Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

FP7

TRACE Report Summary

Project ID: 607669
Funded under: FP7-SECURITY
Country: United Kingdom

Final Report Summary - TRACE (TRafficking as A Criminal Enterprise)

Executive Summary:
TRafficking as A Criminal Enterprise (TRACE) assessed and consolidated information surrounding the perpetrators and the wider trafficking enterprise to:
• make policy recommendations for disrupting the activity of human trafficking; and
• support stakeholders in combating human trafficking.
In order to provide stakeholders with actionable insight, TRACE adopted a multi-disciplinary approach: legal; criminological; socio-economical; psychological; and law enforcement-oriented, to provide a full account of the phenomenon, and build upon on-going and related European and national projects and activities, as well as examine any gaps in current anti-trafficking policies being implemented in EU member states. It focused on the activities of the perpetrators and developed an understanding of the structure, social relationships, modus operandi, travel routes and technologies associated with different types of trafficking of human beings (THB). TRACE partners also conducted a high-level analysis of the political and socio-economic aspects that contribute to human trafficking and also forecast the impact of any social, political, economic and criminal trends on THB in Europe in order to to provide actionable insights into the growing and emerging trends relating to human trafficking in the future. Where appropriate, TRACE focused its work around three key areas of human trafficking: 1) Trafficking for sexual exploitation; 2) Trafficking for forced labour or services and 3) trafficking for criminal activities.

People are trafficked for many exploitative purposes such as: prostitution, forced labour, domestic service, begging, and forced marriages, to name a few of the most common examples. The trace project has confirmed a rise in emerging purposes of trafficking, such as forced criminality for begging and identity fraud, for example, when project partners examined future trends in human trafficking. Trafficked persons are moved across both international and domestic borders and it would appear that no community is immune to trafficking in human beings, and the global reach of human trafficking appears to be increasing. This is despite there being more actors fighting this crime than ever before. All European Countries are affected, and depending on their wealth, some countries are predominantly either countries of origin, transit countries or destination countries.

Stakeholder engagement was key to the success of the TRACE project. Each work package focused on a stakeholder collaboration exercise that enabled stakeholders from TRACE target stakeholder groups (law enforcement agencies, civil society organisations and policy-makers) to validate and critique findings and policy recommendations that would address issues requiring address in order to disrupt the business of human trafficking.

Project Context and Objectives:
People are trafficked for many exploitative purposes such as: prostitution, forced labour, domestic service, begging, and forced marriages, to name a few of the most common examples. The trace project has identified emerging purposes of trafficking, such as forced criminality including identify fraud. The individuals are moved across both international and domestic borders and it would appear that no community is immune to trafficking in human beings; indeed, the global reach of human trafficking appears to be increasing. Today, there are more actors fighting this crime than ever before, and yet, despite the tremendous efforts and financial investments, there is no evidence to suggest that human trafficking is decreasing. Trafficking in human beings has “become one of the fastest growing illegal activities and is said to be producing between $7-$10 billion dollars a year.” It has become a global business, reaping huge profits for traffickers and organised crime syndicates, generating massive human rights violations and causing serious problems for national and international governments, including the European Union. All European Countries are affected, and depending on their wealth, some countries are predominantly either countries of origin, transit countries or destination countries. As a criminal act, human trafficking violates the rule of law, threatening EU and national jurisdictions and international law.

Within this context and having regard to the extent of the crime and consequences for national and international societies, the TRACE project was designed around meeting the following main objectives:
1. To develop a theory-driven understanding of trafficking as a criminal enterprise;
2. To acquire a part-theory, part-evidence-based understanding of the specific characteristics of the traffickers, including: who they; why they become traffickers; and what the nature of the interaction/s amongst traffickers, and between traffickers and those those they traffick and third parties who facilitate human trafficking, e.g., other criminals or corrupt officials;
3. To develop a framework of the factors influencing the trends in trafficking of human beings, e.g., technology, economic and political trends;
4. To develop a theory-driven understanding of the policies in place and provide a framework of what further policy actions are available for stakeholders.

