Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

FP7

HEPHAESTUS Report Summary

Project ID: 229825
Funded under: FP7-REGPOT
Country: Greece

Final Report Summary - HEPHAESTUS (Hellenic Philosophy, History and Environmental Science Teaching Under Scrutiny - He.P.H.a.E.S.T.U.S)

Executive Summary:
The Programme of History, Philosophy and Didactics of Science and Technology (HPDST) originates from a strategic partnership of two initially complementary teams, the Programme of History and Philosophy of Science of the Institute for Neohellenic Research of the National Hellenic Research Foundation and the Laboratory of Didactics and Epistemology of Natural Sciences, of the Education Department of the University of Athens. A SWOT report has identified the team as an excellent regional research unit, and has pointed the following main weaknesses: unmobilized human resources, lack of European strategic partnerships and lack of experience in museology and public science communicating,.
The project Hephaestus was motivated by the desire to expand the activities of the HPDST team in a state-of-the-art level in the areas of History, Philosophy and Didactics of Science and Technology, to establish strong connections and strategic partnerships with the international community and to establish HPDST as a team of excellence at an international level.
To achieve these objectives, the following Hephaestus project actions were implemented:
Exchanges of scholars for mid and long term research visits from and to European Centers of Excellence; recruitment of two scholars to reinforce the team in strategic fields; organization of three research seminars, three workshops and two international conferences; creation of the portal of the team; organization of three exhibitions in Athens, two in other Greek towns and eight in other European countries; publication of an international journal; publication of a Newsletter; publications resulting from Seminars, Workshops and Conferences; publication of a thematic volume and other publications; creation a documentary film; promotion of the team to international events.
The major achievements of Hephaestus can be summarized as follows:
- The establishment of strategic partnerships (long term international cooperation agreements signed with six European sister institutions and the Chinese Academy of Sciences and four international networks created, one recognized as a UNESCO network).
- The Antikythera Mechanism exhibition: HPDST developed an internationally successful exhibition on this unique piece of Ancient Greek technology. The exhibition was presented in eight European countries and attracted important sponsorship. A worldwide distributed documentary film was co-produced.
- The new international journal on the history of scientific ideas Almagest, edited by Brepols publishers.
- The creation of a series of International Conferences
- The creation of a state-of-the-art portal www.hpdst.gr
- Publications of thematic books and articles in peer-reviewed journals on History, Philosophy and Didactics of Science and Technology.
- Research on new research fields (Science and Religion in Eastern Europe, Byzantine Alchemy, History of Scientific Policies), which establish HPDST as a team of reference on the subjects worldwide.
Following Hephaestus project, HPDST succeeded to obtain funding (EU, National Strategic Research Framework, 2012-2016) for two research projects about two of the new research fields it has developed:
a) The historical relations between sciences and religions in Eastern Europe and Eastern Mediterranean (4th-20th centuries).
b) Alchemy in Byzantium and the Ottoman Empire.

Project Context and Objectives:
The Programme of History, Philosophy and Didactics of Science and Technology (HPDST) originates from a strategic partnership of two initially complementary teams, the programme of History and Philosophy of Science of the Institute for Neohellenic Research of the National Hellenic Research Foundation and the Laboratory of Didactics and Epistemology of Natural Sciences, of the Education Department of the University of Athens. HPDST goal which is to develop the research and diffusion of the history, philosophy and didactics of science and technology was to be accomplished through state of the art research using an interdisciplinary approach. From 2000 up to 2009, HPDST has developed into one of the most promising research teams in Southeastern Europe, as can be certified by the achievements of this period: the team has published two peer reviewed scientific Journals (in Greek and English), a regional Newsletter, 21 books (in Greek, English, French and Chinese), has co-edited three special issues of international Journals and has published about 250 articles. It has completed 13 small and medium scale research projects with Greek and European partners, has organized 14 Symposia and Conferences and a summer seminar, has created a state-of-the-art website for the history of scientific instruments and has established important international relations.

Despite its achievements, the senior researchers of HPDST Programme soon identified that the full potential of the team has not yet be realized. Prompted by the general evaluation of the Hellenic National Research Foundation, the team launched a three stage Evaluation and Action Plan. The first step called for an evaluation by internationally recognized experts, the second stage consisted of the writing of a SWOT report and the third for the creation of an Action Plan, with a five year implementation horizon. In 2007, the experts produced the final version of the SWOT evaluation, which is presented bellow.

