plywood is extensively applied and well known building material with ability to make wood mechanical properties more uniform in planar direction. Moreover the plywood strength and stiffness properties are comparable with glass fibre reinforced plastic`s which by any means are extensively utilised by the industry.
In addition, plywood manufacturing is one of most efficient means of wood processing. Regarding high stiffness and relatively low price it is popular sheet material for various engineering and packaging applications. However once plywood total thickness extents over 30 mm the self-weight of the panel becomes unattractive for industry. Therefore it becomes apparent to utilize “sandwich effect” in order to increase the cross section stiffness/ weight ratio. However in case of sandwich structures with different stiffener core types, a cross linking parameters must be introduced in order to optimise the core topology for specific commercial products.
Main emphasis in current research has been devoted to experimental validation of numerical FE model of sandwich panels with corrugated and rib stiffened core as well as optimization of cross-section topology for these boards.

4.1.4.3 – Dissemination Activities and Exploitation of Results
Industrial dissemination actions with dedicated posters to MAPICC applications, planning of exhibitions for the period starting from the 1st of September 2014 to the 31th of December 2015:
• Scientific dissemination of 16 communications and 4 publications through MAPICC partners from the M24 to M36 period (D8.8)
• Updating information of MAPICC website, leaflet and new Dissemination folder in the ASTRIDE extranet of MAPICC members.
• Two training sessions organized :
• April 9th, 2013 –ENSAIT, Roubaix, France
• Tuesday 9th of December 2014 – VOLVO, Lyon, France
• Updating of the MAPICC leaflet achieved by Ana Marija GRANJARIC from Zaghreb University (available for download on the MAPICC website)
• Updating of website MAPICC and implementation of a dissemination folder in the MAPICC extranet ASTRIDE allowing to deposit abstracts or papers for MAPICC members.
• Design and achievement of three MAPICC posters for industrial dissemination highlighting the main results of each industrial partner and their benefits (AUTO MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC and TRUCK MAPICC).
• EU PROJECT technical session planned during the TEXCOMP conference on textile composites in LEUVEN (16 to 20 September 2013) for MAPPIC 3D, 3D LIGHT TRANS and FIBERCHAIN, with a total of 6 oral presentations (2 slots per EU project) and posters, chaired and organized by François BOUSSU.
• Second MAPICC session during the AUTEX 2013, 13th AUTEX World Textile Conference, Dresden, Germany, 23 of May 2013, chaired and organized by François BOUSSU.
• List of events and exhibitions (Table 1 D8.8) for the period M30 to M48 for industrial dissemination (6 main events in Europe)
• Main Topics of organized training sessions (D8.1)
o 9th of April 2013 : Lecture on laminate’s law behaviour, Introduction to warp interlock weaving technology
o 9th of December 2014 : Raw materials for reinforced composites, Crash test for truck application and an overview of environmental impacts on LCA.
In summary:
Industrial dissemination performed with 15 actions using dedicated posters to MAPICC applications
Scientific dissemination of 90 communications and publications
Events for industrial dissemination MAPICC applications Date
Automotive composite congress, Koln. AUTO MAPICC December 2-4th 2014
Mappic meeting with VOLVO TRUCK staff AUTO-MAPICC, TRUCK-MAPICC, RAIL-MAPICC December 9th 2014
GLA/GPA, Paris. AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC December 19th 2014
FUTEX, Marcq en Baroeul, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC January 21 -22th 2015
JEC, Paris, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC March 10-12th 2015
Techtextil2015, Frankfort, Germany AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC May, 4-7th 2015
UPTEX (Technical meeting), Roubaix, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC July 2nd 2015
GLA/GPA, Paris, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC October 15th 2015
Composites meeting, Nantes, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC November 4 -5th 2015
ITMA, Milan, Italy AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC November 12 -19th 2015
GDR Week, Roubaix, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC November 24-27th 2015
4.1.4.4 – Project Web-Site
http://mapicc3d.ensait.fr/
Contact: Vladan Koncar: Vladan.koncar@ensait.fr

Potential Impact:
Mapicc3D project proposes design solutions by textile composite materials to principally replace metallic structures in different applications (figure 1), such as a cross stiffener for rail application, a seat plate for truck application and a battery rack for automotive application. Along with the economic aspects and business plans associated with the new concepts and involved manufacturing conditions, impacts of the new parts and their production cycle on the environment are to be considered. The objective of this deliverable is to list the different impacts that could be considered and to select them directly of interest to produce a relevant life cycle analysis (LCA) at the current stage of part development.