Project Results:
The TRACE project met all of the above objectives through the course of the project.

Work package 1 (WP1) Human trafficking as a criminal enterprise aimed to develop an understanding of the way in which human trafficking is defined and framed in Europe. WP1 culminated in the publication of three deliverables. First, Deliverable 1.1 “A review of the implementation of the EU strategy on human trafficking by EU members”, provides state of the art research on human trafficking in the context of the European Union (EU) and identifies the main obstacles and challenges in relation to implementing the legal and policy framework. This report includes an analysis of the implementation of the Directive in five countries based on the midterm evaluation of the strategy, the numerous reports and (academic) articles on human trafficking within the EU, and the GRETA country reports. Our findings show that despite the attention at both the EU and national levels to address and combat human trafficking, a number of issues remain problematic, including the protection of victims; prosecution and prevention of THB. Deliverable 1.2 “Review of the media framing of human trafficking” is the result of analysis of media content in the UK, Poland and Cyprus. 212 press articles from 10 newspapers published between 2014 and 2015 reveal that the dominant discourse surrounding human trafficking in the press concerns a focus on sexual exploitation, and particularly prostitution. Further, the British and Polish media also framed human trafficking as a matter of immigration. In the tabloid style press we also observed a heavy reliance on sensational stories such as arrests and court cases with a common thread of high level of detail about anything that may shock or outrage the reader. Our findings show that articles exploring the social issues and complex underlying problems of human trafficking were limited. The explicit mention of the European Union, in any context (whether legal or policy related), was also scarce. Lastly, Deliverable 1.3 “A report concerning the macro and micro analyses of human trafficking” shows how human trafficking is situated within the wider criminal industry, particularly in relation to other types of organised crime, such as drug trafficking and money laundering. In addition, partners investigated how perpetrators manage trafficked persons during different stages of the human trafficking chain (recruitment, transportation and exploitation). The micro analysis reveals that perpetrators may use a wide range of methods to execute the different steps of the trafficking process. The macro analysis shows that trafficking in human beings is in the context of the EU mainly the work of specialists.

Ultimately, by providing a distinctive description of how the crime takes place, WP1 provides much needed information to law enforcement officials (especially the police, border guards and the judiciary) because it allows them to better recognise and predict crime. Further, WP1 reports identify problems with implementing EU legislation and policy. This will support stakeholders in addressing THB from the point of view of enhancing their knowledge on what is needed to improve the current EU approach. This is particularly important as the current EU strategy is due to end in 2016 and EU Stakeholders will be asking what measures it should adopt in its upcoming strategy.

Work package 2 (WP2) The act of human trafficking provides stakeholders with current information regarding the geographic routes, modus operandi of the human trafficking industry in Europe and the response of the trafficking industry to law enforcement policies. Efforts focused on examining these three trends in relation to the TRACE case studies in four European Member States: Romania, Bulgaria, the Netherlands and Cyprus. The work resulted in Deliverable 2.1 “Report on the relevant aspects of the trafficking act (geographical routes and modus operandi) and on its possible evolutions in response to law enforcement”. Key findings from this study suggest Bulgaria and Romania are both main countries of origin for human trafficking in Europe. The Netherlands and Cyprus are destination countries for human trafficking, and receive persons coming from Central and Eastern Europe but also from Asia, Africa or South-America. As far as the modus operandi of human traffickers is concerned, it is found that in all three stages of the trafficking process (recruitment, transportation and exploitation) traffickers follow particular patterns. An analysis of traffickers’ responses to law enforcement policies in Cyprus show that anti-trafficking policies do not always bring the desired results. For instance, the case of Cyprus has proven that as a result of the implementation of an anti-trafficking policy, the crime of human trafficking deviated from its traditional characteristics, and began to occur in different places, at different times, by different actors. Trafficking of human beings ceased to involve only indigenous male traffickers who used cabarets and pubs as their arenas of exploitation, all year round. Instead, foreign perpetrators (especially female) entered into the picture of human trafficking, and began to undertake illegal activities (sexual exploitation) at private venues (houses and flats).
Overall, WP2 results provide practical insight into the travel routes and most common approaches of traffickers for executing the crime in question, will no doubt contribute towards improving law enforcement agencies’ tactics for dismantling criminal groups, as well as detecting smaller human trafficking operations. WP2 will also aid police (and coastal guard) in disrupting the cross-border trafficking of human beings. Such efforts can positively impact the resources required to combat THB. This will lead to better to the better protection of citizens in both origin and destination countries.