In summary, the following strengths have been identified:
- S1: The merging of the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology team and the team for the Didactics of Science has been successful. The resulting synergies have contributed significantly to the development of a rigorous research ethos in the team.
- S2: The scientific results concerning the regional history of science are of excellent quality.
- S3: The results concerning the didactical applications of the history and philosophy of science, especially in application to secondary education, have been of very high caliber.
- S4: The team has a very satisfactory editorial rate, including a very active and vigorous participation in international reviews and thematic volumes.
- S5: The ratio of young to senior researchers is very high.
- S6: The team has a very satisfactory number of PhD students, many of who have been awarded national scholarships, despite the lack of dedicated funding.
- S7: The capabilities of the team are of high quality. There exists the capacity for state of the art research to be conducted by the team.
- S8: The team has important international contacts.

The weaknesses have been identified as follows:
- W1: The team lacks experience in museum science and the corresponding ability to use museums in organizing science parks and exhibitions.
- W2: The team lacks members specialized in communicating science to the public and with the public.
- W3: The team, despite being active in various international networks, lacks strategic partnerships with experienced research centres of similar interests.
- W4: The team has unmobilized resources, in the form of young researchers who could benefit from witnessing state of the art research and its methodology.
- W5: The team lacks experience and expertise in the use of European historical “sources” of the regional S&T development.
- W6: The team lacks proper equipment, in order to disseminate its findings and upgrade its S&T potential.
- W7: The team lacks hands-on managerial experience in research conducted in European and international level.

Following, the evaluative analysis above, the HPDST team submitted the project proposal Hephaestus which was granted funding from FP7 (Capacities, Regpot-2008-1) for a three year period (1/4/09-31/3/12).

The project He.P.H.a.E.S.T.U.S (Hellenic Philosophy, History and Environmental Science Teaching Under Scrutiny) named after the Olympian God of technology, metallurgy and invention, and in accordance with the aim of Research Potential: Activity 4.1, aimed to establish a coherent set of activities in order to achieve a specific set of goals:

➢ Goal 1. The reinforcement of S&T potential of the HPDST team, especially in areas found lacking in the SWOT analysis (museology, public communication, state of art research methodology in the context of the European Research Area, twinning with experienced research centers). This goal is to be evaluated upon its completion by internationally recognized experts in the field.
➢ Goal 2. Research quality to be elevated in state of the art level, by the standards of the European Research Area. This is to be validated through publications and announcements in peer reviewed journals and conferences of international caliber.
➢ Goal 3. The development of strategic partnerships with experienced research institutes already fully integrated in the European Research Area. This will act as a conduit of expertise and of state of art large scale research methodology in the respective academic disciplines (History, Philosophy and Didactics of Science and Technology).
➢ Goal 4. Improvement of research management. This is to be validated through the successful completion of large scale research projects.
➢ Goal 5. Upgrading the visibility of the team in both the regional stakeholders and the general public. This will be evaluated by the comparative measurement of attendance in public aimed activities, such a Open Days and science exhibitions
➢ Goal 6. Facilitation of communication and knowledge sharing between the team and other research institutes of similar scope, both in Southeastern Europe and in the general European research area.
➢ Goal 7. Upgrading the synergies between research and actions of the HPDST team and the sustainable development policy of both local and state authorities. This is to be measured in actions taken in conjunction and with the cooperation of said authorities.
➢ Goal 8. Upgrading the technical dissemination and digitization capabilities of the team, through the acquirement of suitable equipment beyond those currently possessed.

The goals of the projected Action Plan thus fully harmonize with the aim of the Capacities, Part 4 Work Program and, more specifically with the Activity 4.1. To achieve the goals set above, the following actions were proposed:

- HPDST researchers’ long term visits in specialized European institutions (science Museums, science studies centers, history of science research centers, centers of excellence in didactics of science and science communication).
- Researchers of the above mentioned European institutions visit for medium term stays HPDST to communicate their know-how and develop common projects.
- Two-ways secondments of research and strategic partnerships with the institutions with which the team has established and developed contacts through the above mentioned actions.
- Recruit two Greek colleagues who have acquired international expertise in areas relevant to HPDST directions to improve HPDST research capacity.
- Organize a series of scientific events, such as international Workshops, international Conferences and research Seminars.
- Acquire specialized equipment for exhibitions, digitalization and websites.
- Organize dissemination and promotional activities such as exhibitions, website, open days, public conferences and a documentary film production.
- Publish a world class international scientific journal on history, philosophy and didactics of sciences.
- Upgrade the annual Newsletter published by the team.
- Acquire managerial experience which would help HPDST to obtain funding for large scale research projects.