Manufacturing industries generally have a negative impact on the environment in terms of use of earth extracted raw materials, use of toxic materials, waste and water consumption, gas emission and energy consumption.
The use of composite to develop lightweight structures allows reduction of energy consumption during part use-phase (figure 1). A positive overall impact on the environment is thus expected. However, the manufacturing stage generally has a negative impact on the energy balance. The outcome would influence: Human health, Local natural environment, Social and cultural aspects, Global environment, Resource sustainability. The following categories need thus to be assessed in order to complete a relevant analysis of the impact of the developed structures on the environment: Use of petroleum resources, Effect on health, Carbon energy level, Recyclability
Each category can compile a large amount of information associated with the environmental consequences of a technology. The following description of each impact category is here to help defining which outcomes can be expected from the technological choices drawn in MAPICC3D.
A description of each of the outcome categories is provided here in the context of Mapicc3D demonstrators. The general route is summarized in figure 2 Impacts on human health and/or safety. This category focuses on the potential impacts of a technology on the health, safety and well-being of workers. It can be associated closely with the general conditions and ergonomics at work. Generally the following aspects are considered:
• Communicable diseases resulting from sanitary hygiene, risk associated with handling of infectious wastes, and known contagious diseases
• Injury or risk of accidents ranking from traffic, explosions, falls, heat stress, operation of machinery, handling of physically hazardous wastes and resources, loss of hearing
• Exposure to hazardous chemicals from inhalation, skin contact, ingestion of contaminated goods of hazardous chemicals and of radioactive material.
For the first point, communicable disease, as the materials considered in Mapicc3D are found in Europe, no direct risk is identified. For the second point however, linked with the risk of injuries, a study should be considered. The manufacturing of the seat plates, the battery rack cover and the cross stiffeners involve the use of: Automated knitting or braiding machine, Consolidation press, Automated handling of preform and over molding injection machine.
However the highly automated, different units presented here require qualified technicians. The individual protections are well-known in those cases, as well as security sensors associated with each production unit. Risks when switching from a metallic part to composite part so long as human safety is considered are not increased, as stamping or moulding of metallic parts involves high burning risks (from high moulding temperature and welding processes) and safety risks regarding the use of large stamping presses. The safety at work is therefore increased when Mapicc 3D solutions are considered. As far as chemical releases and other hazards associated with the technology are concerned, first we need to answer the following questions:
• What is the toxicity or potential hazard associated with release?
• How much of this chemical is likely to be released either through normal operational practices or as a consequence of spills and other accidents?
• How many people will likely be affected by the hazard?
The focus of MAPICC3D project is set on the transformation of already polymerized raw materials. The thermoplastic matrix composites are manufactured from commingled yarns, no gas emission or chemical hazard releases is directly linked with the material and transformation of those products. However, a close focus would be welcomed on chemical consumables used throughout the process (demoulding agent, cleaning products... ). It is thus advices to include in the life cycle analysis inputs from the polymer synthesis (chemical family employed and side products generated) to the manufacturing consumable.
Impacts on the local natural environment:
This category focuses on the effects a technology may have on organisms, their habitats, the life supporting capacity of natural ecosystems, and biodiversity. Of particular concern is the loss of endangered and rare plant and animal species, and destruction of endangered and limited habitats. Three principal impact pathways should be considered when assessing impacts in this category:
• Habitat loss or alteration through land clearance as a consequence of raw material demand or development of a site
• Physical disruption of habitat; for example, the construction of pipelines that inhibit the migration of animals
• The chemical contamination of the environment through the release of wastes that have a direct toxic effect on flora and fauna or that alters the functionality of an ecosystem.
