Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

FP7

SAPIENS Report Summary

Project ID: 303415
Funded under: FP7-JTI
Country: United Kingdom

Final Report Summary - SAPIENS (SOFC Auxiliary Power In Emissions/Noise Solutions)

Executive Summary:
The SAPIENS project was aimed at researching fuel cell auxiliary power units for recreational vehicles (RVs). In particular, the idea was to take a motorhome (or campervan as it is often called) and insert a solid oxide fuel cell power supply running on autogas (liquefied petroleum gas, LPG, propane) to enable the single lead acid leisure battery to keep the residents powered up for many days without any use of the engine or other combustion generator.
The problem in the RV sector is ‘wild camping’ in which the motorhome is driven into wild places where there is no grid supply. In ‘normal camping’, where the campervan can be parked in a camping site, the RV is generally plugged into the grid electricity supply and there is no difficulty with electrical power limitations. But out in wild environments where many campers wish to visit remote regions, the single battery can run out within a few hours because the electrical storage capacity is only about one kWh (kilowatt-hour), while appliances like TVs, computers, lights etc can drain around 250 Watts when all switched on simultaneously, giving only 4 hours of power. The solution proposed in SAPIENS is to install a microtubular SOFC in the RV, to start-up rapidly when the battery level is low and to shut-down when the battery is full, while also providing useful heat for the residents. This can run on the RV autogas propane tank which contains about 12kg of fuel, sufficient to run the electrical loads for up to two weeks in wild camping.
SAPIENS was organised around a supply chain consortium

Project Context and Objectives:
“SAPIENS” was a novel proposal with a new consortium assembled to apply the microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (mSOFC) in early markets for portable leisure applications using autogas, the fuel most widely used in the recreational vehicle (RV) sector. It is a significant step forward technically because no-one has yet been able to apply SOFC successfully in this early market. Technical improvements like low emissions, low noise, long life, rapid warm-up and good heat usage were proposed and have been proved in the project results. The project started at a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) as shown in Fig 1 and attained TRL 4 at the conclusion, with a system of proven feasibility, ready for further RTD and demonstration stages.
The project assembled perfect partners for addressing the SOFC materials, the stack and system development, the fuel issues, the modelling, independent testing, and the early market development. Dissemination was excellent because real use of the device was proved by the partner Autosleepers who displayed the campervan at exhibitions, while the Industry partners and RTD institutions organized conferences and numerous other events to publicise the results and create impact.
In order to achieve these objectives, the consortium was organised on a supply chain model, with the recreational Vehicle (RV) manufacturer at the consumer end. Adelan was the fuel cell supplier, who also coordinated the project, managing the activities over 3 years and writing the periodic reports
Fuel cell materials, particularly YSZs (yttriaSAPIENS was organised around a supply chain consortium model. The product champion in the market was Autosleepers, an RV manufacturer providing about 400 high quality motorhomes each year, with a defined need for practical and economic SOFC auxiliary power systems. The fuel cell system supplier was Adelan, a spin-out company from University of Birmingham with long experience of microtubular SOFCs. CARRD in Austria was the partner supplying raw materials such as YSZ (yttria stabilised zirconium oxide) which is the electrolyte/anode material essential to fuel cell operation. CUTEC from Germany had the task of developing the control system, desulfuriser and other balance of plant (BOP) components necessary to drive the fuel cell stack. Academic institutions IREC in Barcelona and JRC in Holland provided test facilities to measure performance of cells, interconnects, stacks and systems, while ZUT in Poland devised computational models to fit the experimental results.