Project Results:
The major achievements of Hephaestus can be summarized as follows:
- The establishment of strategic partnerships: 7 long term international cooperation agreements signed with seven institutions, six European and one Chinese; four international networks created, one recognized as affiliated UNESCO network.
- The two new research projects funded for the next four years (total budget 985,000 Euros).
- The success and the development of the Antikythera Mechanism exhibition (continues far beyond Hephaestus implementation having attracted important sponsorship, 300,000 visitors expected at the National Archeological Museum).
- The largely diffused documentary film on the Antikythera Mechanism coproduced with the TV channels ARTE (France, Germany), ERT (Greece), NHK (Japan).
- The new international journal Almagest edited by Brepols international publishers.
- The scientific results in the following fields: Science and religions, Byzantine science, History of science in the Southeastern Europe and the East Mediterranean, Impact of science and technology on the modernization of societies, Science teaching using history of science, Epistemology of the 20th century.
- The establishment of two series of international conferences on science education and on the relations between Europe and sciences.
- The development of international interdisciplinary cooperation projects involving all the laboratories of the Institute of Historical Research of the National Hellenic Research Foundation.
- The development of a state-of-the-art website and affiliated websites.

Results and foregrounds by workpackage

WP1 Exchange of knowhow

WP1 has four goals: Firstly, the reinforcement of S&T potential of the HPDST team in specific areas (museology, public communication, state-of-the-art research methodology, twinning with experienced research centres); secondly, research quality to be elevated in state of the art level; thirdly the development of strategic partnerships with experienced research institutes; and fourthly the facilitation of communication and knowledge sharing between the team and other research institutes of similar scope.
In order to achieve these goals, two main tasks were implemented: HPDST researchers sent for long term visits to sister European institutions and researchers from these institutions visited for medium term stays HPDST.

Researchers of the group sent in distinguished European Research Centers
1) Five junior researchers from HPDST team (Kostantinos Tampakis, Katerina Karela, Yanis Bitsakis, Vagelis Koutalis and Maria Darmou) have visited Centres of Excellence (the History and Philosophy of Science Department of the University of Cambridge, the History of Science Museum of the University of Oxford ,the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers in Paris, the Centre d’Archives, Philosophie, Histoire et Édition des Sciences, CNRS-ENS, Paris and the Centre d’Histoire des Sciences of the University of Liège) for a six month stay each, financed by Hephaestus project. K. Tampakis collaborated on the history of science education, K. Karela has coorganised an exhibition with Oxford science Museum, Y. Bitsakis collaborated with the Museum of the CNAM on museology and prepared the Antikythera exhibition and long term cooperation, (a long term cooperation agreement has been signed between CNAM and NHRF). V. Koutalis worked on Alchemy and prepared one of the two the next important HPDST projects, the study of Greek Alchemy and Maria Darmou worked on the 20th century historiography of science. Beyond Hephaestus, V. Koutalis has obtained three months stay in Philadelphia, working at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, as a 2010-2011 Allington Fellow and he was awarded by the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry under the 2011 SHAC Award Scheme. K. Tampakis obtained a one-year research fellowship at Princeton University enlarging HPDST collaborations beyond Hephaestus primary goals.
2) Three senior researchers from HPDST (Efthymios Nicolaidis, Constantine Skordoulis and George Vlahakis) have, visited Centers of Excellence (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Centre d’Histoire des Sciences et des Techniques – Univ. de Liège, Centre d’Archives, Philosophie, Histoire et Edition des Sciences - CNRS-ENPS, SYRTE – Observatoire de Paris, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers - Paris, Needham Research Institute - Cambridge, and Middlesex University Department of Education, Département de Philosophie- Université de Nantes). They have communicated their experience and knowhow to the members of the visiting centers, conducted common research and have initiated long term bilateral collaborative agreements.

Researchers from distinguished European Research Centers visit the group
Senior researchers for European sister institutions visited HPDST for medium term stays. They have organized research seminars and lectured on areas that have been recognized as vital for HPDST, conducted research and initiated joint research projects and collaborations.
Prof. Vincent Jullien from the Philosophy Department of the University of Nantes; Prof. Michel Blay Director of the CAPHES (CNRS-ENS); Prof. Girolamo Ramunni, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers of Paris; Prof. Robert Halleux, Director of the Centre d’Histoire des Sciences et des techniques (University of Liege) and member of the Académie des inscriptions et belles lettres ; Prof. Christopher Cullen Director of the Needham Research Institute, Cambridge; Prof. Dieter Hoffmann, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science; Dr Anette Vogt, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science; Prof David Hill, School of Arts and Education, Middlesex University; Prof. Anastasios Brenner, Département de Philosophie, Université de Montpellier; Prof. Jean Dhombres, Centre Alexandre Koyré, École des Hautes Études en Science Sociales; Dr Konstantinos Chatzis from the Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés (CNRS-ENPC).
HPDST hosted also junior researchers involved in collaborations and future projects. In particular, Dr Jennifer Rampling, Departement of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge who will collaborate to DACALBO project and or Dr Michela Malpangotto, SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris who will collaborate at the project on the mobility of scholars and experimental precision (see bellow).