Work package 3 (WP3) The traffickers involved desk-based and primary research to provide insight into the profile of traffickers, their personal characteristics, why and how they became involved in human trafficking and how they are situated within the wider criminal network. By doing so, the partners sought to identify vulnerable groups at risk of being trafficked. This work also supported the development of recommendations for law enforcement, policy makers and civil society organisations to assist them in intervening in the human trafficking cycle by enhancing their understanding of those involved in the crime. These recommendations were published in the form of “Lessons learned” on the profile of traffickers in briefing papers for target stakeholders: law enforcement agencies, civil society organisations and policy-makers.
Overall, WP 3provides specific characteristics of individuals involved in the trafficking industry, and their interactions with one another and larger criminal networks, from a sociological, psychological and criminological point of view. This is unique study is necessitated by the absence of a profile of a human trafficker in the currently available literature and that profiling is a controversial aspect of policing. The picture of traffickers presented here moves beyond to the results of the literature review to incorporate information from traffickers themselves by interviewing them, interviews with relatives and the social environment of traffickers, victims and police reports, case files of convicted traffickers and recognised experts that will be used to provide recommendations to assist authorities in preventing individuals from becoming traffickers, and thus, victims from being trafficked. TRACE identifies four main “types” of traffickers, as well as provided details of the age, relationship status, socio-economic status, and motivations of traffickers.
Overall, the results of WP 3 enables law enforcement, policy makers as well as NGOs to better understand how and why people end up in being a trafficker, which elements are incentives for the traffickers to commence and continue their criminal activities, and how stakeholders can focus their efforts to combat these. Understanding the social background of the traffickers enables policy makers and practitioners to develop interventions aiming at the prevention and/or stopping the traffickers from conducting their criminal activities. In addition the findings provide stakeholders with sustained and reliable knowledge on the variety of the group of traffickers enabling tailor made and adjusted interventions towards traffickers. As WP3 utilised an interdisciplinary approach and built on findings from psychology, criminology, other fields of social science combined with primary evidence from traffickers and victims, a comprehensive view of traffickers is provided.

Work package 4 (WP4) The role of technology in human trafficking identified technologies that are, and can be, used within human trafficking – for facilitation of the crime by traffickers, as well as to assist law enforcement agencies and civil society organisations in preventing and combatting human trafficking. Deliverable 4.1 “The role of current and emerging technologies within human trafficking” contains the TRACE taxonomy of technologies (applications and software (web based technologies), and hardware), which lists 32 technologies that are known to be used or may potentially be used in this context. Additionally, D4.1 includes the results of an assessment of the roles these different technologies play in contributing to the problem of THB and fighting it. The role that emerging technologies may play in the future was also examined by answering questions such as: is the technology likely to be used in the same manner; and will emergent technologies in other industries be utilised within the human trafficking industry (e.g., drones, bit coin, big data etc.). The work culminated in a series of recommendations for law enforcement, policy makers and civil society organisations to help them further understand and respond to the role of technology in THB and how to respond to it, with other practically useful information that was included in D4.2 “Role of technology in human trafficking: briefing paper”.
Overall, gaining an understanding of how technologies and applications are used supported partners’ efforts to provide up-to-date information to law enforcement agencies, policy-makers and CSOs, aiding others in not only understanding the role of technology in trafficking, but in addition, how to respond to the use of technology in human trafficking. This is especially significant as there is limited information available to stakeholders on the relationship between technology use and human technology. The recommendations (Task 4.4) provided a useful means of providing guidance for stakeholders in their activities in responding to the growing threat of THB in Europe and the ways in which technology use can grow that threat, or where technology use can be used to mitigate it. Furthermore, the recommendations provide unique areas for further research and development for innovation in solutions for combatting and preventing THB, which will be useful for Europe’s competitiveness in being a driving force behind tackling THB.