Project Results:
PROJECT FINAL REPORT
Grant Agreement number:303415
Project acronym: SAPIENS
Project title: SOFC Auxiliary Power In Emissions/Noise Solutions
Funding Scheme: FCH JU SP1-JTI-FCH.2011.4.4
Period covered: from 1/11/2012 to 31/10/2015
Name of the scientific representative of the project's co-ordinator1, Title and Organisation:
Dr Kevin Kendall, Adelan Ltd
Tel: +44 121 427 8033
E-mail: kevin.kendall@adelan.co.uk
Project website2 address: http://sapiens-project.eu/
4.1 Final publishable summary report
Executive Summary
The SAPIENS project was aimed at researching fuel cell auxiliary power units for recreational vehicles (RVs). In particular, the idea was to take a motorhome (or campervan as it is often called) and insert a solid oxide fuel cell power supply running on autogas (liquefied petroleum gas, LPG, propane) to enable the single lead acid leisure battery to keep the residents powered up for many days without any use of the engine or other combustion generator.
The problem in the RV sector is ‘wild camping’ in which the motorhome is driven into wild places where there is no grid supply. In ‘normal camping’, where the campervan can be parked in a camping site, the RV is generally plugged into the grid electricity supply and there is no difficulty with electrical power limitations. But out in wild environments where many campers wish to visit remote regions, the single battery can run out within a few hours because the electrical storage capacity is only about one kWh (kilowatt-hour), while appliances like TVs, computers, lights etc can drain around 250 Watts when all switched on simultaneously, giving only 4 hours of power. The solution proposed in SAPIENS is to install a microtubular SOFC in the RV, to start-up rapidly when the battery level is low and to shut-down when the battery is full, while also providing useful heat for the residents. This can run on the RV autogas propane tank which contains about 12kg of fuel, sufficient to run the electrical loads for up to two weeks in wild camping.
SAPIENS was organised around a supply chain consortium model. The product champion in the market was Autosleepers, an RV manufacturer providing about 400 high quality motorhomes each year, with a defined need for practical and economic SOFC auxiliary power systems. The fuel cell system supplier was Adelan, a spin-out company from University of Birmingham with long experience of microtubular SOFCs. CARRD in Austria was the partner supplying raw materials such as YSZ (yttria stabilised zirconium oxide) which is the electrolyte/anode material essential to fuel cell operation. CUTEC from Germany had the task of developing the control system, desulfuriser and other balance of plant (BOP) components necessary to drive the fuel cell stack. Academic institutions IREC in Barcelona and JRC in Holland provided test facilities to measure performance of cells, interconnects, stacks and systems, while ZUT in Poland devised computational models to fit the experimental results.
The project comprised seven technical work packages (WPs), starting at WP2 with definition of the market requirements, continuing with research on cells and stacks in WP3, going on to developing BOP in WP4 and modelling in WP5, following with fuel and
packaging issues in WPs 6 and 7. WP8 was the field testing package. The other two WPs were WP1 on Management and WP9 on dissemination. Management of the project was mainly by Adelan in WP1 which was pursued all through the three year project. Minor variations occurred during some of the tasks, but overall the project went according to plan and budget with a successful showing of the fuel cell unit in the RV in Glasgow and on a tour through UK and across to Europe at the end of year 3.
The conclusions drawn from the project are:-
• The microtubular SOFC power supply for the RV has been successfully investigated and looks feasible
• TRL4 was reached as a result of research and development from TRL2.
• A suitable design for the RV fuel cell product has been attained
• One patent has been filed while numerous exhibition, conference and journal disseminations have been achieved
Summary description of project context and objectives
“SAPIENS” was a novel proposal with a new consortium assembled to apply the microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (mSOFC) in early markets for portable leisure applications using autogas, the fuel most widely used in the recreational vehicle (RV) sector. It is a significant step forward technically because no-one has yet been able to apply SOFC successfully in this early market. Technical improvements like low emissions, low noise, long life, rapid warm-up and good heat usage were proposed and have been proved in the project results. The project started at a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) as shown in Fig 1 and attained TRL 4 at the conclusion, with a system of proven feasibility, ready for further RTD and demonstration stages.
The project assembled perfect partners for addressing the SOFC materials, the stack and system development, the fuel issues, the modelling, independent testing, and the early market development. Dissemination was excellent because real use of the device was proved by the partner Autosleepers who displayed the campervan at exhibitions, while the Industry partners and RTD institutions organized conferences and numerous other events to publicise the results and create impact.
In order to achieve these objectives, the consortium was organised on a supply chain model, with the recreational Vehicle (RV) manufacturer at the consumer end. Adelan was the fuel cell supplier, who also coordinated the project, managing the activities over 3 years and writing the periodic reports
Fuel cell materials, particularly YSZs (yttria stabilised zirconia powders) were supplied and tested by CARRD, part of the large ceramic company IMERYS. Balance of Plant was handled by CUTEC, testing was by JRC and modelling by ZUT.
The consortium is shown below with contact names
Particip-ant no.
Participant organisation name
Logo
Type and Key Roles
Country
CONTACT
1
Adelan Ltd
SME – Coordinator and researcher on fuel cells
UK
Kevin Kendall
2
Auto-Sleepers Ltd
SME– Integrator of SOFC into platform
UK
Dave Williams
3
CARRD
Industry-Zirconia developer and supplier
Austria
Andreas Boerger
4
CUTEC
Institute for fuel cell research
German
Christian Szepanski
5
EU Joint Research Centre, JRC
Testing Laboratory
Belgium
Georgios Tsotridis
6
IREC
Institute for development
Spain
Marc Torrell
7
West Pomeranian University of Technology
University – Developer (modelling expertise)
Poland
Paulina Pianko
SAPIENS follows the lead of the German company SFC which introduced direct methanol fuel cells into the Recreational Vehicle (RV) market in 2006, especially with their partner company HYMER which manufactures high quality motorized camping vans. Although SFC has had remarkable success since then and has shipped many thousands of units, there is a major issue that methanol is not the desired fuel for most recreational users, and is also not widely available internationally. Outside Germany the SFC product (called EFOY) is deemed too expensive and the methanol too scarce and toxic to be practical. By contrast, almost all RV manufacturers recognise that Autogas propane is the key fuel because it is used on all RVs for cooking, heating, showering and other functions. Moreover it is stored on board in a large tank and is rapidly refilled at many refuelling stations in the EU. Some companies, such as TRUMA, have tried to use this autogas in polymer fuel cells to generate electricity, but the fuel reforming proved too complex and too expensive, so that development has now terminated. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with CPOX reforming of autogas propane appear to be the most effective solution to this problem. The great advantages of mSOFC are;-
• It can use autogas almost directly to give electrical power together with useful heat
• It can start-up and shut down rapidly
• It can be compact in volume and light in weight
Figure 1 Diagram showing the technology readiness level for SAPIENS
The SAPIENS project proposal aimed to make significant improvements in mSOFCs running on autogas propane to allow application in early market RVs.
The project objectives were
1) develop the fuel cell power supply to suit the recreational vehicle (RV) application as shown by Fig 2 below
2) prove autogas as the fuel, consistent with existing and prototype RV designs
3) characterise the needs of the market in applying the fuel cell in novel ways,
End of project TRL 4
Start of project TRL 2 thereby reducing risks of commercialization
4) research the technology of mSOFCs further in terms of materials, performance, lifetime and costs
5) innovate on noise reduction, emissions, heat utilisation, costs and durability, producing patents and publications
Figure 2 Initial scheme of the mSOFC power system
These objectives were predictable because of the massive innovations in mSOFC technology produced since the 1990s by Adelan, the project instigator and coordinator. The project is based on background IP owned by ADE, a spin-out commercial SME from the University of Birmingham. That IP has defined products based on rapid start-up microtubular SOFCs extruded by particular polymer compounding, then put together in a series of new designs of reactor containing many tubes, from tens to thousands, in order to provide compact, portable SOFC systems. Such a reactor requires the following innovations:-
a) The invention of a YSZ (yttria-stabilised zirconia) formulation which can withstand the large numbers of hours and cycles of operation expected in the applications of the product, typically 3000 hours life and 100 to 1000 cycles, without excessive drop-off in performance.
b) The provision of cells at a lower cost, with a target of 1 euro per tube, to enable the reactor to be built economically. At present, supplied microtubular SOFCs cost up to 50euro per tube which is too high for the applications envisaged in the market. Although certain military applications may justify such a cost, the consumer products described in our project require more economic cell production.
c) The need for stacking cells in an optimum geometry for ease of assembly and optimisation of performance.
d) Greater understanding of the fundamentals of microtubular system performance through modelling and test data has been produced, especially in application for early markets.
Figure 3 Cells at the project start
Figure 3 shows the tubular cells at the start of the project, with an output power of between 1 and 2 We, depending on the winding pattern of the interconnect wire. During WP3 of the project, it was the target to reach 5 to 6 We output. In the next section, the methods for proving this target are expounded and the desired result obtained.
Figure 4 shows the planned stacking geometry with its innovative inlet manifold and integrated catalytic oxidiser of the anode off-gas, as it stood at the beginning of the project. Although this is a simplified schematic, the scaleable nature of the geometry and the natural integration into CPOX reforming and cathode air preheat are evident. The next section shows how the results generated on this novel stack have allowed the design to be verified.
In Fig 4, the fuel inlet on the right is shown entering the tube manifold. This fuel is propane/butane autogas premixed with a metered amount of air to give the desired partial oxidation reaction. This mixture reacts inside each tube on a catalytic mesh which converts the fuel into mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This innovative concept, having each fuel cell tube with its own catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) catalyst was originally devised by Adelan in 1994-1996 and has been proved in experiments in this project.
Figure 4 Schematic of cell stacking arrangement in SOFC reactor
Cathode air flows over the outer tube surfaces, with oxygen molecules being reduced to O2- ions, then being transported through the electrolyte of the tube walls, to react with the fuel at the inner nickel anode. At the end of each tube, mixing of anode and cathode streams occurs on the surface of the catalytic afterburner, with products then led to the hot exhaust where heat can be utilised.
After this research on the cells, stacks and systems, the product assembly was to be packaged in the campervan and tested in the field to show the potential for this novel device. Finally, dissemination was to be carried out by reporting the scientific observations through many varying channels of communication. In particular, the RV with its fuel cell APU was displayed at several exhibitions in Dusseldorf and Birmingham, three special conferences were organised to report on the project, and many lectures and posters were delivered around the EU
