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PACAS Report Summary

Project ID: 699306
Funded under: H2020-EU.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - PACAS (Participatory Architectural Change Management in ATM Systems)

Reporting period: 2016-03-01 to 2016-08-31

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

-What is the problem/issue being addressed?
ATM systems are complex systems-of-systems that are managed via a layered architectural model, which includes operational, organisational, and technical layers to ease handling complexity. Due to strong interdependencies in an ATM system, any change introduced in any of these layers might trigger changes both within the same layer and in the other layers. Understanding all possible consequences of a design decision in ATM systems is a challenge due to the complexity of these systems and the existence of tight interdependencies within the ATM architecture.
- Why is it important for society?
A careful consideration of possible changes together with their implications on the entire ATM system is crucial to support decision-making, while making sure that the ATM system does not suffer from any issues with respect to functionality, safety, security, performance, cost efficiency, or other desired characteristics of a well-functioning ATM system.
-What are the overall objectives?
PACAS is about supporting change management in Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems from an architectural point of view, relying on the end-to-end inclusion of ATM domain stakeholders through gamification. The project constructs a platform that facilitates understanding, modelling and analysing changes in the ATM system at different layers of abstraction. To accommodate the expertise of the various domain stakeholders PACAS relies on the provision of multiple views at the strategic layer, in order to represent and analyse different objectives, namely those related to economical, organizational, security, and safety concerns. The PACAC process intends to keep the views, as well as the strategic and architectural layers aligned by finding an optimal solution (trade-off) among the various objectives through a novel participatory design process.

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

"During the first period, the PACAS consortium has released the first version of the participatory design process and that of the proof-of-concept platform. The two are the result of extensive gap analysis performed along three lines: (i) the design of large scale systems, focusing on participatory decision making processes, the role of incentives in these processes also through gamification mechanisms, enterprise architectures (EA) that are the de-facto standard in ATM design, and requirements engineering for socio-technical systems; (ii) modelling concepts, focusing on EAs and socio-technical systems modelling for each of the PACAS stakeholder perspectives including economic and organisational, safety and security domains; (iii) reasoning techniques, focusing on techniques specifically tailored for each of the PACAS stakeholder perspectives (economic, organizational, safety and security), to then analyze multi-objective reasoning techniques for change management. Gap analysis is the result not only of an extensive consolidation of existing work, but also through interactions with stakeholders from the ATM domain. Such interaction took place as part of two validation workshops. WS#0 conducted interviews to identify stakeholders’ needs with respect to the PACAS concept, while WPS#1 served two purposes: build the PACAS scenario with the AB members and validate the first release of the platform (presented through a wireframe demonstration)."

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

PACAS aims to provide support for change management in ATM systems by effectively collecting and representing expert knowledge, capturing possible changes and their corresponding impacts on the ATM system, and finally reasoning on these representations to find the optimal solution based on stakeholder-defined criteria. Thus, the first release of the participatory process and platform build on the following innovation pillars (in line with the overall PACAS R&D activities):
● Multi-view participatory design process to support change management for European ATM Systems architectural design. In period 1, the gap analysis in designing large scale systems has shaped the first release of the process, the first incentives and gamification mechanisms to ensure long-lasting participation of ATM stakeholders. The process represents a new way for stakeholders to collaborate in an open-ended, engaging yet rigorous process that, by aligning the designers’ perspectives, should result in a more harmonized evolution of the EATMA.
● Innovative multi-view, multi-level and multi-stakeholder concepts for modelling ATM systems to capture strategic objectives of involved domain stakeholders, such as safety, security, and organisational concerns in separate views, emphasizing the sociotechnical nature of ATM systems. In period 1, we have identified the state of art modelling techniques for each PACAS perspective, tailoring a separate view per expertise (economics, organisation, security and safety).
● New reasoning techniques that will allow us to analyse strategic objectives from multiple perspectives and the interdependencies between the strategic and functional (operational, service, system) levels to preserve their alignment. In period 1, we have identified the state of art reasoning techniques through an in-depth gap analysis, and started work in defining impact propagation techniques per view.

The impact of the work conducted in period 1 remain those of the he adoption of the PACAS participatory framework, which is expected to strongly support the achievement of the following goals described in the ATM Architecture SESAR Exploratory Research Topic (ER-10-2015):
● Better understand and model how architectural and design choices influence the ATM system and its various behaviours,
● Propose innovative approaches, derived also from other industrial domains, such as participatory design,
● Model changes and support in a structured way change management and decision-making.

As far as socio-economic and societal impacts are concerned, the proposed Participatory Design Approach will have a great impact in motivating and involving ATM stakeholders at different levels and also in better communicating and sharing information and objectives. The first validation workshop highlighted an interesting application of our framework as a support tool during ATM face-to-face meetings for different decision-making activities, where PACAS will be used to engage stakeholders in decision-making as well as support model creation and customization.
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