Work package 5 (WP5) Trafficking as a global phenomenon: political and socio-economic aspects. WP5 culminated in in D5.1 “Report on how external factors such as socio, political and economic factors, or interaction with other criminal industries shape the phenomenon of trafficking”. This report details results of an examination of the broader social, economic and political context of the human trafficking phenomenon and the impact of these external factors on human trafficking as a criminal enterprise, as well as how possible developments in other criminal industries might affect it. Findings show that addressing the root causes of human trafficking is a legal imperative of all countries who are implementing anti-trafficking strategies and must address the political, social and economic situation in countries of origin that increases the vulnerability of persons to human trafficking. Further, with the help of developing scenarios and devising hypotheses, forecasts were made regarding the future trends in human trafficking in view of making policy recommendations. D5.2 “A report on future how socio-economic, political and criminal trends might impact human trafficking in Europe” publishes these hypotheses and the findings of changes in economics and politics that are likely to shape the trafficking industry in the future. Hypotheses were formulated to be tested and validated at a virtual workshop (attended by internal and external experts who examined the cause and effect relationships across different elements) and an external stakeholder workshop, which build upon the emerging trends identified by the Trace PROJECT partners.
Overall, Assessing the likelihood that a country will become a destination or an origin country for victims of human trafficking, and the levels of risk of being targeted for particular groups in given sets of circumstances, will help address the threat along the entire continuum at both the international and local levels. Examining the link of human trafficking with the main organized crime industries and how the changes in these criminal industries impact human trafficking will allow the developing of foresight tools, which will support the efforts of the institutions and other stakeholders to curb and prevent crime.

Work Package 6 (WP6) Policy analysis and recommendations involved a review of anti-human trafficking policies that were considered in relation to findings made in earlier WPs to ultimately understand and provide actionable insights into the growing and emerging trends relating to THB. For Deliverable 6.1 “Analysis of European and national anti-human trafficking projects” partners reviewed over 60 EU projects, national and transnational, on- going and completed. From these projects, thirty promising practices were extracted. Despite these practices and other advances, partners concluded that Member States continue to face a host of programmatic challenges. The report analyses the extent to which Member States: Bulgaria, Sweden, the Netherlands, Romania, and the United Kingdom have implemented EU policies surrounding the fundamental rights of victims of human trafficking to access justice and seek redress for violations of their rights. The report reminds Member States that strengthening the domestic framework to effectively confiscate property and other valuable assets acquired through criminal activity, will in turn enable victims to access compensation for damages suffered, while also disrupting the business aspect of the criminal networks behind trafficking in human beings. The most prominently observed gaps and weaknesses were highlighted in the report. Deliverable 6.2 “Future trends in human trafficking” includes a large number of policy recommendations in relation to emerging issues generally, as well specific issues that may arise in relation to trafficking routes; modus operandi; profiles of traffickers; and the impact of law enforcement and other policies. The report may be used as a briefing tool for decision-makers to provide them with a set of hypotheses around potential future changes and to assist them in introducing policies and measures to prepare for and possibly pre-empt the effects of currently emerging issues and particular areas of concern, such as the increase in the use of victims for forms of trafficking such as criminal activities.
WP6 culminated in the production of the TRACE handbook: “TRACE-ing Human Trafficking” (Deliverable 6.3) that contains recommendations and key insights based on the projects findings for use by law enforcement agencies, policy makers and civil society organisations to assist them with their efforts to combat and prevent THB in Europe. The Handbook was launched at the TRACE project Final Conference at the end of April 2016. Parallel to the Handbook, the final TRACE project report was developed (Deliverable 6.4). The final report and the handbook use similar structures and can be read in conjunction; the handbook focuses more on the key findings and recommendations while the final report provides further background information.