Propane/air mixture
Cathode air
Description of the main S&T results/foregrounds
Design of the system
The project started with discussion between the partners about how the fuel cell might be fitted into the Recreational Vehicle (RV) designed and built by Autosleepers. Fig 5 shows the arrangement that looked most desirable.
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3
4
5
6
7
Figure 5 The cabin of the RV showing how the fuel cell parts could be fitted
The fuel cell compartment was positioned under the seat opposite the autogas tank and the leisure battery. This required long pipes and power cables but was the most accessible position with space to work on the test experiments. It proved to be a successful decision made in the first few months of the project and was carried through to the end. For safety reasons, the device was fitted under the floor so that any fuel leaks or hot gas escapes would not intrude on the passengers during field trials. But the eventual aim was to have the unit next to the battery and Truma gas heater, once all the niggles were ironed out.
Power output and space/weight needs
The peak power required by the RV accessories supported by the auxiliary power system was calculated to be 200W by adding up all the devices which could be switched on simultaneously. This target was designed to cover the worst-case condition. During the first year of SAPIENS it was considered that a “power cell” system providing between 80-200W of power would meet the market needs.
However, it quickly became clear that the single lead acid leisure battery could provide these loads instantaneously, but the average power usage was more like 100W. Experiments showed that pumping 200W into the single battery was not realistic because the lead acid unit filled up too quickly. In order to provide a reasonable cycle time it was decided to change the power output from the fuel cell to 100W. Consequently the objective was changed to 100 W which became the direction for the remainder of the project.
The design of fuel cell stack was therefore altered to that in Fig 6, which shows five of the 16 tube stacks built for the project by Adelan.
Figure 6 Five stacks with 16 tubes each; One such stack provides 100W at 12V DC.
This decision had an excellent effect on the weight and volume of system. The original weight requirement was less than 20kg which was easily achieved because the final system came in at 3kg. Also the volume target of 450mm x 300mm x 150mm which is a regular battery size became feasible, though the experimental system was built to be more spacious to allow easy modification.
Fuel use remained the same. The fuel to be used in the fuel cell was LPG, which is standard in the leisure industry. The SOFC had to be able to operate on commercially available LPG obtainable from garage forecourt pumps. Two important considerations were how the fuel cell deals with the impurities, or ‘heavies’, that can occur in LPG installations, and the removal of the artificial smell that is given to commercially available LPG to aid leak detection. A heavies filter was included in the design, and the SAPIENS project has designed a sulphur trap as described later. The LPG system operating pressure is 30 mbar, as normal on all modern RVs.
Cost and operation features
The ‘Propane Power Pack’ as we have named the product must be good value for money to encourage take up, particularly as it will be new technology, and should cost no more than €1500 - €2000 on the market. This means that the cost to the original vehicle manufacturer should be no more than €1000 in order for it to be an attractive option.
The device should be a self-contained, ‘plug and play’ design, to enable transfer between vehicles, if desired. It may encourage uptake if customers knew they were able to transfer the power cell to another vehicle. The warm up or system start up time is to be as quick as possible but not more than 30 minutes. In practice we managed 15 to 30 minute start-up and cool-down. A typical cycle is shown in Fig 7.
Figure 7 Typical fuel cell cycle for charging battery showing the battery voltage, the current coming in from the fuel cell power supply and the battery current going out to the RV
The bottom axis shows the time on the logger. At 00.00 the experiment was started, with the battery fully charged (12.7V) from the engine before stopping at the wild camping site. The lights were switched on, with the current withdrawn from the battery shown in blue, causing the battery to discharge for 20 minutes. Then the TV was switched on, causing extra discharge for 20 more minutes, then the computer was switched on giving a total of 156W discharge. At this time, 1:20:00, the battery voltage reached 12V indicating that half the charge was depleted. This was the trigger to start the fuel cell warm-up which required a further 30W drain on the battery, lasting for 30 minutes. Then the green line shows the 84W power fed into the battery by the fuel cell. The RV lights were still on, but the fuel cell could provide that power while charging the battery. At battery voltage of 12.8V, the RV lights were switched off and maximum battery charging then occurred. Once the battery volts reached 13.8, the battery was full and the fuel cell was shut down, requiring 30W drain on the battery for 20 minutes. The full cycle lasted 7 hours 12 minutes.
Noise, reliability, robustness and servicing
Low noise is an essential feature required by motor-home users. 30db was the criterion proposed. The fuel cell was planned to have an operational service life of 1500 hours, or 10 years, minimum. As motorhome customers use their vehicles in all weathers in countries ranging from Northern to Southern Europe, the fuel cell must be capable of operation in temperatures ranging from -20 to +40oC. A typical motorhome is often laid up for 4-5 months over the winter and so the fuel cell must be able to start after long periods of standing idle, with ambient temperatures down to -20oC.
The unit must be resistant to vibration produced by driving on all types of roads. This will range from high speed driving on smooth motorways to low speed on country roads and unmade farm tracks leading to some campsites.
The fuel cell should only need servicing once a year, which would be done when the annual habitation service of the rest of the vehicle is performed. The main consumable part is the sulphur trap which needs changing every 12 months.
Figure 8 Recreational vehicle with fuel cell demonstrated at Electrochemical Society Glasgow conference and exhibition on 28 July 2015
Fig 8 shows the final installed fuel cell APU in the RV displayed after Dr Kendall’s lecture in Glasgow, where many delegates inspected the exhibit and 200 leaflets were handed out.
Cell and stack performance
One of the main tasks in the project was to improve the output and lifetime of the tubular cells, shown in Fig 9.
When these tubes were delivered from a supplier under a non-disclosure agreement, the interconnection wiring had to be designed and tested to achieve 6W per tube in the 16 tube stack design.
The first tests using hydrogen as the calibration gas showed that only around 2W could readily be extracted from a single tube. Two theories were put forward to explain these poor starting power outputs:-
1. The resistance of the interconnectors was too high
2. The positioning of the anode and cathode current collectors was not optimal
The first of these ideas was confirmed by increasing the interconnect wire diameter to 1mm as shown in Fig 10, while also applying porous conducting silver ink along the LSCF cathode surfaces. This gave an immediate doubling of the power output, indicating the importance of interconnect diameter and cathode conductivity.
In order to test the tubes, a clamshell furnace with coiled metal heating elements was used. It was possible to heat this to 700oC in 20 minutes to simulate the required heating rate in the campervan design. A ceramic inlet tube was machined to be a close push fit inside the fuel cell tube, feeding hydrogen into the anode region at 150 ml/min, with no sealing required. The exit manifold was a tube machined from a block of Macor glass ceramic into which the fuel cell tube was sealed with ceramic cement. This allowed the inner anode wire to be brought out of the furnace, while the spent anode gas was exhausted through an alumina tube. Convection of the air in the furnace was sufficient to supply the cathode without any significant oxygen starvation.
Figure 9 top; tubular SOFC with cold gas inlet on right and the black cathode area to the left; right; cross-section of the tube showing the inner anode support, the outer LSCF cathode and the 10 micrometre electrolyte in between.
Figure 10 Test arrangement with increased interconnect wire diameters plus cathode ink; top; showing inlet (right) and outlet (left)ceramic manifolds; bottom; close-up of cathode.
The results obtained with this design are shown in Fig 11 for hydrogen flow of 150ml/min at two temperatures, 700 and 750oC. The full line shows the voltage falling as the current density was increased. It was evident that there were no leaks because the open circuit voltage was 1.05V. At the operating voltage of 0.7V, the current density was almost 0.3 Acm-2 and the power was 4W, a substantial improvement on the results previously. Raising the temperature to 750 oC gave a slight increase but the conclusion was that higher operating temperature was not needed with this design.
1.2
1.0
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0.4
0.2
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Volts
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1.0
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Current density Acm-2
Watts
Figure 11 Current-Voltage curves for tubular cells with 1mm diameter silver wire and porous silver ink on the cathode
750⁰C
700⁰C
The next step was to work on the anode current collection to reduce the cell resistance even further. This was achieved after many iterations to alter the geometry of the wire connections. Fig 12 shows the best achieved configuration, photographed by IREC, with the central anode connection making contact with two separated cathode areas of the next cell. Although the electrode area was slightly reduced by this splitting of the cathode, the power output was increased substantially as shown by the power increase recorded with time in the project (Fig 13)
Figure 12 Final arrangement of the anode and cathode current collectors
Under laboratory testing conditions, power output near 10Wper tube was achievable but, in the product environment, this was reduced to 6W because of temperature gradients, higher fuel utilisation and other variables. This very good result encouraged Adelan to patent the successful design and that patent was awarded for the EU in 2015. More time will be needed to get the patent accepted in the USA.
M1 M3 M6 M9 M12 M15
Months in project
10
8
6
4
2
0
Possible maximum at 0.7V
750oC on 150ml/min
hydrogen
Cell Power/ W
Improvements in cell power throughout project
Figure 13 Progress of cell power improvement during project SAPIENS
There was a problem with the new design, as shown by IREC in their single cell testing programme. If the sealing around the anode connection was not sufficiently tight, seepage of fuel could arise from the anode to the cathode side, resulting in a hot spot which gradually turned into a flame over 50 hours of operation. Degradation was then very rapid as shown in Fig 14 which shows life limited to 120 h. This was a serious issue which has been further evaluated to find solutions.
Figure 14 Degradation due to anode seepage problem
By finding better silver ink to block the pores, followed by glass coating to prevent any leakage path, the lifetime was extended to almost 1000 h which was the desired aim. The other issue which was affecting lifetime was the effect of high fuel utilisation. IREC found that the electrodes degraded when fuel utilisation went above 40%. This meant that the efficiency of the device was to be limited to below 30% which was less than expected.
Theoretical modelling