Main results of the exchange of scholars and knowhow.
1. Bilateral long term cooperation agreements
One of the main targets of Herphaestus project was the long term twinning with sister European institutions in order to establish strategic partnerships. Long term bilateral agreements have been negotiated and signed with the following institutions:
-Centre d’Histoire des Sciences et des Techniques de l’Université de Liège
-Musée des arts et métiers – Conservatoire Νational des Αrts et Μétiers, Paris
-UFR Lettres et Langages de l’université de Nantes
-The Needham Research Institute, Cambridge, UK
--Laboratoire Systèmes de Référence Temps-Espace (SYRTE), Observatoire de
Paris – CNRS – Université Marie Curie
-Institute for the History of Natural Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
-Institute of Contemporary History, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
The purpose of these agreements is to strengthen institutional relations between the Institute for Neohellenic Research of the National Hellenic Research Foundation and the other parties in order to identify and realize common interest activities using the abilities and synergies.
The following activities (not exhaustively) are concerned:
- Collaboration between researchers of the signing institutions on common interest subjects.
- Development of strategies on history and philosophy of science and technology studies.
- Development of research strategies on comparative studies on the development, diffusion and reception of science and technology.
- Conception and development of common interest projects.
- Comparison of strategies on the acquisition and valorization of historical and technological heritage, material and immaterial.
- Exchange of experience on the development of knowledge in the domain of the history of science and technology.
- Exchange of experience on formal and informal education.
- Exchange of experience on initiatives about school and university
- Common scientific and technological exhibitions.
- Exchange of experience on the diffusion of advanced research. The agreements have five years duration to be prolonged tacitly.

Besides the above mentioned institutions, the following are involved in the next years’ HPDST projects:
- Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge (Project DACALBO)
- Max Planck Institute for the History of Science (Project NARSES)
- CAPHES (CNRS-Ecole Normale Supérieure) (Project NARSES)
- School of Arts and Education, Middlesex University (Series of the Conferences on science education)
- Centre Alexandre Koyré, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales – CNRS (History of the French military and scientific mission to Peloponnesus)
- Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés, CNRS-Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (project of the study of scientific and technological modernization of Southeastern Europe)

2. Networks
The following networks have been organized.
- Network for the History of Science in Southeastern Europe (affiliated UNESCO Network). The Network publishes the Newsletter for the History of Science in Southeastern Europe( http://www.hpdst.gr/publications/newsletter). Participating countries: Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia, Romania.
- Network for the history of scientific policies in Europe. Participating countries: UK, France, Belgium, Greece, Italy, Spain, Germany, Portugal, Russia, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Turkey. Three workshops are being planned.
- The network “Europe and science, a mutual engenderment”: a first international Conference was held in 2011, a thematic volume is being published (Peter Lang), a second conference is planned for February 2013 in Nantes.
- History of science in the teaching of science network (Critical education conference series). The first conference was held in 2011, the second in July 2012 in Athens.