Through Work package 7 (WP7) partners had particular success in disseminating the results of the TRACE project to target stakeholder groups, with the TRACE stakeholder list boasting 333 members. The TRACE project is represented by an engaging and active website, the publication of press releases/newsletters, its social media accounts (Twitter, slide share, LinkedIn), by attendance at 3rd party events, publication of blogs and a number of publications in peer reviewed journals. Novel dissemination techniques were also employed, such as disseminating USB sticks with project deliverables. As a result, TRACE was mentioned in a number of 3rd party newsletters and websites, as per the table in Part 5 below.

Potential Impact:
The primary impact of the TRACE project is the provision of actionable insight into aspects of the business of human trafficking, particularly as preparations and discussions for the forthcoming Strategy against trafficking in human beings (post 2016) have begun. The issue of human trafficking is high on agendas of many sectors of government as well as humanitarian-based organisations across Europe. The results of the TRACE project are particularly relevant as Europe is experiencing unprecedented rates of migrants, some of whom are vulnerable to exploitation as a result of the current socio-political and economic milieu surrounding their migration efforts.

TRACE impacts the security and society theme by potentially protecting citizens from threats resulting from organised crime, specifically, the trafficking of human beings. By reading the various deliverables law enforcement agencies, policy makers and civil society bodies have up-to-date information regarding the complex nature of human trafficking and its industry and the adequacy of polices that aim to fight it. Furthermore, insights into how the crime takes place was much desired by law enforcement officials (especially the police, border guards and the judiciary) because it allows them to better recognise and predict crime to take action in the interest of security. This means that TRACE results contribute to the expected impacts of the security theme by protecting citizens specifically via strengthening law enforcement agencies knowledge of the crime to detect threats resulting from the trafficking in human beings. By eliciting possible future trends in human trafficking and formulating hypotheses in relation to important current political and social phenomena, such as increased migration into Europe, the TRACE project has contributed to ensuring the security of citizens and to preventing them from becoming victims of organized crime. Assessing the likelihood that a country will become a destination or an origin country for victims of human trafficking, and the levels of risk of being targeted for particular groups in given sets of circumstances, will help address the threat along the entire continuum at both the international and local levels. Examining the link of human trafficking with the main organized crime industries and how the changes in these criminal industries impact human trafficking will allow the developing of foresight tools, which will support the efforts of the institutions and other stakeholders to curb and prevent crime. The project results contribute towards enhancing societal security and safety in the EU and ensure that people are protected from and resilient to violence and exploitation through preparedness, and are safeguarded against harm caused by criminal exploitation and human trafficking. Project promotes a comprehensive and coherent approach to reduce trans-boundary vulnerabilities and builds common capacities for societal security in Europe and at the national level. This holistic approach allowed addressing broad spectrum of challenges, from prevention of exploitation and trafficking in human beings, assistance to victims as well as combating crime in the interest of security and society.

The TRACE project has collected primary and secondary research data from within the EU to provide targeted recommendations for policy makers, law enforcement agencies and civil society organisations to assist them in anti-trafficking measures. Practical insight and recommendations have been developed in related to a number of aspects of human trafficking as a profit based criminal enterprise, including with respect to: legal challenges faced within the EU; treatment of trafficked persons; the modus operandi for the recruitment phases, transportation phase and exploitation phase of human trafficking; the profiles of traffickers; the role that technology does and can play in facilitating, combatting and preventing incidents of human trafficking; and to assist stakeholders in preparing and addressing future trends in human trafficking.

TRACE has produced a Handbook: TRACEing human trafficking, as well as publishing ten overarching recommendations in addition to the issue specific recommendations referred to above. These recommendations are as follows:
1. In order to disrupt the human trafficking enterprise, increased efforts are needed by all EU Member States to enhance investigation and prosecution of traffickers and to invest resources in the use of modern technology to collect more comprehensive evidence of the crime and to combat human trafficking.

2. Targeted responses should be developed to address all forms of human trafficking, including new and emerging forms of human trafficking, by establishing outreach services with mobile units and cultural mediators to work with vulnerable populations, especially children and members of co-ethnic communities, referring them to support, and promoting reintegration into school.