The first objective of the modelling was to explain the V/I curves obtained experimentally (Fig 15). ZUT set up a computer simulation (CFD) to achieve this using a 3D model of the single tube, with realistic electrochemistry, flow and heat transfer. The models took into account coupled processes of hydrodynamics, diffusion, electrochemistry and charge transfer taking place in the mSOFC. The mSOFC stack CFD results of average heat flux value showed a good agreement with the corresponding values obtained in the electrochemical model. The CFD results were used to support cell design optimisation.
Figure 15 Theoretical model compared to Adelan experimental results on single tube operating on hydrogen at low fuel utilisation
It may be seen that the theory gave a reasonable fit to the experiments, especially around current densities of 0.4Acm-2 which is the operating condition of the final device. At higher current densities the results deviated significantly due to fuel depletion effects.
The second success in theoretical modelling was the stack simulation shown for the 16 tube design with co-flow cathode air in Fig 16. The cool end of the stack was not fully modelled because the fuel/air mix for CPOX was at room temperature at the rubber seal. However, the hot part was seen to give a reasonable temperature gradient of 70K which was the target gradient. Experimental results on this require further work, especially to integrate the CPOX exotherm and the new recuperator design.
Also, it became clear that radiation heat transfer was negligible under these conditions. Only a few K was introduced according to the optimised radiation model, which is negligible compared to CPOX and recuperator effects.
Figure 16 Calculated temperature distribution for fully coupled 16 tube stack with co-flow cathode air
Figure 17 Modelling of overall temperature distribution with recuperator and CPOX
Figure 17 shows the bigger picture once the CPOX and recuperator influences are added in. The cool air is blown in with the fan at the blue end near the exhaust exit where the hot exit gas is emerging around 200-300 Celsius. This hot exhaust air stream was used to heat clean air to provide comfortable conditions on cool evenings under the awning outside the RV.
Meanwhile, the inlet cathode air was heated as it flowed towards the fuel/air inlet where CPOX occurred, reaching 600oC under the operating target condition. This new design was invented in the SAFARI project and patented there but the concept was adapted to SAPIENS because of the new possibilities of light weight, low volume and improved stackability.
Propane, sulfur trap and CPOX
One of the key issues overhanging the SAPIENS project is the fuel purity. It is necessary to extract the sulphur which can destroy nickel anodes and inhibit the catalytic partial oxidation processing necessary to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide to drive the fuel cell reactions.
Figure 18 Sulfur trap designed by CUTEC to purify autogas propane
The sulphur trap designed, built and delivered by CUTEC is shown in Fig 18. This is now being used in field tests of the RV APU. The properties of sulfur adsorbents were examined, as well as the various sulfur compounds in the propane gas. The specification of LPG in accordance with DIN 51622 allows a maximum content of 50 mg / kg, and the volatile sulfur a maximum of 5 mg / kg of carbonylsulphide (COS) with elemental sulfur. Following this definition the maximum of 68.6 vol-ppm of sulfur impurities may be present in propane, originating from Germany. Of course, in different EU states, the sulphur varies substantially.
It was found that UK autogas was cleanest whereas Polish autogas was very dirty, with other countries in between.
Different adsorbents, based on manganese- (FCDS - GS6) and copper-oxide (FCDS - GS23), were obtained from Südchemie/Clariant. These were benchmarked in fumigation tests with different sulfur components at different temperature levels. The lifetime and effectiveness was determined. The manufacturer recommends to build a sulfur-trap with an l / d ratio of 10 at a maximum loading of 15 vol.-% H2S and with an optimal ratio of dgrain : dbed of 15.
Sulfur-traps, filled with different adsorbents, were exposed to test gases. The concentration of the test gases was 2100 vol.-ppm and 435 vol.-ppm H2S. Five different sulfur compounds were examined, with dimethylsulphide and ethanethiol, showing the same adsorbing behaviour. In long-term experiments, the time between start and the output concentration off H2S rising above 1 vol-ppm was taken.
The maximum sulfur content found was 15 vol.-ppm. The reaction between the catalyst and an example sulfur compound is;
MeO + H2S → MeS + H2O
The design targets for the sulfur-trap are:
- Removal of sulfur compound below 1 vol-ppm.
- 1500 hours of operation equivalent to 1 year service life (see MS1)
- Safety factor of 2 (= sulfur-trap is able to adsorb twice as much as estimated)
The sulfur-trap (fig 18) consists of a stainless steel tube of 18 mm diameter with commercially available fittings at either end. It is filled with GS-6, a manganese/copper absorbent. A metal mesh inside the fittings prevents catalytic particles entering the tubing. . The service life is one year, after which the catalyst is only half saturated (=Safety factor of 2).
Figure 19 CPOX catalyst arrangement showing the inserted alumina tube with cat
One of the more controversial concepts in the SAPIENS project was the in-tube CPOX fuel processor defined in the original Kendall patent of 1994. Several reviewers have suggested that this should not work. But it does, as shown in the picture of Fig 19. An alumina tube was inserted at the cold end of each fuel cell tube. At the end of the alumina tube, a short section of CPOX catalyst was inserted, in a position within the fuel cell tube, just where the electrode area starts as seen in Fig 20. This was tested in a range of experiments at JRC and Adelan and it was demonstrated that the [propane could be processed effectively, depending on the air/fuel ratio. Typically 7/1 air fuel was used, giving the results shown in Fig 21.
Figure 20 Diagram of the CPOX arrangement in each fuel cell tube
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t, min
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CPOx inlet
CPOx outlet
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Figure 21 CPOX results in a controlled furnace environment as temperature was raised to
700C
The furnace was gradually heated and propane introduced at 300oC where no significant changes occurred at the gas phase composition measured at the catalyst outlet, indicating that practically no reaction was taking place at such low temperature. After switching to the selected CPOX conditions, the furnace was heated up to the targeted operating temperature of 700oC, with a ramp rate of 2 K/min. At approximately 460oC an abrupt increase of both inlet and outlet temperatures was observed with a simultaneous decrease of the outlet oxygen content, indicating that the light-off temperature of the catalyst had been reached.
At a furnace temperature of 700oC, the gas inlet temperature at steady state conditions was about 720oC, while the catalyst outlet temperature was as high as 860oC, showing that the CPOX exotherm was significant. As shown in Fig 20 and Table 1 below, the dry exhaust gas phase was mainly comprised of CO, H2 and N2, while the remaining percentage was a mixture of CO2, C3H8 in small amounts and C2H4, C2H6 and CH4 in even smaller percentages.
Table 1. Partial oxidation products at 700oC for O2/C=0.54
Product
H2
CO
CO2
CH4
C2H6
C2H4
C3H8
N2
%
13.5
17.2
1.9
0.65
0.07
0.43
2.87
63.8
In these conditions the propane conversion was around 91% with the carbon balance closure being at about 6%, indicating that no significant carbon deposition was taking place.
Final design of Fuel Cell system
The final design of the 16 tube hotbox is shown in Fig 21. Four of the tubes with their electrode areas are shown in a side view. Essentially there are four substacks comprising 4 tubes each, fitting into the stainless steel recuperator box tubes which are 30cm long. The green terminals are the thermocouples for controlling the reactor temperatures at the centre of the cell electrodes. Four power output leads are shown near the thermocouple green terminals.
Figure 21 design of final hot box showing the cold fuel/air manifold on the right, exhaust tube on the left, near the air blower and start-up propane burner. 25 mm thick grey insulating ceramic fibre board limits the heat loss from the walls.
This hot box arrangement was fitted into the campervan under the floor in case of gas leaks and hot gas escapes. The overall design of the system is shown in Fig 22 and the actual packaging is photographed in Fig 23.
Figure 22 Design of package to install in RV
Figure 23 Photograph of hotbox in container with balance of plant showing the sulphur trap below, exhaust on to; the electronic control PCB, the inlet manifold and solenoid valves
Field testing of fuel cell in campervan
Figure 24 left; Working underneath the RV to fix pipes and cables; right; fixing the sulphur trap and valve underneath the RV
The assembled fuel cell system was fitted to the RV which was raised on a ramp (Fig24 left) so that the fuel pipe, sulphur trap (Fig24 right) the exhaust vent and the power cables could be fitted underneath the vehicle.
Then the performance in the campervan was tested on the autosleepers site to overcome any teething problems before driving out on field trips into the EU. The first trip was to the Electrochemical Society Exhibition and Conference in Glasgow where delegates came to view the APU in the RV and 200 leaflets were handed out. The second and longer trip was to drive through England to take the ferry to Northern Ireland, followed by a visit to Eire across the border. In all more than 2000 km of driving was achieved and 8 runs on the fuel cell APU were achieved in the field. The performance was satisfactory and no serious breakdown occurred. The conclusion was that the fuel cell system achieved its objectives in the SAPIENS project.
Consumer impact
The main goal of this task was to compare the RV APU test results with the expectations and potential acceptance of the new technology.
Questionnaires were sent out by AUT to their club members to gather evidence about consumer response. This was found to be favourable. The replies were analysed in deliverable D9.4 which has been successfully submitted. The user acceptance analysis has been carried out using the specific surveys designed with the aim of identifying user profiles, holiday preferences, main issues with the electricity supply in their Recreational Vehicles (RVs) and their environmental awareness.
The survey campaign has taken place between the months of May and September 2015, done using the Auto-Sleepers website. Ninety two users have replied.
Initial results show that the basic profile of an RV user is a couple or family, with no significant preference for the season for their holidays and with a willingness to do more wild camping as long as autonomy issues for the electricity supply are covered.
When users have been asked what are the main issues concerning the electricity supply in their RV, most of them have declared they are dissatisfied with the insufficient autonomy, smell and noise issues and they feel annoyed when dealing with wet cables when they are forced to connect their power system to external grid power. This result has been checked by linking this answer to the willingness of doing more wild camping and it has been verified that the insufficient autonomy is a limitation for those who would like to do more wild camping.
Most of the users (above 83%) have declared that they are sensitive to environmental issues, such as Global Warming Potential, and consider them as a driver that influence their product choices. This sensitivity increases with the number of children or grandchildren, and it is also relevant for those users that declare that the insufficient autonomy and issues when trying to connect the RV to external grid power is a limitation.
These results suggest that the SAPIENS Fuel Cell solution can help to fulfil the users need to increase the RV electricity autonomy, especially eliminating problems with wet electrical cables. In addition, the willingness of using a product, in this case a more environmentally friendly power source, can be covered as well, as in Deliverable 9.3 it was demonstrated through the Life Cycle Assessment analysis that SAPIENS Propane Power Pack system has a better environmental performance compared to conventional solutions.
The survey exercise has been very useful to understand whether the SAPIENS Propane Power Pack system may have a good acceptance for the RVs vehicles. It will also be interesting in future to find out their opinion once the Fuel Cell is running in a real RV.

