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ORCHESTRA Report Summary

Project ID: 645360
Funded under: H2020-EU.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - ORCHESTRA (Optical peRformanCe monitoring enabling dynamic networks using a Holistic cross-layEr, Self-configurable Truly flexible appRoAch)

Reporting period: 2015-02-01 to 2016-07-31

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

ORCHESTRA is a European research project aiming to develop a hierarchical and integrated performance monitoring and control architecture for new generation optical networks. In particular, ORCHESTRA aims to close the observe-process-act network control loop, making an optical network observable and then subject to optimization. Real monitoring data will be collected from coherent optical interfaces, deployed today in optical networks, which can be extended, almost for free, to also serve as software defined optical performance monitors (soft-OPM). To achieve this, novel digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms for real-time multi-impairment monitoring are being developed and will be combined with a novel hierarchical monitoring plane to handle monitoring information in an efficient and scalable manner. The ORCHESTRA network will be optimally planned to operate close to the best performance that is feasible under the current network conditions, reducing the margins typically reserved when provisioning the lightpaths. By gathering, processing and correlating monitoring information, the ORCHESTRA’s control and management plane will optimize the network by acting in response to certain provisioning tasks, physical layer degradations and/or fault events. This process will be running continuously in the background with the objective of improving the reliability of delivered services, reducing provisioning costs, and simplifying maintenance and operation procedures. The ORCHESTRA vision is to close the control loop (see figure), enabling dynamicity and unprecedented network efficiency.

Fig. 1. ORCHESTRA observe-decide-act dynamic control cycle.

The future of optical networks is coherent and elastic: operators are deploying an all-coherent, multi-format transport layer, leveraging DSP in powerful ASICs. This enables more robust transmission, allowing the shedding of redundant hardware and simplifying network design. ORCHESTRA takes advantage of the evolving trends and aggressively pursues the development of advanced DSP algorithms that add real-time impairment measurement-capability to optical transceivers; potentially, every single transceiver in the network can be used as a soft-OPM. A key point is that monitoring functions come almost for free: the coherent receivers have already deployed ASICs for DSP. In addition to algorithms for measuring and mitigating dispersion effects (present in current receivers), ORCHESTRA works on optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and takes on the challenge of estimating non-linear effects and crosstalk.

The ORCHESTRA network will have a plethora of soft-OPMs to extract physical-layer information. But we can do even more: an OPM at a receiver provides aggregate measures over a path that usually spans several links. ORCHESTRA’s ambitious objective is to correlate information from multiple soft-OPMs throughout the network, which opens up a multitude of possibilities such as: quality of transmission (QoT) estimation before lightpath establishment; detection, as well as anticipation, of ‘hard’ (total link failure) and ‘soft’ (QoT degradation) failures. Also, such methods make the gradual deployment of ORCHESTRA more appealing, since added value comes even from just a few OPMs.

ORCHESTRA also develops a hierarchical control and monitoring infrastructure capable of transferring and manipulating monitoring information while it goes beyond passive-monitoring operations by adding active-control functionality. ORCHESTRA’s monitoring plane will enable effective processing of monitoring information (filtering, correlation) and fault management, avoiding bottleneck issues related to centralized approaches. Active control functions include the tuning of transmission parameters of flexible transceivers (changing modulation format, FEC, power, etc), the shift in spectrum or rerouting. Control actions are examined at a local level for single connections, and then at higher hierarchy layers, to include multi–connection actions, keeping complexity and intervention as low as possible, and avoiding overwhelming the central controller. The introduction of elastic networking has increased vastly the optimization dimensions, while new types of problems have emerged. ORCHESTRA relies on the feedback from the soft-OPMs to develop true cross-layer optimization algorithms, targeting both dynamic but also offline (planning) use cases.