3. There is a need to develop systems offering long-term support to meet the specific needs of all trafficked persons and to support their reintegration into society. The support systems in place should be quick to respond, predictable and clear, but also adaptable, flexible and comprehensive.

4. Specific legislation and policy, and crucially implementation thereof, is required to ensure that trafficked persons are not detained, prosecuted or punished for their involvement in unlawful activities which they have been compelled to undertake as a consequence of their situation as trafficked persons. Furthermore, public officials who are likely to come into contact with trafficked persons should be trained to identify trafficked persons and should receive guidance on the application of the non-punishment provision.
5. More attention should be paid to the role of technology in facilitating and preventing human trafficking. Social media channels and other modern digital methods should be better monitored and used to communicate with groups at risk so as to mainstream the message into the public dialogue of the desired target group.

6. Acknowledging that traffickers become involved in the crime for different reasons, it is recommended that they are treated in a way that recognises their unique issues, preferably through well-designed diversion programmes. Restoration and punishment programmes for traffickers should always be tailored to their specific characteristics, crime, problems and lifestyles to prevent recidivism. This requires the expansion of the use of psychoanalysis on traffickers as part of the pre-sentencing report.

7. EU Member States should ensure that their policies, laws and regulations on law enforcement, migration, labour and business practices that may have an impact on human trafficking are tuned, consistent and coherent. They should avoid the risk of compromising the protection of human rights and ensure that they do not unintentionally facilitate human trafficking. All public authorities, in particular labour inspectorates, law enforcement and immigration authorities, should prioritise the protection of the rights of trafficked persons over questions of public order and immigration control. Policies should be based on a human rights based approach. States should ensure that public tenders do not lead to the use of forced labour.
8. EU Member States should standardise national procedures for the identification and protection of asylum seekers who may be have been trafficked, particularly among unaccompanied minors. Initiatives for dissemination of information on safe and legal migration opportunities, as well as through outreach at places of departure and arrival (e.g. at train and bus stations, seaports and airports), should be developed further.

9. Awareness raising should be targeted at groups at risk of being trafficked and a variety of different professional groups, as well as the private sector. All the information provided should be accurate and practically oriented. It should educate society and practitioners in understanding and recognising various forms of exploitation and to intervene and refer affected persons to appropriate support.

10. A victim-centred approach should be maintained in the interaction between trafficked persons and the criminal justice system. Irrespective of whether trafficked persons choose to participate in legal proceedings, they have the right to unconditional social and legal support, and their safety and wellbeing should be guaranteed at all times.
These recommendations were based on work undertaken in work packages 1 – 6 and extensive stakeholder consultation and validation throughout the project. The target stakeholder groups touch on the gaps and problems identified and addressed by the TRACE project, such as developing profiles of traffickers and how they operate their business (transportation, geographical/ travel routes and modus operandi), understand how the relevant legal and policy framework is actually being implemented by Member States, understanding the role that technology plays in facilitating he crime, as well as how it can be best utilised to prevent and combat human trafficking; and identifying future trends so that they may be curtailed. The TRACE handbook will assist these stakeholders in developing tailored anti-trafficking measures. The TRACE handbook was launched in both hard e-book format at the final conference in Brussels on 28 April 2016. The TRACE handbook, research findings and recommendations were used to inform the work of these three target stakeholder groups. By reading the various deliverables law enforcement agencies, policy makers and civil society bodies have up-to-date information regarding the complex nature of human trafficking and its industry and the polices that aim to fight it. These materials also help members of the anti-trafficking community by identifying areas that require address both now and in the future, including changes to the business of the trafficking.