Potential impact
SAPIENS provides a basis for the improvement of the 70,000 motorhomes produced annually in Europe as consumer penetration takes place during the next decades. The predicted impacts in the several domains are shown in the table below. Note the primary focus on RVs; however, other specialist vehicles have also been addressed. RVs are prioritised as the vehicle common platform, while the specialist vehicles are necessarily more fragmented in requirements.
Influence of the SAPIENS project in different domains over medium (yellow) and long term (green)
Fuel Cell community Impact
Research Impact
Consumer Individual Impact Imlementation of a unified approach to SOFC APU acceptance in vehicles Validation of the effect of key science principles on the consumer experience of APUs Better acceptance of SOFC APUs as judged by feedback from RV clubs and associations Characterisation of the cost, performance and lifetime specs to give impact on community Validated characterisation of results obtained in the field and in lab trials Tools given to individuals to get more involved in the assessment of SOFC APUs Implementation of linkages in FCH-JU community to define the important test parameters Provision of a SAPIENS App to allow researchers to inject their results Use of SAPIENS markers in feedback from consumers
Implementation of SAPIENS findings in next FCH-JU AWP due in 2016 Development of RV companies connection with the project findings Provision of Academic/ Research institution assistance to the RV OEM companies New risk-based methods to gather feedback from the RV users clubs Implementation of a validated APP in the 2018 guidelines on RVs provided by OEMs Development and evaluation of the SAPIENS conclusions in RTD establishments Information about the best SOFC APU systems for RVs provided to club individuals. Implementation of personal-oriented approaches to APUs Evaluation of personalised experiences of RV APUs Stratified safer and more effective info to consumers
Implementation of partners conclusions into full commercialisation to TRL 8
Campervan market dimensions
The main impact of this project will be on the motorhome (RV) market. Recent market reports show the RV market is growing rapidly at 4.8% annually with total numbers predicted to be 731,000 in 2017 worldwide. In the campervan sector, growth is strong, especially in the US and EU, but Asia Pacific is now beginning to kick in with good export prospects from 2015. At present it is estimated that the UK has more than 200,000 RVs in operation this year with new sales around 10,000 pa. The table below details the European RV market. The hotel load power requirements of each of the RVs could be met provided the fuel cell APU product is affordable, reliable and otherwise fit for purpose.
Table of RV sales year by year in the EU
In the EU, Germany dominates RV sales with 25,000 sold in 2014, about one third of the total EU numbers. Although the US is strongest in the RV segment, the EU has big players such as Burstner and Trigona. Growth has now picked up significantly since the recession when sales fell by 40%. EU sales of an appropriate fuel cell power supply could reach €100M within ten years. Clearly, this is an excellent prospect, especially if the US market could be addressed. Further sales in commercial vans could extend fuel cell APU sales by a further factor of three, showing significant market impact.
Specialist vehicle market nature & dimensions
A secondary but important aim of SAPIENS has been to identify and satisfy the needs of specialist vehicles, related to RVs but used in separate applications such as police work. Because the needs are fragmented, a range of solutions is appropriate and hence within the time and budget limitations of SAPIENS there was most effort to focus on a majority common platform (power & energy requirement) in the specialist vehicle market. However, the underlying technology is expected to be virtually identical. Beyond SAPIENS, to maximize economies of scale, a scale-up philosophy of the 16-cell stacks will be utilized for Adelan. The SAPIENS consortium has mainly been targeting auxiliary power systems for leisure and commercial uses. Although not directly mechanically connected to the drive-train, there is an electrical connection that requires the main power unit (engine) to be run for battery charging purposes when stationary. This is dramatically overpowered for battery charging, very wasteful on fuel and can harm the engine in the long term because it is not running at optimum temperatures. Adelan fuel cells can provide the charging requirement for these auxiliary systems, reduce overall consumption (carbon emissions) and reduce the overall vehicle weight by up to 50 kg.
Another ‘blue light’ application is for police vehicles with a similar issue, having to have multiple auxiliary systems working drawing power while stationary sometimes for considerable periods of time. Again the battery charging and weight saving aspects are paramount as these vehicles are running at close to maximum weight and compromising fuel efficiency and vehicle performance.
Further large market SAPIENS targets are welfare support vehicles and mobile office requirements of various sectors, including Network Rail (GB), utility companies, the Forestry Commission (GB), and others. Further plays beyond the UK include vehicles associated with disaster relief. Specialist vehicle sales for the UK are extrapolated to give a EU market potential of 83000 APUs in EU28, essentially more than doubling the impact due to RVs only.
Main dissemination activities and exploitation of results
From the start of the project, it was made clear to the Consortium members that each and every partner was responsible for dissemination of the results and outcomes. Naturally, Autosleepers took command of the RV exhibitions and attended many, both in the UK and overseas. These are listed below
Academic conference presentations were delivered by Adelan, IREC, ZUT.
Posters were also widely disseminated at these conferences.
Peer reviewed publications in academic journals were mainly by Adelan and ZUT, as listed below. As predicted, 9 such papers were delivered over the three year SAPIENS project.
The website for the project was set up during the first six months and has been successful in both the public and private pages, in which the partners could record their reports.
Questionnaires to gauge consumer response were circulated by Autosleepers to their club members and the analysis is reported in WT9.4 with deliverable D9.4 reported by IREC.
ADE also visited AVL in Austria to discuss the DESTA results (DESTA was the FP7 SOFC APU project on trucks funded through FCH-JU) and to talk about possible future collaborations. Other visits to Pilote, the large French Campervan manufacturer, and to Conrad Anderson, a UK campervan converter, to discuss potential future collaborations, were also achieved.
As predicted, three special conferences were convened by ADE in Birmingham where APUs for campervans were discussed. University of Birmingham was present at these meetings as suggested in the DOW.
ADE presented their SAPIENS posters at three FCH-JU November meetings in Brussels; 2013, 2014 and 2015.
Figure 25 Meeting of ADE and AUT on the stand at the Feb 2015 NEC exhibition
Exhibitions attended
Figure 25 shows a typical gathering at the NEC exhibition in February 2015. The team began to attend in 2014 as listed below, especially the NEC Camping and Caravan exhibition, visited by 70,000 attendees. Then Autosleepers also extended to the major Dusseldorf exhibition on 30 Sept to 6 Oct 2015 where more than 120,000 visitors attend. The main shows addressed were:-
2014 Motorhome & Caravan Show held at the NEC, Birmingham, UK (February)
2014 Motorhome & Caravan Show held at the NEC (October)
2015 Motorhome & Caravan Show held at the NEC (February)
2015 Caravan Salon Dusseldorf 28Aug to 6 Sept
2015 Motorhome & Caravan Show held at the NEC (October)
There was also an opportunity to get the public to visit the fuel cell fitted campervan at the special conference organised at Millenium Point in Birmingham Centre in March 2014.
Many attendees entered the RV and received leaflet handouts. A similar tour was organised at the Glasgow SOFC conference.
SOFCxiv Glasgow The Fourteenth International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, 26-31 July 2015. SECC : Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, Glasgow
Figure 26 Handout used at the exhibitions to attract the consumers
Academic conference presentations/posters
The largest SOFC conference in the world in 2015 was held in Glasgow hosted at the SECC by the American Electrochemical Society. All the SAPIENS partners attended except JRC who were away at that time. Many attendees looked around the RV and 200 handouts were distributed.
Numerous other conference presentations and posters were given during the three year SAPIENS project including those below.
1) K Kendall, Fuel Cells in Transport, Hydrogen Fuel Cell Conference, NEC Birmingham March 2013.
2) M Kendall, A D Meadowcroft, K Kendall, Microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (mSOFCs), SOFC xiii, Okinawa 6 Oct 2013, The electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ.
3) Paulina Pianko-Oprych, Ekaterina Kasilova and Zdzisław Jaworski Assessing the effect of electrochemically–driven non-uniformities of heat flux in a microtubular fuel
cell on mSOFC stack performance. Abstract submitted to 11th European SOFC and SOE Forum 2014 Lucerne Conference.
4) M Kendall, SAPIENS project, 13 Int Conf on HFC, Birmingham 25 Mar 2014.
5) K Kendall, Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power SHFCA conference Edinburgh, 2014.
6) R. Campana, A. Meadowcroft, A. Morata, K. Kendall, M. Kendall and A. Tarancón, High performance microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for portable applications, European Hydrogen Energy Conference (EHEC 2014) Seville, Spain March 2014.
7) A. Morata, A. Meadowcroft, M. Torrell, K. Kendall, M. Kendall, A. Tarancón, Fuel Cell Forum, Luzern July 2014, Poster.
8) Z. Jaworski, B. Zakrzewska, E. Kasilova, P. Pianko-Oprych, Multiscale modelling of SOFC system in SAPIENS project, Fuel Cells & Hydrogen for Future Transport and Building 2014, 25/03/2014, Birmingham, UK.
9) Z. Jaworski, B. Zakrzewska, P. Pianko-Oprych, Balance of plant simulations of SOFC system in SAPIENS project, 11th International Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Conference, Exhibition & International Brokerage Event, Delivering Hydrogen & Fuel Cells to Market, 17/03/2015, Birmingham, UK, poster.
10) Z. Jaworski, P. Pianko-Oprych, B. Zakrzewska, Numerical investigation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell at cell, stack and system level modelling, 8th Congress of Chemical Technology, 30/08-4/09/2015, Rzeszow, Poland.
11) P. Pianko-Oprych, T. Zinko, Z. Jaworski, Three dimensional CFD modelling of transport phenomena in microtubular and planar anode supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, 8th Congress of Chemical Technology, 30/08-4/09/2015, Rzeszow, Poland.
12) K Kendall, Progress on Fuel Cell APUs for vehicles, 3rd ENEFM 2015, Lykia Turkey Oct 19 2015.
The only partners not giving presentations at exhibitions or conferences were JRC and CAR.
Peer reviewed publications in academic journals
One of our major objectives was to publish in peer reviewed journals and books. Two of the partners, ADE and ZUT have been active in publishing and around ten papers have been produced, with acknowledgement to the SAPIENS project support from FCH-JU. The list is below.
1.K Kendall, A Meadowcroft, Improved ceramics leading to microtubular solid oxide fuel cells, Int J Hydrogen Energy 38(2013) 1725-1730
2. M Kendall, K Kendall, mSOFCs, Fuel Cell Forum, Luzern July 2014
3. B. Zakrzewska, P. Pianko-Oprych, Z. Jaworski, Multiscale modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems, Chemie Ingenieur Technik, Review, 1029-1043, 86, 7, 2014. DOI: 10.1002/cite.201400022
4. K Kendall, J Newton, M Kendall, Microtubular SOFC (mSOFC) System in APU Application, J Electrochemical Society, 2015.
5. K Kendall, Portable SOFCs, (K Kendall, M Kendall eds.) High Temp SOFCs, Elsevier 2015.
6. P. Pianko-Oprych, Cell, Stack and System Modelling, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN: 978-659-62295-3, Saarbrucken 2014
7. P. Pianko-Oprych, E. Kasilova, Z. Jaworski, Assessing the effect of electrochemically driven non-uniformities of heat flux in a microtubular fuel cell on mSOFC temperature distribution, 11th European SOFC and SOE Forum 2014, 1-4/07/2014, Lucerne, Switzerland.
8. P. Pianko-)prych, Z. Jaworski, K. Kendall, Modelling SOFCs, , (K Kendall, M Kendall eds.) High Temp SOFCs, Elsevier 2015.
9. M. Torrell et al. Journal of Power Sources “Performance and long term degradation of 7 W micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells for portable applications” 285, 20819, pp. 439-448 .
Address of the project public website; conferences; relevant contact details. The project website www.SAPIENS-project.eu was established in 2012 for two purposes; first to enable clients and potential partners to make contact; second to give a space for SAPIENS partners to place their reports, minutes, presentations on a secure site. Fig 27 shows a screen shot of the first page.
Figure 27 Screenshot of the Sapiens-project.eu website