3. Research projects developed.
DACALBO: Digital archive concerning alchemy in Byzantium and in Greek-speaking communities of the Ottoman Empire and educational as well as cultural utilization of this archive. Financed by EU, National Strategic Research Framework (600,000 Euros, 2012-2015).
DACALBO project addresses a significant gap in the current historiography of sciences, by exploring and carefully mapping the Byzantine and post-Byzantine alchemy through the creation of a comprehensive, open access, digitized, and searchable data-base and metadata material. Specifically the project aims to:
a) Identify, collect, digitize and classify all surviving manuscript and printed primary sources relevant to alchemy in Greek language during the periods of Byzantium and of the Ottoman Empire. b) Collect and classify the secondary bibliography. c) Create prosopographical entries for every identifiable author. d) Evaluate the modifications or transformations which Byzantine alchemical tradition has undergone, and to ascertain its relations with Hellenistic, Arabic, or Latin alchemy. e) Determine what twists in the development of alchemy have taken place after its introduction in the cultural context of Greek-speaking communities of the Ottoman Empire, from the 15th to the 18th century and the passage to “Chymistry”.
Additional objectives: a) The enrichment of the history of Byzantium, drawing lines of connection between the historiography of Byzantine alchemy and that of the natural sciences in South-Eastern Europe. b) The production of a historical material that is both profitable in terms of educational applications and suitable for activities tending to promote public awareness of the different temporalities that having been merged in the history of science and render the written monuments of this history tokens of a common cultural legacy. The interdisciplinary team is constituted by historians, historians of science, chemists and didacticians.The project is supported by the International Academy of History of Science.
NARSES: Nature and Religion in South Eastern European Space. Mapping Science and eastern Christianity relations in South Eastern Europe and Eastern Mediterranean. Financed by EU, National Strategic Research Framework (385,000 Euros, 2013-2016).
NARSES aims to map the relationship between sciences and religion from the 4th c. AD to the 20th c. in Southeastern Europe and East Mediterranean. It will focus on social formations where Eastern Christianity was, depending on the period, dominant or important religious tradition.
Exploring historically the relationship sciences-religions is essential in order to understand the relation societies -sciences. The “Needham question” (why certain societies rather than others develop a specific scientific practice) is closely tied with this relationship. NARSES proposes to fill an important gap in the historiography: while a huge literature exists on science and religion in Western Christianity there is almost a void for the areas of Byzantium, the Ottoman Empire and the Balkan states, marked by Eastern Christianity. NARSES interdisciplinary research will reveal unknown dimensions of science-religion relations, with major implications for the relevant historiography developed in reference with the West European societies.
NARSES aims a) to collect, critically examine and catalogue the religious texts on nature, the scientific texts evincing theology and the canonical texts on knowledge and sciences; b) to map the complexity of the relations between sciences and religion, the Eastern Christianity groups active in debates on nature and the institutions responsible for the production and negotiation of knowledge about nature and God.
The implementation of NARSES will open a new research field which will constitute a solid ground in order to further develop the research to the whole Eastern Europe and the interdisciplinary comparative studies on science and religions between West and East. It will contribute to the dialogue between societies having different cultural histories and traditions.
Modernization of the Southeastern Europe: Cooperation between HPDST, CHST (Univ. of Liège), LATTS (CNRS-ENPC) and the Network for the History of Science in Southeastern Europe K. Tampakis will work with the CHST funded by the University of Liège in 2012-2013.
The history of the French military and scientific expedition to Peloponnesus in 1829-1831: in collaboration with the École Française d’Athènes and the Centre Alexandre Koyré, École des Hautes Études en Science Sociales. The project involves all the laboratories of the new Institute for Historical Research of the National Hellenic Research Foundation (merging of the three Institutes of History of the NHRF).
The European textbook on history of science: contract signed with Vuibert publishers. The manuscript will be ready July 2012. This textbook aims to present to the secondary education teachers of science and history the birth and development of science in Europe. Published in French, it aims to be translated in several European languages.
The expanding of the exhibition “The Antikythera Mechanism”: the exhibitions has been enriched with planetaria and clocks from local collections, depending on the venue of its presentation (from the CNAM, the Musée Grand Curtius, the Musée de la vie Walonne, the Observatory of Paris, the treasure of the Antikythera shipwreck of the National Archeological Museum of Athens). The immediate future plan is its presentation in Beijing, China.
Research project and network and on the preservation of contemporary scientific heritage: coordinated by the CNAM involves institutes from 9 European countries. Related with the development of the data base of the Hellenic Archives of Scientific Instruments (www.hasi.gr)
History of informatics and its educational use: Research project initiated after the Abacus exhibition and the experience acquired from the educational activities organized during the exhibition.
Mobility of scholars and experimental precision: in collaboration with SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris. The project aims to study the development of the precision of measures in astronomy from the 16th to the 19th century (from Copernicus to the discovery of the stellar parallax by Bessel and Struve) and also the influence of the mobility and exchanges of the scholars to this development. The scientific and social impact of the improvement of exactitude especially concerning time will be also studied.
European Master on European scientific and technological heritage: developed in collaboration with the University of Nantes.
The aim of this master is to provide the students with a general culture about the history of European science and technology and to offer them opportunities for a carrier in the field of scientific and technological culture by providing a specialized training.
Partners:
European universities and research centers. The master will be presented for funding to Erasmus Mundus EU programme.

WP2 Recruitment of two scholars

Two senior researchers have been recruited for a 28 months period in order to develop two research fields: a) history of science in Byzantium and science and religion and b) philosophy of science. These researchers were Gianna Katsiampoura, who specializes in history of science, especially in Byzantine and post Byzantine period, and Antigone Nounou, who specializes in philosophy of science and philosophy of physics
Due to the development of the first research field together with the development of strategic partnerships, HPDST has successfully submitted two research projects for the periods 2012-15 and 2013-16 (Alchemy in Byzantium and the Ottoman Empire and Science and Religion in Southeastern Europe and East Mediterranean).
Gianna Katsiampoura has integrated HPDST team and is a senior researcher in the two new above mentioned projects which have been funded. Antigone Nounou obtained a research collaboration at the University of Athens in the field of philosophy of science.