The TRACE project had other impacts, including:

Strategic impact – TRACE project’s provision of recommendations and new findings in relation to aspects of the trafficking enterprise within Europe will have strategic impacts for the European Union, particularly as it focuses on developing and implementing the EU Strategy on Trafficking in Human Beings when the current strategy expires in 2016. In May 2016, The TRACE partners submitted a detailed written contribution based on the TRACE findings that relate to the EU anti-trafficking policy framework and its implementation by Member States to the written consultation on the post 2016 strategy against trafficking in human beings. Relevantly, in alignment with the current “EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016”, the TRACE project has generated knowledge on the modus operandi and travel routes of THB in Europe which will enhance the prevention of trafficking in human beings, and also assist in the increase and more effective prosecution of traffickers. Furthermore, the information concerning policing policies demonstrates the need to consider reflective practices and monitoring in policy making and its consequences for affected groups. The timely and pragmatic information information provided by the TRACE project enables Member States to better conceptualize and more effectively execute their interventions against human trafficking, interventions which may come in response to recent shifts in national and EU policies and strategies prompted by the evolving nature of human trafficking. The TRACE project has identified several emerging issues of concern, which are likely to impact the development and implementation of European anti-trafficking policies and laws. The project also provides concrete and practical recommendations for a variety of target groups to improve their responses to human trafficking. Thus the Member States are provided with useful tools to dwell deeper into the emerging challenges highlighted with the aim of finding responses tailored to meet the contextual needs of each Member State and the EU. The deliverables highlight areas where is a particular need for the EU Member States to review their policies, laws and regulations especially in the field of law enforcement as well as migration, labour and business practices to foster coherence of action, avoid the risk of compromising the protection of human rights, ensure that they do not unintentionally contribute to human trafficking and to provide adequate assistance to trafficked persons.

The TRACE findings are readily accessible via the TRACE website and have also been disseminated amongst target stakeholders. This material will contribute to measures taken to prevent and combat human trafficking in Europe, as well as provide insight into how the business is currently being facilitated.

Impacts on competitiveness – The strengthening of knowledge around the business of human trafficking will enable the European commission and target stakeholders to forecast trends in the human trafficking industry, particularly with respect to the role of technology in human trafficking. This puts the EU at a competitive advantage as the relationship between technology and human trafficking has not previously received much attention and nor has there been any specific focus of this aspect in human trafficking related research. Other areas addressed by TRACE, including the generated knowledge of perpetrators’ rationale and activities will benefit the EU by supporting them in their positioning as global leader in the fight against human trafficking. Further, the results of the TRACE project will also increase EU Member States’ competitiveness by disseminating information and increasing their knowledge about the criminal enterprise behind human trafficking.

Economic impact – The TRACE project will have an economic impact in assisting in developing more targeted anti-trafficking measures that will result in a focussed use of resources. Ultimately, by providing state of the art information on the profile of traffickers, their modus operandi and other aspects of the trafficking business, TRACE project supports prevention and combatting of the crime that will reduce the overall consequential cost of the crime to governments, authorities and society at large. An increased understanding of the economic model of human trafficking, the factors which influence it and the links to organized crime, as well as the tools, developed to predict future trends, will lead to increased economic efficiency in the use of judicial and law enforcement resources. In particular, the better understand of geographical routes and most common approaches of traffickers for executing their criminal business, will contribute towards improving law enforcement agencies’ tactics for dismantling criminal groups and webs of culprits involved in human trafficking, as well as aid police (and coastal guard) in disrupting the cross-border trafficking of human beings. The TRACE project will ultimately positively impact the resources required to combat human trafficking.

Social impact – The TRACE project aids society by raising awareness of human trafficking generally. Additionally, TRACE raises awareness of specific aspects of the business of human trafficking, that may lead to earlier detection of the social-related aspects of the business of trafficking, particularly recruitment methods and exploitation. In turn, this will assist sectors of society and groups of people identified as most vulnerable in both origin and destination countries. Overall, its social impact includes protecting Europeans’ lives and security through gathering and disseminating information about trafficking, which would result in more effective prevention practices and increased ability of citizens to recognize and resist being targeted.

List of Websites:
Project website: http://trace-project.eu
Twitter: https://twitter.com/TRACE_EU
LinkedIn: http://uk.linkedin.com/pub/trace-project/aa/796/a8b
Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/trace_eu
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Record Number: 195934 / Last updated on: 2017-03-10