A number of network use cases were identified as candidates to make use of the ORCHESTRA developed technologies:
• Lightpaths provisioning with reduced margins
• Dynamic network adaptation
• Hard-/soft-failure localization and hard-failure prediction
• Optimize transmission during network upgrade and maintenance tasks
• Alien lightpaths support

The project’s core objectives span various technology levels that are combined to close the network control loop, in order to improve the efficiency of the network, increase the reliability of delivered services, reduce provisioning costs and simplify maintenance and operation procedures:
• Objective 1: Develop an advanced DSP-based physical-layer multi-impairment monitoring algorithm suite
• Objective 2: Develop a holistic approach to Quality of Transmission (QoT) determination in all network lightpaths (including intermediate and unmonitored ones), using information from distributed software-defined optical performance monitors (soft-OPMs) and advanced correlation algorithms
• Objective 3: Develop a hierarchical control and monitoring infrastructure providing active and passive monitoring capabilities and rapid network adaptation functionality
• Objective 4: Develop dynamic optimization procedures for fault management and network re-optimization yielding unprecedented network efficiency
• Objective 5: Lower the barriers of resource sharing among operators’ domains through the efficient monitoring of alien lightpaths and accurate physical layer SLAs
• Objective 6: Demonstrate dynamic and highly efficient flexible network operation enabled by software defined optical performance monitoring

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

The main achievements during the first period (first 18 months) are summarized below:

WP2: Software Defined Monitoring and Dynamic Network Architecture
The reference network scenarios, which include the network framework, the technology, reference network topologies, the reference control plane architecture, and a reference ageing model were described and five use cases were identified, motivated by telecom operators. A cost model tailored to an important use case related to postponing investments was defined. The state of the art in optical performance monitoring (OPM) was also reviewed. The review included hardware OPMs and the state of the art monitoring and compensation DSP algorithms. This led to a preliminary identification of monitoring parameters to be targeted in ORCHESTRA. Experimental testbeds for design and implementation of (state-of-the-art and novel) monitoring algorithms were setup. Experiments were performed to study how filtering effects from Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (ROADM) nodes impact the performance of the transmission. Experimental assessment of literature DSP demodulation and monitoring algorithms was also carried out. In addition, the consortium defined the reference control and management plane for the ORCHESTRA network. The emerging ABNO architecture was chosen as the candidate model for the control and management (monitoring) planes, while the NETCONF protocol– including YANG model– was chose for communications in both planes. A novel hierarchical monitoring architecture was proposed for ORCHESTRA, consisting of virtual monitoring entities and agents with the OAM Handler of the ABNO controller as root entity of the hierarchy. A scalability study was performed to compare the performance of such hierarchical approach to the traditional centralized OAM solution. The main causes of hard and soft failures and implications on the services were identified which were then complemented by actions to recover from the related failures.

WP3: Development of Flexible Optical Transceiver and Software-Defined Optical Performance Monitoring Algorithm Suite
The development of a flexible transmitter to be used in dynamic reconfiguration experiments, along with the associated transmitter side DSP has begun. Two hardware setups based on commercial-off-the-shelf components were conceptually designed and assessed with a set of laboratory experiments. The arbitrary waveguide generator (AWG)-based transmitter architecture was selected and is currently further developed. In parallel, for the receiver side the RxDSP demodulation platform architecture was identified. Existing DSP algorithms were extended with demodulation algorithms addressing Polarization Demultiplexing, Frequency Offset Estimation and Carrier Phase Recovery. The demodulation algorithms were verified through numerical simulations and validated experimentally with data collected during the ORCHESTTRA early field trial. Moreover, after the extensive literature review, the targeted impairments were identified and the development of related DSP monitoring algorithms has begun. Existing monitoring algorithms for linear impairments (e.g. CD, PDL, PMD) were developed and a novel monitoring algorithm for filtering effects is currently developed.

WP4: Cross-layer Algorithms: Multiple-Rx Correlation and Optimization
WP4 is developing correlation algorithms that use information of multiple-Rx (soft-OPM): (i) for estimating the QoT of unmonitored (or new) lightpaths and (ii) identifying the causes of quality of transmission (QoT) problems (soft failures). Two QoT estimation frameworks were developed and an initial study of using correlation for localizing failures was carried out. Development has reached a mature phase and performed studies showcased the benefits that can be obtained. Moreover, based on the ORCHESTRA use cases defined in WP2 we identified the relevant optimization problems, classified them in static and dynamic, and started developing appropriate optimization algorithms. A heuristic algorithm for statically planning and upgrading the network with reduced margins was developed (an optimal based on ILP is under development). This heuristic was used to perform a multi-period techno-economic study. Algorithms for recovery from soft-failures were developed and more dynamic optimization problems are currently considered. The developed algorithms have started integrating in the DEPLOY module, a standalone module developed in WP4 to perform case studies. WP4 also developed workflows for all ORCHESTRA use cases, taking into account ORCHESTRA’s hierarchical monitoring plane. Locking mechanisms so as to avoid contention in conflicting actions in the hierarchy were identified and analysed.