WP3 Organization of conferences, workshops and research seminars

The project HEPHAESTUS has a twofold aim: One, to tap into the History, Philosophy and Didactics of Science Group‘s potential and upgrade its S&T research status, and two, to disseminate the research’ results produced by the team in both the scientific community and the general public, while strengthening regional development. These aims are to be, among other actions, attained by the organization of conferences, workshops and research seminars.
All these events are presented in details on the HPDST website and also in the issues of the HPDST Newsletter for the History of Science in Southeastern Europe.

HEPHAESTUS International Conferences “Science and its social function”
First Hephaestus International Conference “History of science in practice”
Athens, 5-7 May 2011.
As its title suggests, the Conference explored the possibilities of putting history of science into practice, both in teaching and in communication with the public. It focused on the following themes:
- Exploring the creation of a common European textbook of History of Science
- Using History of Science in formal and informal teaching of science
- Examining epistemological problems in the teaching of History of Science
- Appraising what a History of Science Museum can offer to the public
- Inquiring what to preserve and how from contemporary scientific heritage.
48 scholars from Europe, America and Asia have presented a paper at the Conference.
Programme: http://www.hpdst.gr/events/conferences/history-of-science-in-practice/program
Selected papers of the Conference were published in the international journal for the history of scientific ideas Almagest 2-1 (2011) and in the journal Kritiki Critical science and education 12 (2012) p. 109-135.

Second Hephaestus International Conference “Critical Education”
Athens 12-16 July 2011.
The theme of the conference has been decided in accordance with HPDST goals of strategic partnerships and the establishment of a self attracting series of conferences. The conference attracted 83 participants from all over the world
HPDST has developed a strategic partnership with Middlesex University on the theme of science education. The theme of Critical Education is a developing research theme and it attracts the attention of didacticians of science. The success of the International Conference on Critical Education has opened a long term perspective to the didactic part of HPDST. Following this success it has been decided that this domain constitute a strategic goal of HPDST by institutionalizing a series of conferences on the theme, which will continue far beyond Hephaestus implementation. A second conference is planned for July 2012 in Athens.
The webpage of the Conference: http://icce.hpdst.gr/
The proceedings of the Conference have been published: K. Skordoulis and D. Hill (editors), Critical education, proceedings of the 1st international conference, Athens: Nissos, 2012.

International conference “Europe and Modern sciences, History of a mutual engenderment”.
Nantes, 7-9 February 2011.
The Conference was the result of collaboration with the Centre Atlantique de Philosophie (CAPHI) of the University of Nantes and co-organized with the program CIEL sponsored by the Région des Pays de Loire. It constituted the first step in the collaboration with the CAPHI on the theme of the mutual constitution of Europe and science: how Europe generated modern science and how this science generated modern Europe? Apart from Hephaestus and CIEL, the conference was sponsored by the University of Nantes, the Maison des Sciences de l’Homme and the Municipality of Nantes.
After the success of the first conference, the organizing committee decided to organize a second one in February 2013, on the XVII and XIXth centuries.
The webpage of the Conference: http://www.hpdst.gr/events/conferences/nantes
A thematic volume was initiated by the Conference: Vincent Jullien, Efthymios Nicolaïdis, Michel Blay (eds), Europe et sciences modernes histoire d’un engendrement mutuel – Europe and modern sciences: history of a mutual engenderment, Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, 2012.