The counter on the website has registered 5632 hits during the 3 year project. This is low and suggests that our messages are not getting out properly to the general public. The secure part of the site requires a password for entry. This contains 200Mb of data at present, including official project meeting proceedings and presentations from the partners.
Special Conferences for SAPIENS
During the SAPIENS project, the coordinator Dr K Kendall has been involved in organising three Hydrogen Fuel Cell Conferences in Birmingham, with posters, presentations and official project meetings held during the proceedings.
The first in 2013 was bringing out new fuel cell concepts as shown in the brochure in Fig 28. Dr Kendall organised and chaired a session on Transport Applications and delivered a paper on ‘Fuel Cells in Transport’.
In 2014, the Conference was held at Millenium Point in the city centre, where Dr M Kendall gave a talk on the SAPIENS project which was attended by 250 people from all sectors of the fuel cell community in the EU, while the RV with its installed SOFC APU was exhibited at the conference centre entrance.
Figure 28 Brochure for the 2013 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Conference at Birmingham NEC
In 2015 Dr Kendall organised and chaired the plenary session where the SAPIENS project was mentioned.
A SAPIENS poster has been shown at two FCH-JU General Assemblies in Brussels and a third will be displayed in November 2015 after the project ends. A typical poster is shown in Fig 29 to illustrate the application, the principles of battery charging from propane via the SOFC, the contact details for ADE and the acknowledgement of FCH-JU.
These poster sessions were useful for making contact with associated project consortia. Dr Kendall met the DESTA team at the 2014 event, and this allowed discussions about potential collaborations, as described next.
Figure 29 Poster showing the SAPIENS principles
Links with Companies and Patenting
When Dr Kendall heard the DESTA presentation from the coordinator AVL List, it was a great opportunity to foster links with related project teams. Although AVL was working on truck APUs with Volvo and other companies, with diesel as the fuel fed to the SOFC reformer, and also used a different stack technology based on planar SOFCs, there was distinct common interest in the problems of cost, fuel procressing, warm-up time etc. The outcome of this meeting was the ADE visit to Graz Austria on 17 June 2015 to meet the DESTA group and to present data on the respective projects. In particular, AVL had experienced the problem of Topsoe Fuel Cell dropping out of the stack building defined in DESTA. These issues were discussed in detail and should lead to future collaborations.
Two other company contacts have been more fruitful than the DESTA connection:-
1. Meeting with Conrad Anderson in Birmingham as a result of the dissemination activities
2. Meeting Martin Storey of Pilote, the large French Campervan company, which manufactures ten times more units than AUT and could therefore lead to wider marker interest.
Both these meetings led to further interest and business dealings and there is a clear prospect for joint ventures with both these companies, following from then SAPIENS dissemination.
Patenting has also been successful for Adelan. The PATENT APPLICATION NUMBER
1411205.6, YCJ72866P.GBA entitled Solid Oxide Fuel Cells emerged from experiments carried out in SAPIENS to find the optimal wiring arrangement to maximise power output from interconnected tubes. This patent grant was requested on 24June 2014 and is now proceeding through the process of publication.
No other patents have been filed by the consortium partners during the project.
Use and dissemination of foreground
Section A (public) Dissemination measures, science publications
SAPIENS started in 2012 with clear technical objectives for short and medium term results relating to the contributing large industries and SMEs. However, the effect on consumers, having seen the product potential and the benefits to ‘wild camping’ will be noticed within the next two years. Thus raising public participation and awareness on the specific techniques of this project is important. It is of pivotal priority to begin raising awareness on the positive aspects and advantages of fuel cells now so that when fuel cells with this new technology are commercialized, the public will already be educated on the topic and therefore be more eager to purchase this innovative product. Partner 6 IREC has been leading the consumer impact task in WP8, supported by Adelan, Auto-Sleepers and CUTEC. The projects disseminating plan was defined in the SAPIENS consortium agreement signed in 2012.
Adelan with the assistance of the University of Birmingham has been the main conduit of dissemination to the public through their web sites (www.adelan.co.uk; www.SAPIENS-project.eu) and with their Birmingham Hydrogen Fuel Cell conferences and expositions held annually. IREC has led the consumer dissemination activities. ADE and AUT are the main dissemination routes to the market in RVs. AUT has customer sites to spread the results of the project and has been consulting its RV club members for feedback on this novel product area.
Table A1 List of Scientific publications, most important first
No
Title
Author
Journal
Reference
publisher
place
year
1
Improved ceramics leading to microtubular solid oxide fuel cells
K Kendall
Int J Hydrogen Energy
38,1725-1730
Elsevier
USA
2013
2
mSOFCs
M Kendall
Fuel Cell Forum
U Bossel
Luzern
2014
3
Multiscale modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
B. Zakrzewska
Chemie Ingenieur Technik, Review
86,1029-1043
Wiley
DE
2014
Systems
4
Microtubular SOFC (mSOFC) System in APU Application
K Kendall
J Electrochem Soc
submission
Electrochem Soc
USA
2015
5
Portable SOFCs
K Kendall
High Temperature SOFCs
In press
Elsevier
UK
2015
6
Cell stack and system modeling
P Pianko-Oprych
SOFC
ISBN 978-659-62295-3
Lambert Academic Publishing
Saarbrucken
2014
7
Assessing the effect of electrochemically driven non-uniformities of heat flux in a microtubular fuel cell on mSOFC temperature distribution
P. Pianko-Oprych, E. Kasilova, Z. Jaworski,
11th European SOFC and SOE forum
2014, 1-4/07/2014, Lucerne, Switzerland
Lambert Academic Publishing
Luzern
2014
8
Modelling SOFCs
P. Pianko-Oprych, Z. Jaworski, K. Kendall
High Temperature SOFCs
Elsevier Science
Oxford
2015
9
Performance and long term degradation of 7 W micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells for portable applications
M. Torrell et al.
J Power Sources
285, 20819 (2014) 439-448 .
Elsevier
Oxford
2014
Table A2 List of dissemination Activities
No
Type Activity
Main Leader
Title
Date
Place
Audience
people
1
Exhibition
AUT
UK Camping
Feb 2014
NEC, UK
50,000
450
2
Exhibition
AUT
UK Camping
Oct2014
NEC, UK
50,000
450
3
Exhibition
AUT
UK Camping
Feb 2015
NEC, UK
50,000
450
4
Exhibition
AUT
UK Camping
Oct 2015
NEC, UK
50,000
450
5
Exhibition
AUT
Caravan Salon
Aug 2015
Dusseldorf Germany
200,000
600
6
Exhibition
AUT
ElectroChem Soc
July 2015
Glasgow UK
700
200
7
Exhibition
AUT
HFC 2014
March 2014
Millenium Point UK
300
55
8
Conference lecture
ADE
Fuel Cells in Transport
March 2013
HFC, Millenium Point UK
300
300
9
Conference lecture
ADE
Microtubular SOFCs
Oct 2013
Okinawa
600
300
10
Conference lecture
ZUT
Assessing the effect of electrochemically–driven non-uniformities of heat flux in a microtubular fuel cell on mSOFC stack performance
July2014
Luzern
300
300
11
Conference lecture
ADE
Sapiens Project
March 2014
NEC Birmingham
300
300
12
Conference lecture
ADE
Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power
Aug 2014
SHFCA
75
75
13
Conference lecture
IRE
High performance microtubular Solid
March2014
EHEC, Seville
200
200
Oxide Fuel Cells for portable applications,
14
Conference poster
ZUT
Multiscale modelling of SOFC system in SAPIENS project
March 2014
NEC Birmingham
300
300
15
Conference poster
ZUT
Balance of plant simulations of SOFC system in SAPIENS project
March 2015
NEC Birmingham
250
250
16
Conference lecture
ZUT
Numerical investigation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell at cell, stack and system level modelling,
Aug 2015
8th Congress Chemical Technology Poland
200
200
17
Conference
ZUT
Three dimensional CFD modelling of transport phenomena in microtubular and planar anode supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Aug 2015
8th Congress Chemical Technology Poland
200
200
18
Conference
ADE
Progress on fuel cell APUs for vehicles
Oct 2015
3rd ENEFM
Turkey
300
300
Section B Public
Part B1
TEMPLATE B1: LIST OF APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS, TRADEMARKS, REGISTERED DESIGNS, ETC.
Type of IP Rights3:
Confidential
Click on YES/NO
Foreseen embargo date
dd/mm/yyyy
Application reference(s) (e.g. EP123456)
Subject or title of application
Applicant (s) (as on the trademark
no
none
UK application 2014
Trademark Adelan name
Adelan Ltd
3 A drop down list allows choosing the type of IP rights: Patents, Trademarks, Registered designs, Utility models, Others.
Part B2
Please complete the table hereafter:
Type of Exploitable Foreground4
Description
of exploitable foreground
Confidential
NO
Foreseen embargo date
dd/mm/yyyy
Exploitable product(s) or measure(s)
Sector(s) of application5
Timetable, commercial or any other use
Patents other exploitation (licences)
Patent
New connection method for mSOFCs
No
none
SOFC APUs
Energy
2015 onwards
Patent • Its purpose; The purpose of this patent is to protect a novel way of connecting microtubular solid oxide fuel cells.
• How the foreground might be exploited, when and by whom; Adelan will exploit this patent from 2015 onwards
• IPR exploitable measures taken or intended; companies contacted for joint ventures
• Further research necessary; More research is needed on durability aspects
• Potential/expected impact; Market is for 100Meuro/a by 2030
19 A drop down list allows choosing the type of foreground: General advancement of knowledge, Commercial exploitation of R&D results, Exploitation of R&D results via standards, exploitation of results through EU policies, exploitation of results through (social) innovation.
5 A drop down list allows choosing the type sector (NACE nomenclature) : http://ec.europa.eu/competition/mergers/cases/index/nace_all.html
4.2 Report on societal implications
A General Information (completed automatically when Grant Agreement number is entered.
Grant Agreement Number:
303415
Title of Project:
SAPIENS
Name and Title of Coordinator:
Dr Kevin Kendall B Ethics
1. Did your project undergo an Ethics Review (and/or Screening)?
• If Yes: have you described the progress of compliance with the relevant Ethics Review/Screening Requirements in the frame of the periodic/final project reports?
Special Reminder: the progress of compliance with the Ethics Review/Screening Requirements should be described in the Period/Final Project Reports under the Section 3.2.2 'Work Progress and Achievements'
No
2. Please indicate whether your project involved any of the following issues (tick box) :
No
RESEARCH ON HUMANS
• Did the project involve children?
• Did the project involve patients?
• Did the project involve persons not able to give consent?
• Did the project involve adult healthy volunteers?
• Did the project involve Human genetic material?
• Did the project involve Human biological samples?
• Did the project involve Human data collection?
RESEARCH ON HUMAN EMBRYO/FOETUS
• Did the project involve Human Embryos?
• Did the project involve Human Foetal Tissue / Cells?
• Did the project involve Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs)?
• Did the project on human Embryonic Stem Cells involve cells in culture?
• Did the project on human Embryonic Stem Cells involve the derivation of cells from Embryos?
PRIVACY
• Did the project involve processing of genetic information or personal data (eg. health, sexual lifestyle, ethnicity, political opinion, religious or philosophical conviction)?
• Did the project involve tracking the location or observation of people?
RESEARCH ON ANIMALS
• Did the project involve research on animals?
• Were those animals transgenic small laboratory animals?
• Were those animals transgenic farm animals?
• Were those animals cloned farm animals?
• Were those animals non-human primates?
RESEARCH INVOLVING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
• Did the project involve the use of local resources (genetic, animal, plant etc)?
• Was the project of benefit to local community (capacity building, access to healthcare, education etc)?
DUAL USE
• Research having direct military use
0 Yes 0 No
• Research having the potential for terrorist abuse
C Workforce Statistics
3. Workforce statistics for the project: Please indicate in the table below the number of people who worked on the project (on a headcount basis).
Type of Position
Number of Women
Number of Men
Scientific Coordinator
1
Work package leaders
3
6
Experienced researchers (i.e. PhD holders)
6
12
PhD Students
Other
4. How many additional researchers (in companies and universities) were recruited specifically for this project?
10
Of which, indicate the number of men:
6
D Gender Aspects
5. Did you carry out specific Gender Equality Actions under the project?
Yes
6. Which of the following actions did you carry out and how effective were they?
Not at all effective
Very effective