WP5: Control and Monitoring Plane and OAM Handler
The emerging ABNO architecture was chosen as the candidate model for the control and management (monitoring) planes. In ORCHESTRA the OAM functionalities are not centralized: a hierarchical monitoring architecture was proposed and designed, with the OAM Handler of the ABNO controller to be the root. So, OAM functionalities are provided at each layer of the hierarchy; each layer is responsible for only a sub-set of network elements or lightpaths, thus providing high scalability. A general architecture valid for the OAM Handler and for each monitoring entity of any layer has been provided. The API interfaces between the monitoring entities were designed based on extensions to YANG models and NETCONF. A first implementation of a 3-layers hierarchical monitoring architecture was completed. The OAM Handler and its functionalities of alarms processing and connection recovery were identified exploiting two proposed databases devoted to store physical layer information and other information required by correlation algorithms developed in WP4. The required communications between the OAM Handler and the other ABNO components were defined considering the failure-action matchings identified in WP2. A first implementation of these functionalities has been performed considering an SDN-controller based on OpenDayLight. Regarding the control plane, integration of control plane functionalities for lightpaths provisioning and adaptation has started. On the control plane side, a preliminary implementation of control actions (mostly focused to lightpath provisioning) was performed by leveraging on the OpenDaylight SDN controller and its NETCONF protocol plugin at the southbound interface.

WP6: Testbed and Demo
An early field trial was carried out in TILAB premises. The goal of the trial was to acquire impairment data of a prototype coherent flexible interface (ORCHESTRA transponder) under realistic conditions, in a field-deployed network fibre environment. Additionally, a comparison with data acquired from 100G coherent interfaces from an existing state-of-the-art commercial transport system was performed. The most significant impairments tested during the trial were PMD, state of polarisation (SOP), noise, nonlinearities, crosstalk, depending on modulation format, channel spacing and baud rate. The results from the early field trial influence the development of algorithms in WP3 and WP4.

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

ORCHESTRA is progressing well beyond the current state of the art in several fronts. A competitive analysis carried out by the consortium showed that in addition to Telecom Operators (such as Orange and British Telecom) several optical technology vendors have started to show interest in approaches similar to ORCHESTRA’s use cases (provisioning with low margins, network adaptation), confirming the continued and increasing relevance of the project objectives and expected impact. To address the related market, three ORCHESTRA “components” were identified by partners as candidate for exploitation: monitor enabled receivers, a network planning and operation tool module, and Yang-based control/management modules and hierarchical monitoring. Moreover, detailed techno-economic studies to support the exploitation of the ORCHESTRA concept in the metro, continental-size and in core WDM networks were also provided. A patent in relation to the developed control plane is in the final phase of being filed. Also, numerous publications in high-impact journals and conferences have been achieved that are being acknowledged by the community.

More details regarding the performed activities and the way these progress the state of the art are presented in the following.

Software Defined Monitoring and Dynamic Network Architecture
The monitoring capabilities of optical networks are rather basic, while monitoring information is used only for failure management and is not used in optimization decisions. ORCHESTRA explores the possibility of an optical network that harvests and makes a more efficient use of the monitoring capabilities that are already present in the optical networks, and evaluates the potential of introducing new/advanced monitoring features.
ORCHESTRA explores the idea of using real monitoring data, collected using DSP from coherent optical transceivers, which can be extended, almost for free, to also serve as software defined optical performance monitors (soft-OPM). The use of coherent receivers as active monitors of the performance of the lightpaths is an improvement with respect to the actual monitoring capabilities available in the management suites used today in optical networks. These management suites use hardware monitors or digitally framed overhead bytes or analog optical power monitoring points. For the evaluation of the ORCHESTRA advanced monitoring concept, TILAB, described a number of use cases in different network contexts (metro, core). An important use case, that of provisioning lightpaths with reduced margins, showed that the ORCHESTRA monitoring features can postpone the investments and achieve CAPEX and OPEX costs saving. Field experiments were performed o provide input to the various research directions and support the development of the DSP monitoring algorithms.