HEPHAESTUS Research Seminars:.
The 1st Hephaestus Research Seminar organised by the History, Philosophy and Didactics of Science and Technology team was held in Elati (Thessaly, Greece), from July 14th to July 17th, 2009. It was twinned with the 6th Workshop on Critical Approaches to Science and Education, organized by the Laboratory of Science Education, Epistemology and Educational Technology (ASEL) of the University of Athens and the Institute for Neohellenic Research of the National Hellenic Research Foundation. Webpage of the seminar: http://www.hpdst.gr/events/seminars/elati/2009
The research seminar addressed themes: the transmission of Greek science to the medieval world and the scientific and technological modernization of Southeastern Europe (invited researchers Prof. Sabine Rommevaux, Director of research, CNRS and Alexandre Kostov, Senior research associate, Institute for Balkan Studies of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences). The seminar lead to four publications at the journal Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences, 60 (2010).
The 2nd Hephaestus Research Seminar was held in Elati (Thessaly, Greece), from July 14 to July 17, 2010. The second seminar had as its theme the environment and was, just as the first, twinned with the 7th Workshop on Critical Approaches to Science and Education, devoted also on educational issues for the environment.
The invited foreign researchers at the 2nd Research Seminar were Prof. Vladimir Jankovic (Manchester University, President of the International Commission for the history of meteorology) and Prof. Dave Hill (Middlesex University)).
The second seminar led to the creation of a research network for the history and didactics of environmental sciences. Webpage of the seminar: http://www.hpdst.gr/events/seminars/elati/2010
Research papers resulting from the seminar have been published in the journal Kritiki: Critical science and education, 12 (2012), p. 3-67.
The 3st Hephaestus Research Seminar, “Climate change in social sciences”, took place in Athens, 20-21 January 2012 and was organized in the frame of a network on the history of meteorology. It was supported by the International Commission of Meteorology of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science / Division of History of Science and Technology. The seminar was attended by a number of European scholars who presented the state-of-the-art research to HPDST members. The goal of the seminar was to study and to develop research on the historical aspects of climate change and on the attitude of the society about this crucial matter for the humanity.
Webpage of the seminar: http://www.hpdst.gr/events/seminars/652
The seminar lead to a number of research papers which will be published in Almagest.
The 4rth Hephaestus Research Seminar, “History of computing” took place in Jannena during 26-29 March 2012 and was twinned with the exhibition Abacus presented at the University of Jannena.
The seminar was embedded within a research project addressing the history of calculating and computing machines with the purpose of contributing towards the design and development of teaching and learning materials to help elementary and middle school students to develop awareness with respect to:
a) the role of science and technology in society and to appreciate their distinction and inter-relationships
b) the inter-relationships among operation, manufacture and use of the artifact
Webpage: http://www.hpdst.gr/events/seminars/677
The papers resulting from this seminar will be published in Almagest.