No direct impact on the environment from the mapicc3D solutions are identified as far as the 2 first points are concerned, as they would decline from lead users strategy linked with the development of new plants. Those aspects were not discussed throughout the project. However, impact on the local environment through chemical contamination is to be evaluated, especially in the waste treatment procedure and in the end of life policy chosen for each demonstrator/part considered in MAPICC3D Project.
Global environmental impacts
This category is concerned with the impact of the technology at a global scale, typically as a cumulative impact. These impacts may or may not be associated with a significant effect on a given local ecosystem or community. Particular emphasis is placed on the release of substances that:
• Enhance global warming, like greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides
• Deplete the stratospheric ozone layer, for example chlorofluorocarbons.
The significance of gaseous emissions with global warming or ozone depleting potential varies with the chemical species, the amount released and the time frame over which the impacts are considered.
Impacts on global environment (especially global warming) are to be evaluated, especially in the life time of the product solution considered in MAPICC3D Project. A noticeable decrease on the global warming, directly linked with CO2 emissions, is expected thanks to the significant weight reduction provided by the composite solution. Again, an analysis brought on the polymer and fiber synthesis might show an influence of the chemical use on the global environmental impact.
Impacts on scarce or non-renewable resources
This impact category related to the effect that the technologies presents in Mapicc3D project depends upon the continued existence and availability of valued and scare resources. There are two principal ways a technology can affect resource sustainability:
• By consuming a resource at a rate greater than it is replenished or greater than the rate at which it may be continually supplied over the lifetime of the technology,
• By contaminating a resource that is either used by the technology operators or by other parties, but which has no direct link to the technology (contamination of groundwater by an industrial manufacturing process).
When identifying and evaluating impacts on such resources it is necessary to consider the relative scarcity of the resource, in both local and regional or global terms, as well as the demands of the technology over its lifetime. In general, three basic resource categories should be considered in the assessment:
• living resources: consumption or destruction of flora and fauna resources such as crops and forests,
• non-living resources: mineral and chemical resources such as the fossil fuels used in energy generation or the materials used in production, and also the consumption or contamination of water resources,
• land resources: the land required by the industrial site, wastes, and by supporting infrastructures and services which may reduce its potential for later use.
To evaluate the significance of resource consumption it is necessary to consider the future demands for the resource and how the technology limits the potential for this resource to be used in the future. A technology that uses recyclable materials and recycled wastes will generally have a lower impact than a process that does not.
MAPICC3D solutions are expected to reduce the use of fossil fuels resources by reducing the vehicle overall weight. However, the manufacturing and material production phases are to be considered, as they may balance the positive effect of the weight reduction effect. Also, the recycling of textile composite (thermoplastic or thermoset based) requires further developments in order to be reliable. Re-use of gound composite seems to be a more valuable solution to prevent landfill storage solution for end of life treatment.
4.1.4.2 – Social Impact
This category is related to the effects of a technology on a community's values, social services and social cohesion. These impacts are complementary to those related to human health, safety and well-being. Three principal ways are generally considered:
• Cultural resources and values: Attention is directed towards the effects a technology may have on sites or areas that have significant cultural, religious, historical, scientific or other value to the community, which includes :
o inappropriate use of a resource,
o detrimental effect that emissions may have on a resource,
o visual, aesthetic and nuisance impacts,
o power lines,
o the release of odorous compounds from an industrial process which might be unacceptable to the neighbouring community.
• Social disruption to the community: Included here are impacts that may be associated with significant consequences for the social and economic structure of the community. Important issues that might need to be considered include the effect new workers (and their dependants) may have on the community, the possible loss of livelihood through the over use of a resource (e.g. fisheries), and the relocation of people as a result of a technology intervention
• Equity issues: It is unlikely that impacts associated with a technology will be equally distributed through the community - specific sections of society may suffer disproportionately. In many instances the people most affected are those without strong institutional support. Particular attention should be paid to the potential effects of a technology development on indigenous people, the poor, children and women.
Since many of these concerns will also be related to the health impacts and resource demands associated with the technology, it is appropriate for this impact category to be the last to be examined.
Conclusion
Environmental issues are in the centre of interest of transportation means, especially automotive industry due to the fast increase of the number of circulating vehicles. Many environmental problems with vehicles arise during the use phase.