Development of Flexible Optical Transceiver and Software-Defined Optical Performance Monitoring Algorithm Suite
NTUA and NKBL are involved in ORCHESTRA developing a flexible optical transceiver, a DSP-based suite enhancing the modulation-demodulation operation with optical performance monitoring capabilities.
Coherent systems have become a reality for the deployed optical networks enabling the upgrade to 100G and 200G rates employing DP-QPSK and DP-16-QAM formats over a single wavelength. The forthcoming upgrade to 400G systems requires efficient hardware implementations and software techniques in the optical transceivers in order to achieve this significant increase in capacity while minimizing the margins for operating the system in its full potential. Furthermore, optimum utilization in terms of capacity and spectral efficiency is also required considering the different services demands and the system adaptation due to degradation between BOL (begin of life) and EOL (end of life).
The ORCHESTRA transceiver copes with the above challenges by implementing an AWG-based transmitter solution with a commercial IQ modulator offering a flexible and reconfigurable building block and to support the observe-process-act network control architecture. Enabling the generation of multiple modulation formats (from DP-QPSK up to DP-64-QAM) in various symbol rates (up to 32 Gbaud) the transceiver achieves high granularity in spectral utilization and single-channel capacity. Furthermore, due to the inherent programmability of this approach (supported by the AWG), transmitter-side DSP functionalities such as pulse/spectral shaping and pre-equalization are also feasible. These add-on functionalities are considered as a cornerstone for the Sliceable-Bandwidth Variable Transponders (S-BVTs) concept, which is gaining traction and introduces further elasticity in the next-generation networks. Increased interest is coming from industry and academia alike, towards enhancing the system dynamicity and flexibility, reveals the timely nature and the innovative character of the ORCHESTRA approach that relies on the described hardware architecture (e.g. several presentations at the latest ECOC 2016 conference, such as the workshop on “Exploring the real value of flexible optical networks” and sessions on “Elastic Optical Networks”).
Complementary to the flexible transceiver development, a reliable and robust DSP platform is required to exploit the full potential of the highly reconfigurable network architecture. Within ORCHESTRA a fully functional demodulation algorithm suite has been developed to enable the detection of the various DP M QAM on the receiver-side as a counterpart to the functionalities described above for the transmitter-side DSP. On top of this platform, NTUA along with NBL are developing a software suite enabling the performance monitoring of the received optical flows. Linear impairment measurements (such as CD, PMD, PDL) are combined with common performance metrics (e.g., OSNR, BER, Q-factor), in order to provide better insights in the link and system performance, and enhance the “observation” part of ORCHESTRA’s control loop. Novel algorithms for filtering effects and other impairments are also targeted in the framework of the project. The development of this combined suite of DSP algorithms for coherent reception and software-defined OPM functions remains a cutting-edge research topic. ORCHESTRA has a competitive edge with its combined end-to-end approach and the project results are pushing the envelope in the respective fields.

