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Project ID: 608678
Funded under: FP7-NMP
Country: Italy

Periodic Report Summary 2 - COMMONENERGY (re-conceptualize shopping malls from consumerism to energy conservation)

Project Context and Objectives:
Non-residential buildings cover a significant part of the EU building stock, and, among them, the wholesale and retail sector present the highest specific energy demand, that contributes to the widespread perception of the shopping malls as “icon of consumerist society”.
Stated their general high impact on modern society and urban visibility, the CommONEnergy project was developed to give practical support (tools and solutions) to transform them as lighthouse of energy efficient architecture and systems. With a focus on existing shopping malls to be refurbished, and on buildings with a different original function redesigned to become shopping malls, the objective of the project is to reduce the environmental impact of the commercial buildings, while changing the people’s perception towards them.
Taking into account the peculiarities of shopping malls building directly influencing the retrofitting (lower ownership lifetime expectancy, continuous re-styling flux, need of standard pre-manufactured parts, large spaces and volumes, complex layout and management, specific energy end-uses mainly driven by commercial reason, involved stakeholders with different perspective, etc.) the project has developed 15 solutions-sets, within a systemic retrofitting approach including support tools and methods for energy-economic evaluation, continuous commissioning, environmental and socio-cultural impact assessment, health and comfort analysis. The inclusion of all these aspects in the evaluation and selection of the retrofitting solution-sets allows the widest replication of the cases investigated and demonstrated during the project.
The methodology foresaw firstly a building stock analysis to identify reference buildings, analysis the main architectural, plants and social features of this building typology, as well as possible interaction with the grid, to finally perform a parametric analysis following identified retrofitting drivers to establish more promising solutions from costs and benefits point of view (WP2). This is followed by the development of suitable architectural and envelope solutions to reduce energy needs (WP3) and active solutions in terms of energy generation, distribution, and final uses, as well as intelligent building energy management systems enabling the integrated operation of such systems (WP4). Results of these three RTD work packages are being gathered to define the above mentioned systemic retrofitting solution-sets and control strategies (WP5). Within WP6 three demo-cases (in Modena – Italy, Valladolid – Spain, and Trondheim – Norway) are being retrofitted, including the solutions we are developing in the project. The technical-scientific work is disseminated through different kind of actions in WP7, while WP1 covers all project management actions.
By the closure of the first reporting period (M18), the WP2 was finalized, with the completion of all related outputs. On the other hand, the main focus of the second reporting period was to complete the development of the solutions for reducing energy needs (WP3) and for enhancing energy efficiency (WP4), to allow defining systemic retrofitting solution-sets and control strategies. Methods and tools included in WP3 to WP5 (retrofit Integrated Design Process and library, Integrative Modelling Environment, Energy-Economic evaluation tool, Lean Construction Management, Continuous Commissioning platform, Environmental, Socio-cultural and functional impact assessment methods) are mostly finalized and also partially used for the technologies assessment. The outputs of the RTD WP were gathered to define the solution sets (WP5). Meanwhile, during last 18 months the retrofitting works were implemented and completed in two demo cases (Modena and Valladolid), while in the Norwegian demo there is still some work going on (expected to be completed by the end of 2016).

Project Results:
In WP2 the shopping malls stock was characterized, in terms of architectural, constructive, and energy systems features, social and environmental impacts, market saturation. Main inefficiencies of shopping centres (SC) were identified, regarding energy, comfort, functioning and logistic. SC typical functional patterns, influence of stakeholders on energy figures and their interaction with social context was defined. Furthermore, the buildings interaction with energy grids was analysed and a set of Retrofitting Drivers identified.
Concerning the architectural and envelope solutions (WP3), the Integrated Design Process for retrofitting shopping malls and relative library are under finalization, while some ventilative cooling strategies were identified. The modular multifunctional climate adaptive façade system concept was fixed and tests on prototypes are underway. Solutions for green integrations were tested, while a new multi-properties coating was developed and applied in one demo case. Two daylight concepts were developed, for atrium & corridor (modular roof structure), and for shop (cylindrical tube with highly reflective material). To improve the indoor acoustic environment, concepts coupling acoustic and thermal layer were identified and tested.
In WP4 the Integrated Modelling Environment (IME) was defined, the overall structure and specific numerical models for SC technologies have been identified, while specific control rules for each technologies and management strategies are under finalization. The iBEMS architecture for SC was defined, together with first concepts for improving and connecting electrical vehicle and energy storage systems. Existing Measures and Verification protocols were adapted to the SC case. The smart-grid concept based on several scenarios for local electric and thermal smart grid (including eV charging station load profile in SC) were analysed; one scenario (storage battery pack connected to PV and eV charging station) was under testing in EURAC outdoor lab in Bolzano, while other tests about the use of RES and storage systems were performed in ACCIONA testing facility,. Likewise, novel concepts were developed to improve the artificial lighting systems, satisfying managers’ and tenants’ needs but also matching the results of a perception study analysing the customers’ experience.
In WP5 the simulation working group performed modelling and simulations by using the IME (WP4) on the reference buildings, with the aim to identify the optimal deep retrofitting solution-sets and the potential achievable performances (energy saving, power profile re-shaping, IEQ improvement). The online user-friendly shopping mall economic assessment tool was finalised and is available in the project website, while the LCA methodology, to assess environmental and social impact of shopping centre retrofitting solution-sets was defined. For the continuous commissioning platform, the measurable KPI and relative calculation procedures were implemented in a web-based platform whose interface is in development phase.
Activities in the demo-cases (WP6) are ongoing. In Mercado del Val in Valladolid the retrofitting was concluded (from CommONEnergy: façade system integrating natural ventilation and daylight harvesting solutions) and iBEMS as well as the control strategies are under commissioning. In Modena Canaletto, the retrofitting was completed (from CommONEnergy: coupled HVAC+refrigeration system, advanced natural and artificial lighting systems, special anti-mist air diffuser, multifunctional roof paint, iBEMS). In CitySyd in Trondheim, the retrofitting is under implementation with a special focus on natural and artificial lighting, as well as on iBEMS.
The results achieved were disseminated through different channels (WP7): organization of public workshops, presentations at international conferences, digital communications, launch of a sustainability award for SC, articles and newsletters.

Potential Impact:
Project expected main result is the development of a Systemic Retrofitting Approach (SRA) made of innovative technologies and solution sets as well as methods and tools to support their implementation. 15 solution sets are being conceived and developed, suited for application to the largest number of shopping mall typologies in Europe. Defined on the basis of the retrofitting challenges identified in European shopping mall building stock, these solutions foresee the adaptation of different technologies and the analysis of possible integration of different functions, while maximizing the exploitation of available resources. The solutions will be combined with support tools and guidelines for implement them at affordable prices.
The impact will be measurable in two direction: during the project lifetime and after its end, in a follow up phase expected to last until 2020. The implementation of Systemic Retrofitting Approach is expected to engender a reduction of energy consumption up to 75% at the analysed demo-cases, overall savings of greenhouse gas emissions of more than 1 Mt CO2 within 2020, enhance the use of RES, and meanwhile ensure a payback time of 7 years.
Moreover, further indirect impacts are predictable, related to environment (energy saving helps in the mitigation of climate change, high replication potentials of CommONEnergy technologies encourage the spreading of good practices), job market (creation of a new generation of skilled workers and SME contractors in the construction sector, creation of new jobs), and social context (strengthening of the connection with the industry actors encouraging significant industry investment, improvement of internal comfort considering thermal-hygrometric, lighting, acoustic and air-quality parameters).

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