Metals are easily recycled. 50% of the metallic parts are considered to be recycled in the nowadays economy. However, during the use phase and due to weight consideration, metals induce more energy consumption and therefore gas emissions than lightweight structures. The impacts on the environment to be considered to compare the MAPICC3D solutions to the initial metallic solutions to be analyzed are:
• Primary energy use during the life cycle
• Global warming potential (all emissions contributing to global warming)
• Acidification potential linked with the chemical product used to generate or transform the products
• Ozone formation including actions contributing to ozone formation at ground level
• Abiotic ressource depletion
The analysis of those elements for each material solution (metallic and composite) using the life cycle analysis tool would bring an accurate insight of the advantages brought by the Mapicc3D concepts.
4.1.4.3 – Dissemination Activities and Exploitation of Results
Industrial dissemination actions with dedicated posters to MAPICC applications, planning of exhibitions for the period starting from the 1st of September 2014 to the 31th of December 2015:
• Scientific dissemination of 16 communications and 4 publications through MAPICC partners from the M24 to M36 period (D8.8)
• Updating information of MAPICC website, leaflet and new Dissemination folder in the ASTRIDE extranet of MAPICC members.
• Two training sessions organized :
• April 9th, 2013 –ENSAIT, Roubaix, France
• Tuesday 9th of December 2014 – VOLVO, Lyon, France
• Updating of the MAPICC leaflet achieved by Ana Marija GRANJARIC from Zaghreb University (available for download on the MAPICC website)
• Updating of website MAPICC and implementation of a dissemination folder in the MAPICC extranet ASTRIDE allowing to deposit abstracts or papers for MAPICC members.
• Design and achievement of three MAPICC posters for industrial dissemination highlighting the main results of each industrial partner and their benefits (AUTO MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC and TRUCK MAPICC).
• EU PROJECT technical session planned during the TEXCOMP conference on textile composites in LEUVEN (16 to 20 September 2013) for MAPPIC 3D, 3D LIGHT TRANS and FIBERCHAIN, with a total of 6 oral presentations (2 slots per EU project) and posters, chaired and organized by François BOUSSU.
• Second MAPICC session during the AUTEX 2013, 13th AUTEX World Textile Conference, Dresden, Germany, 23 of May 2013, chaired and organized by François BOUSSU.
• List of events and exhibitions (Table 1 D8.8) for the period M30 to M48 for industrial dissemination (6 main events in Europe)
• Main Topics of organized training sessions (D8.1)
o 9th of April 2013 : Lecture on laminate’s law behaviour, Introduction to warp interlock weaving technology
o 9th of December 2014 : Raw materials for reinforced composites, Crash test for truck application and an overview of environmental impacts on LCA.
In summary:
Industrial dissemination performed with 15 actions using dedicated posters to MAPICC applications
Scientific dissemination of 90 communications and publications
Events for industrial dissemination MAPICC applications Date
Automotive composite congress, Koln. AUTO MAPICC December 2-4th 2014
Mappic meeting with VOLVO TRUCK staff AUTO-MAPICC, TRUCK-MAPICC, RAIL-MAPICC December 9th 2014
GLA/GPA, Paris. AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC December 19th 2014
FUTEX, Marcq en Baroeul, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC January 21 -22th 2015
JEC, Paris, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC March 10-12th 2015
Techtextil2015, Frankfort, Germany AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC May, 4-7th 2015
UPTEX (Technical meeting), Roubaix, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC July 2nd 2015
GLA/GPA, Paris, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC October 15th 2015
Composites meeting, Nantes, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC November 4 -5th 2015
ITMA, Milan, Italy AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC November 12 -19th 2015
GDR Week, Roubaix, France AUTO MAPICC, TRUCK MAPICC, RAIL MAPICC November 24-27th 2015
4.1.4.4 – Project Web-Site

List of Websites:
http://mapicc3d.ensait.fr/
Contact: Vladan Koncar: Vladan.koncar@ensait.fr

Related information

Reported by

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES ARTS ET INDUSTRIES TEXTILES
France
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