Cross-layer Algorithms: Multiple-Rx Correlation and Optimization
CTI, SSSA and NBL cooperate in the development of cross-layer algorithms for flexible optical networks, which take into account and adjust physical layer parameters, while operating on reduced margins. They also propose mechanisms that utilize soft-OPM for fault diagnosis and localization in order to identify malfunctioning equipment that has to be replaced, and link and node failures that break network operation.
In particular, estimating the QoT of lightpaths is a key functionality that is typically performed by a “Q tool” that is used when planning, upgrading or operating an optical network. QoT estimation methods range from very complex solving of Schrödinger equations, to simulations (such as VPI) and to analytical models of lower complexity. Recently the GN model was introduced and shown to be quite accurate, while its approximated closed form analytical version combines reasonable accuracy and low computational complexity. Such models perform forward QoT estimation based on accurate knowledge of the network characteristics and physical layer parameters. In ORCHESTRA we rely on information of the monitors (soft-OPM) and correlate that taking into account the network level (the routes of the lightpaths) to obtain accurate estimates the QoT of unestablished paths. These can be used when upgrading the network or operating it closes to its physical limits. Two such estimations frameworks were developed. The first framework is based on kriging and norm minimization techniques and is used to estimate the SNR of to-be-established lightpaths. The second is based on machine learning techniques and is used to improve the accuracy of the physical layer parameters of the Q-tool, so as to improve the accuracy of the QoT estimation of the lightpaths. Also, monitoring in optical networks is traditionally based on hardware components (power and OSNR) integrated in the linecards. The provided features are satisfactory for failure and fault localization, but not very useful for cross layer optimization decisions. However, this is changing with ORCHESTRA, working on fault diagnosis and localization in order to identify malfunctioning equipment that has to be replaced, and link and node failures that break network operation. An effective fault localization algorithm has been proposed exploiting again Network Kriging. Being based on Network Kriging, linear operations are performed to localize soft- or hard-failure, thus, the fault localization results to be simple and effective.
Also, resource allocation algorithms (RSA) for flexible networks focus mainly on static network scenarios, while in most cases allocation is performed by algorithms that neglect the physical layer. ORCHESTRA develops re-optimization mechanisms for the network in order to recover from soft failures. Such a mechanism applied to a network with two service classes was proposed, where soft-failure recovery is achieved by adaptation to more robust transmission (e.g., baudrate increases or changing to a more robust modulation format) enabled by spectrum sharing between the different service classes. In normal conditions the shared spectrum is used by low-priority traffic and both high- and low-priority traffic transmit at the full bit rate; in case a more robust transmission is required for a high-priority traffic because of a soft failure, the shared spectrum is reconfigured to be used by the high-priority one to satisfy its full bit rate, while the adjacent low-priority is downgrade to a lower bit rate. Thus, high-priority traffic can be recovered by just adapting transmission parameters, avoiding more expensive new path and frequency slot computation and rerouting. Moreover, a routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) algorithm was proposed to maximize the spectrum sharing among different classic. A second study was carried out and proposed a novel toolkit that performs dynamic reconfiguration to render the network survivable from soft failures. In particular, the toolkit considers the combination of three different techniques to improve the QoT of a problematic lightpath: (i) increasing its Forward Error Correction (FEC), (ii) creating spectrum guardband to decrease the interference, and (iii) changing its modulation format to a more robust one. More algorithms for dynamic network operation are re-optimization are currently being developed.
The traditional lightpaths provisioning approach uses abundant margins to avoid subsequent interventions, related to equipment degradation (due to ageing), or increased interference (due to newly established lightpaths), or particular events (e.g., maintenance operations). These margins often force the deployment of 3R regenerators or more robust transponders that, under the conditions present during the set-up, are not necessary. Clearly, provisioning with reduced margins would be desirable, as it can postpone or avoid the purchase of equipment. This, however, requires new mechanisms to anticipate, identify and remedy the problems that could occur later, after the network planning and set-up. ORCHESTRA’s responsive monitoring and control plane (discussed in the next section) combined with dynamic optimization algorithms (discussed above) serve exactly these needs. Additionally, provisioning with reduced margins requires specific optimization algorithms that take into account the adaptability/flexibility of the transponders and measurements (through the ORCHESTRA monitors) on the current state of the network, which deteriorates with time due to ageing and increased interference. We developed a heuristic algorithm to provision lightpaths with reduced margins, taking into account the actual interference of the network. An initial study in which the algorithm was applied in a multi-period planning scenario quantified the benefits that can be achieved by the reduced margins approach in a realistic continental size network with realistic traffic. An optimal algorithm for provisioning lightpaths with reduced margins is also under development.
The ORCHESTRA advanced monitoring architecture enables the development of cross-layer optimization algorithms that advance the current state of the art. ORCHESTRA achieves high QoT estimation accuracy, provisioning lightpaths with reduced system margins and dynamic network operation and continuous re-optimization, to yield a network of unprecedented efficiency. What is also important is that ORCHESTRA plans to integrate the proposed algorithmic solution in the DEPLOY module, a standalone tool which will be used to perform case studies and showcase the benefits of the ORCHESTRA developed solutions.