Design and implement an equal opportunity policy


Set targets to achieve a gender balance in the workforce


Organise conferences and workshops on gender


Actions to improve work-life balance

Other:
7. Was there a gender dimension associated with the research content – i.e. wherever people were the focus of the research as, for example, consumers, users, patients or in trials, was the issue of gender considered and addressed?

Yes- please specify

No E Synergies with Science Education
8. Did your project involve working with students and/or school pupils (e.g. open days, participation in science festivals and events, prizes/competitions or joint projects)?

Yes- please specify Several conferences were organised and students invited

No
9. Did the project generate any science education material (e.g. kits, websites, explanatory booklets, DVDs)?

Yes- please specify Handouts given to students

No F Interdisciplinarity
10. Which disciplines (see list below) are involved in your project?

Main discipline6: 2.3 Energy

Associated discipline6:

Associated discipline6:
G Engaging with Civil society and policy makers
11a Did your project engage with societal actors beyond the research community? (if 'No', go to Question 14)

Yes
No
6 Insert number from list below (Frascati Manual).
11b If yes, did you engage with citizens (citizens' panels / juries) or organised civil society (NGOs, patients' groups etc.)?

No

Yes- in determining what research should be performed

Yes - in implementing the research

Yes, in communicating /disseminating / using the results of the project
11c In doing so, did your project involve actors whose role is mainly to organise the dialogue with citizens and organised civil society (e.g. professional mediator; communication company, science museums)?

Yes
No
12. Did you engage with government / public bodies or policy makers (including international organisations)

No

Yes- in framing the research agenda

Yes - in implementing the research agenda

Yes, in communicating /disseminating / using the results of the project
13a Will the project generate outputs (expertise or scientific advice) which could be used by policy makers?

Yes – as a primary objective (please indicate areas below- multiple answers possible)

Yes – as a secondary objective (please indicate areas below - multiple answer possible)

No
13b If Yes, in which fields?
Agriculture
Audiovisual and Media
Budget
Competition
Consumers
Culture
Customs
Development Economic and Monetary Affairs
Education, Training, Youth
Employment and Social Affairs
Energy
Enlargement
Enterprise
Environment
External Relations
External Trade
Fisheries and Maritime Affairs
Food Safety
Foreign and Security Policy
Fraud
Humanitarian aid
Human rights
Information Society
Institutional affairs
Internal Market
Justice, freedom and security
Public Health
Regional Policy
Research and Innovation
Space
Taxation Transport
13c If Yes, at which level?

Local / regional levels

National level

European level

International level H Use and dissemination
14. How many Articles were published/accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journals?
9
To how many of these is open access7 provided?
none
How many of these are published in open access journals?
How many of these are published in open repositories?
To how many of these is open access not provided?
Please check all applicable reasons for not providing open access:
■ publisher's licensing agreement would not permit publishing in a repository
■ no suitable repository available ■ no suitable open access journal available
■ no funds available to publish in an open access journal
■ lack of time and resources
■ lack of information on open access
■ other8: ...............
15. How many new patent applications (‘priority filings’) have been made? ("Technologically unique": multiple applications for the same invention in different jurisdictions should be counted as just one application of grant).
1
16. Indicate how many of the following Intellectual Property Rights were applied for (give number in each box).
Trademark
1
Registered design
0
Other
0
17. How many spin-off companies were created / are planned as a direct result of the project?
0
Indicate the approximate number of additional jobs in these companies:
18. Please indicate whether your project has a potential impact on employment, in comparison with the situation before your project:

Increase in employment, or ■
In small & medium-sized enterprises

Safeguard employment, or ■
In large companies
7 Open Access is defined as free of charge access for anyone via Internet.
8 For instance: classification for security project.

Decrease in employment,

None of the above / not relevant to the project

Difficult to estimate / not possible to quantify
19. For your project partnership please estimate the employment effect resulting directly from your participation in Full Time Equivalent (FTE = one person working fulltime for a year) jobs:
Difficult to estimate / not possible to quantify
Indicate figure:
10
■ I Media and Communication to the general public
20. As part of the project, were any of the beneficiaries professionals in communication or media relations?

Yes
No
21. As part of the project, have any beneficiaries received professional media / communication training / advice to improve communication with the general public?

Yes
No
22 Which of the following have been used to communicate information about your project to the general public, or have resulted from your project?

Press Release ■
Coverage in specialist press

Media briefing

Coverage in general (non-specialist) press

TV coverage / report

Coverage in national press

Radio coverage / report

Coverage in international press

Brochures /posters / flyers ■
Website for the general public / internet

DVD /Film /Multimedia ■
Event targeting general public (festival, conference, exhibition, science café)
23 In which languages are the information products for the general public produced?

Language of the coordinator ■
English

Other language(s)
Question F-10: Classification of Scientific Disciplines according to the Frascati Manual 2002 (Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, OECD 2002):
FIELDS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. NATURAL SCIENCES
1.1 Mathematics and computer sciences [mathematics and other allied fields: computer sciences and other allied subjects (software development only; hardware development should be classified in the engineering fields)]
1.2 Physical sciences (astronomy and space sciences, physics and other allied subjects)
1.3 Chemical sciences (chemistry, other allied subjects)
1.4 Earth and related environmental sciences (geology, geophysics, mineralogy, physical geography and other geosciences, meteorology and other atmospheric sciences including climatic research, oceanography, vulcanology, palaeoecology, other allied sciences)
1.5 Biological sciences (biology, botany, bacteriology, microbiology, zoology, entomology, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, other allied sciences, excluding clinical and veterinary sciences)
2 ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
2.1 Civil engineering (architecture engineering, building science and engineering, construction engineering, municipal and structural engineering and other allied subjects)
2.2 Electrical engineering, electronics [electrical engineering, electronics, communication engineering and systems, computer engineering (hardware only) and other allied subjects]
2.3. Other engineering sciences (such as chemical, aeronautical and space, mechanical, metallurgical and materials engineering, and their specialised subdivisions; forest products; applied sciences such as geodesy, industrial chemistry, etc.; the science and technology of food production; specialised technologies of interdisciplinary fields, e.g. systems analysis, metallurgy, mining, textile technology and other applied subjects)
3. MEDICAL SCIENCES
3.1 Basic medicine (anatomy, cytology, physiology, genetics, pharmacy, pharmacology, toxicology, immunology and immunohaematology, clinical chemistry, clinical microbiology, pathology)
3.2 Clinical medicine (anaesthesiology, paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology, internal medicine, surgery, dentistry, neurology, psychiatry, radiology, therapeutics, otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology)
3.3 Health sciences (public health services, social medicine, hygiene, nursing, epidemiology)
4. AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
4.1 Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and allied sciences (agronomy, animal husbandry, fisheries, forestry, horticulture, other allied subjects)
4.2 Veterinary medicine
5. SOCIAL SCIENCES
5.1 Psychology
5.2 Economics
5.3 Educational sciences (education and training and other allied subjects)
5.4 Other social sciences [anthropology (social and cultural) and ethnology, demography, geography (human, economic and social), town and country planning, management, law, linguistics, political sciences, sociology, organisation and methods, miscellaneous social sciences and interdisciplinary , methodological and historical S1T activities relating to subjects in this group. Physical anthropology, physical geography and psychophysiology should normally be classified with the natural sciences].
6. HUMANITIES
6.1 History (history, prehistory and history, together with auxiliary historical disciplines such as archaeology, numismatics, palaeography, genealogy, etc.)
6.2 Languages and literature (ancient and modern)
6.3 Other humanities [philosophy (including the history of science and technology) arts, history of art, art criticism, painting, sculpture, musicology, dramatic art excluding artistic "research" of any kind, religion, theology, other fields and subjects pertaining to the humanities, methodological, historical and other S1T activities relating to the subjects in this group]
2. FINAL REPORT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTION
This report shall be submitted to the Commission within 30 days after receipt of the final payment of the European Union financial contribution.
Report on the distribution of the European Union financial contribution between beneficiaries
Name of beneficiary
Final amount of EU contribution per beneficiary in Euros
1. Adelan
2. Autosleepers
3. CARRD
4. CUTEC
5. JRC
6. IREC
7. ZUT
TOTAL

Potential Impact:
Potential impact
SAPIENS provides a basis for the improvement of the 70,000 motorhomes produced annually in Europe as consumer penetration takes place during the next decades. The predicted impacts in the several domains are shown in the table below. Note the primary focus on RVs; however, other specialist vehicles have also been addressed. RVs are prioritised as the vehicle common platform, while the specialist vehicles are necessarily more fragmented in requirements.
Influence of the SAPIENS project in different domains over medium (yellow) and long term (green)
Fuel Cell community Impact
Research Impact
Consumer Individual Impact Imlementation of a unified approach to SOFC APU acceptance in vehicles Validation of the effect of key science principles on the consumer experience of APUs Better acceptance of SOFC APUs as judged by feedback from RV clubs and associations Characterisation of the cost, performance and lifetime specs to give impact on community Validated characterisation of results obtained in the field and in lab trials Tools given to individuals to get more involved in the assessment of SOFC APUs Implementation of linkages in FCH-JU community to define the important test parameters Provision of a SAPIENS App to allow researchers to inject their results Use of SAPIENS markers in feedback from consumers
Implementation of SAPIENS findings in next FCH-JU AWP due in 2016 Development of RV companies connection with the project findings Provision of Academic/ Research institution assistance to the RV OEM companies New risk-based methods to gather feedback from the RV users clubs Implementation of a validated APP in the 2018 guidelines on RVs provided by OEMs Development and evaluation of the SAPIENS conclusions in RTD establishments Information about the best SOFC APU systems for RVs provided to club individuals. Implementation of personal-oriented approaches to APUs Evaluation of personalised experiences of RV APUs Stratified safer and more effective info to consumers
Implementation of partners conclusions into full commercialisation to TRL 8
Campervan market dimensions
The main impact of this project will be on the motorhome (RV) market. Recent market reports show the RV market is growing rapidly at 4.8% annually with total numbers predicted to be 731,000 in 2017 worldwide. In the campervan sector, growth is strong, especially in the US and EU, but Asia Pacific is now beginning to kick in with good export prospects from 2015. At present it is estimated that the UK has more than 200,000 RVs in operation this year with new sales around 10,000 pa. The table below details the European RV market. The hotel load power requirements of each of the RVs could be met provided the fuel cell APU product is affordable, reliable and otherwise fit for purpose.
Table of RV sales year by year in the EU
In the EU, Germany dominates RV sales with 25,000 sold in 2014, about one third of the total EU numbers. Although the US is strongest in the RV segment, the EU has big players such as Burstner and Trigona. Growth has now picked up significantly since the recession when sales fell by 40%. EU sales of an appropriate fuel cell power supply could reach €100M within ten years. Clearly, this is an excellent prospect, especially if the US market could be addressed. Further sales in commercial vans could extend fuel cell APU sales by a further factor of three, showing significant market impact.
Specialist vehicle market nature & dimensions
A secondary but important aim of SAPIENS has been to identify and satisfy the needs of specialist vehicles, related to RVs but used in separate applications such as police work. Because the needs are fragmented, a range of solutions is appropriate and hence within the time and budget limitations of SAPIENS there was most effort to focus on a majority common platform (power & energy requirement) in the specialist vehicle market. However, the underlying technology is expected to be virtually identical. Beyond SAPIENS, to maximize economies of scale, a scale-up philosophy of the 16-cell stacks will be utilized for Adelan. The SAPIENS consortium has mainly been targeting auxiliary power systems for leisure and commercial uses. Although not directly mechanically connected to the drive-
train, there is an electrical connection that requires the main power unit (engine) to be run for battery charging purposes when stationary. This is dramatically overpowered for battery charging, very wasteful on fuel and can harm the engine in the long term because it is not running at optimum temperatures. Adelan fuel cells can provide the charging requirement for these auxiliary systems, reduce overall consumption (carbon emissions) and reduce the overall vehicle weight by up to 50 kg.
Another ‘blue light’ application is for police vehicles with a similar issue, having to have multiple auxiliary systems working drawing power while stationary sometimes for considerable periods of time. Again the battery charging and weight saving aspects are paramount as these vehicles are running at close to maximum weight and compromising fuel efficiency and vehicle performance.
Further large market SAPIENS targets are welfare support vehicles and mobile office requirements of various sectors, including Network Rail (GB), utility companies, the Forestry Commission (GB), and others. Further plays beyond the UK include vehicles associated with disaster relief. Specialist vehicle sales for the UK are extrapolated to give a EU market potential of 83000 APUs in EU28, essentially more than doubling the impact due to RVs only.
Main dissemination activities and exploitation of results
From the start of the project, it was made clear to the Consortium members that each and every partner was responsible for dissemination of the results and outcomes. Naturally, Autosleepers took command of the RV exhibitions and attended many, both in the UK and overseas. These are listed below
Academic conference presentations were delivered by Adelan, IREC, ZUT.
Posters were also widely disseminated at these conferences.
Peer reviewed publications in academic journals were mainly by Adelan and ZUT, as listed below. As predicted, 9 such papers were delivered over the three year SAPIENS project.
The website for the project was set up during the first six months and has been successful in both the public and private pages, in which the partners could record their reports.
Questionnaires to gauge consumer response were circulated by Autosleepers to their club members and the analysis is reported in WT9.4 with deliverable D9.4 reported by IREC.
ADE also visited AVL in Austria to discuss the DESTA results (DESTA was the FP7 SOFC APU project on trucks funded through FCH-JU) and to talk about possible future collaborations. Other visits to Pilote, the large French Campervan manufacturer, and to Conrad Anderson, a UK campervan converter, to discuss potential future collaborations, were also achieved.

List of Websites:
sapiens-project.eu

Related information

Contact

Kevin Kendall, (Director)
Tel.: +441214142739
E-mail
Record Number: 193543 / Last updated on: 2017-01-13