Control and Monitoring Plane and OAM Handler
SSSA and NXW have been involved in activities related to the control and management plane.
In the recent years, several advances were achieved in the data and control planes for elastic optical networks (EONs). Data plane transponder technologies are going to support flexible transmission, enabling variable bit-rate, optimizing the spectral efficiency based on the required optical reach and also enabling slice-ability and monitoring. Software Defined Networking (SDN) is emerging as the control plane able to remotely set such transmission characteristics (such as bit rate) and appropriately (re)configure the optical switches. However, while the data and control planes have experienced such advances, the innovations in the management plane are lagging behind. We are still missing the management mechanisms to reduce deployment and operational complexity and maximize benefits of EONs capabilities. As an example, several issues in the management are related to the presence of network devices from different vendors and the lack of standard solutions (e.g., for operation administration and maintenance — OAM) complicates the management of a multi-vendor network. In this context, Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) is emerging as an SDN protocol standardized by IETF, which provides both control (e.g., data plane device configuration) and management functionalities (e.g., access to monitoring information). A relevant aspect of NETCONF is that it may rely on the Yet Another Next Generation (YANG) modelling language to describe network devices in a standard way. YANG and NETCONF are of interest for operators since they provide a standard way to control and manage network elements, independently from the vendor.
ORCHESTRA leverages these trends bringing several progresses beyond the state of the art:
- A YANG model for sliceable transponders was proposed. It describes transponders based on multi-carrier technology, enabling slice-ability and variable baud rate, bit rate, number of carriers, FEC, and modulation format, and supporting the monitoring of several physical parameters such as chromatic dispersion, BER, Q factor, and others. Physical data was included in the YANG model (e.g., baudrate, output power at the transmitter side, information on the local oscillator at the receiver, the analog bandwidth of the receiver, monitoring parameters). A classification on the configurable and state data is provided. We defined a specific type in the model to discern between the central frequency of a sub-carrier and of a media-channel and included the “transmission scheme” to identify the adopted transmission technique. For that, a new type is defined including NWDM, OFDM, and others.
- Certain NETCONF functionalities were used
for novel purposes such as failure management. In particular, we propose to use NETCONF notifications to implement alarms after both soft- and hard-failures. A controller in the management plane can subscribe to a notification when a specific monitored parameter exceeds a given threshold (e.g., pre-FEC BER higher than 10−4). The involved message is create-subscription. Such message includes the possibility to set a filter, such filter can be used to define the threshold. In case the threshold is passed by the monitored parameter, the monitoring system triggers the NETCONF notification (i.e., the alarm), which is sent to the controller subscribed to such notification
- A hierarchical management plane was proposed to provide scalable management plane. Indeed, the amount of alarms generated by an optical network may be huge. Moreover, alarms in next generation optical networks may also become more frequent because of system margin reduction. Indeed, vendors and operators are now oriented to reduce system margins that account for ageing, model inaccuracies, cross-phase modulation and other degradations. Such margins cause the underestimation of the optical reach, thus, increases the number of regenerators in a network and in turn the costs. A reduction of system margins can decrease the number of installed regenerator, but, on the other hand, a more frequent generation of alarms may occur. Indeed, more conservative thresholds should be adopted to trigger alarm generation. The adoption of the proposed hierarchical monitoring architecture provides high scalability since each layer is responsible for a specific set of lightpaths or network elements, thus limiting the amount of alarms to process per entity as well as localization algorithms to run and reactions to be triggered
- The architecture of the OAM Handler and of monitoring entities was proposed considering also databases to be exploited to enable algorithms for provisioning (RSA) and re-optimization, developed in related tasks (WP4).
- Other YANG models for the ORCHESTRA network elements have been proposed: e.g., monitoring entity at a generic layer
In the recent years, network operators have shown their interest in the deployment of data plane hardware providing multi-vendor inter-operability. This way, operators can use systems of different vendors looking for a trade-off among transmission performance (e.g., achievable transmission distance), network device reuse, and capital expenditure without the need of being tied to single vendor equipment. Multi-vendor operability can be applied at the node level: i.e., a node composed of components provided by different vendors is assembled under the same control system. This has created the concept of “white boxes”. With respect to black boxes provided by a single vendor, white boxes are assembled with different vendor’s components (i.e., disaggregated hardware). In this context, YANG is the agreed way among operators to support interfaces with the control and the management (monitoring) system.
Thus, ORCHESTRA control and management components – being based on new YANG models – are very relevant with respect to the aforementioned current trends and perfectly match the emerging multi-vendor requirements and scenarios.

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