HEPHAESTUS Thematic Workshops
First Thematic Workshop “The Antikythera Mechanism”, Athens 16-19 December 2009
The workshop hosted twelve world renowned experts, including members of the original research team. Among them, Prof. Theodosios Tassios, National Technical University of Greece and President of the Society for Ancient Greek Technology Studies, Prof. Robert Halleux, University of Liège and member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Dr Paolo Brenni, president of the International Commission for Scientific Instruments, Dr. Tony Freeth, member of the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project, Prof. Liu Dun, Institute for the history of science, Chinese Academy of Science and president of the Division of History of Science and Technology of the International Union of History and Philosophy and Science (for the list of names, see the report on the workshop). It was addressed by Ronald Numbers, Hildale Professor of the University of Wisconsin and past President of the Division of History of Science and Technology of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science.
Second Hephaestus International Workshop: Gender Studies and Science: Problems, Tasks, Perspectives, Athens, April 2-3 2011.
Three aspects were studied:
1 - Methodological issues in gender studies in history of sciences: from women studies to gender studies? This aspect focus on methodologies in women and gender issues. What makes gender issues and women issues different in history of science? What methodologies could be transferred from gender studies to history of sciences? What methodologies could be transferred from history of sciences to gender studies?
2 - The role of sources and the invisible woman. New sources have often been the basis of new research in history. In addition, as usual sources often make women invisible, the importance of innovative sources to make women visible is a key issue. Regarding history of women in science, focus was laid on research using new types of sources to make women visible or possible sources already not exploited.
3 - Interdisciplinary approaches on women scientists and gender studies respectively. Participants were: Chronaki Anna, University of Thessaly, Volos, Godfroy-Genin Anne-Sophie, STEF, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, Paris, Katsiampoura Gianna, Institute for Neohellenic Studies, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Rentetzi Maria, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Schlüender Martina, Giessen University, Sofronieva Tzveta, MPIWG Berlin 2010-2011, Berlin, Valkova Olga, Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the RAcSci, Moscow and Vogt Annette B., Max-Planck-Institute for the History of Science, Berlin.
Webpage: http://www.hpdst.gr/events/workshops/gender-studies-and-science
A volume with the papers of the workshop has been published: Gianna Katsiampoura and Annette B. Vogt (eds), Gender Studies and Science: Problems, Tasks, Perspectives, Athens: Nissos, 2012.
3rd Hephaestus workshop: “Exploratory workshop of the network for the history of scientific policies in Europe”, Athens, May 2011.
During the international conference « La cour et les sciences : naissance des politiques scientifiques dans les cours européennes aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles » held in Versailles 3-5 February 2011, it has been proposed to carry on the research on the theme of scientific policies in Europe. Robert Halleux and Efthymios Nicolaidis took the initiative to organize a European network on that research theme. The first meeting of the core group of this network took place in Athens, the 6th and 7th May 2011. The core group is constituted by Elena Ausejo (University of Zaragoza), Michel Blay, (SYRTE, CNRS), Chantal Grell (Université de Versailles, Saint-Quentin), Robert Halleux (CHST, Université de Liège), Frank James (Royal Institution of Great Britain), Vincent Jullien (Université de Nantes), Efthymios Nicolaidis (NHRF), Alberto Postigliola (Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli), Constantine Skordoulis (University of Athens).
The networking resulted from the workshop led to the proposal of a research project on the History of Scientific policies in Europe, divided in three parts: Renaissance-17th c., 18th and 19th c. and 20th c.
Webpage: http://www.hpdst.gr/events/workshops/627
4th Hephaestus workshop: First Workshop of the Network for the History of Science in Southeastern Europe, Athens, 3-5 February 2012.
Representatives of Greece, Turkey, Serbia, Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania participated to the workshop: Akbas, Meltem (Turkey), Iacobescu, Gabriela-Eugenia (Romania), Kamisheva, Ganka (Bulgaria), Katsiampoura, Gianna (Greece), Kostov, Alexandre (Bulgaria), Nicolaidis, Efthymios (Greece), Petkovic, Tomislav (Croatia), Petrovic, Aleksandar (Serbia), Skordoulis, Constantine (Greece), Vlahakis, George (Greece), Zorlu, Tuncay (Turkey). And also two scholars French institutions (Vincent Jullien, Univ. of Nantes and Michela Malpangotto, SYRTE, CNRS-Observatory of Paris). The representative of the UNESCO bureau for Eastern Mediterranean. Davide Poletto participated to the workshop in order to declare the network an affiliated UNESCO network.
Webpage: http://www.hpdst.gr/events/workshops/658
The papers of the Workshop will be published in a special issue of the Newsletter for the History of Science in Southeastern Europe.
5th Hephaestus workshop: "Argumentation in science education", Athens, NHRF, March 2012.
This workshop was the result of a networking originated by HPDST member George Vlahakis and the University of Barcelona. Aikaterini Konstantinidou, Marina Castells, Josep M. Cerveró and George Vlahakis presented papers and discussed the theme of the relationship between Science Education and Theories of Argumentation, some related to the Philosophy of Science but also of others from Philosophy, Advocacy and Pragmatics.
Webpage: http://www.hpdst.gr/events/workshops/675
The result of the workshop is a common paper on Argumentation in science education. The paper will be published in Almagest.

WP4 Dissemination of research results and promotion of the team’s activities

HPDST Team Web portal: www.hpdst.gr
The industry-standard "Google Analytics" reports show that the portal received visitors from 63 countries. Many search queries with keywords in the field of science, sciences, scientific, history, education and didactics of science are returning results from the hpdst domain. This is corroborated by the increasing of subscriptions to the HPDST newsletters:
• Newsletter for the History of Science in Southeastern Europe: 2616 subscribers, international audience (pdf version of the publication).
• HPDST Events: 3584 subscribers, international and Greek audience.
• HPDST Events (in Greek, for local attendance of events): 1009 subscribers.
• 5th ESHS Conference: 3772 subscribers, international audience.
Spin-off, affiliated and hosted sites
The section of the web portal which is dedicated to the three main publications of the team (Newsletter for the History of Science in Southeastern Europe, Kritiki - Critical Science and Education and the International Interdisciplinary Journal Almagest) is one of the most visited.
The same applies for the Conferences that are hosted by the HPDST Programme. The team subsequently decided to create dedicated spin-off sites for three of the most visited sections (Kritiki and two international conferences). Data migration was performed almost automatically, since the main website and the spin-off websites share the same Drupal installation and have the same database structure. From now on, these sites will then be managed by collaborators of the team, in cooperation with the portal webmaster.
The experience gained through the hosting of the international conference "History of Science in Practice", with centralized conference organization through the website, via a process of online registration, abstract submission and reviewing, emailing system etc., allowed the team to extend its expertise to similar preeminent events, like the 5th Conference of the European Society for the History of Science. The dedicated website created for it benefits from the team’s experience and is handling far more heavy duties than previous conferences.
As stated previously, the common hosting of the affiliated projects under the same server and CMS platform allowed for a unified administration of the various web sites under the main portal. The visibility of the team brought new cooperation, thus increasing the list of affiliated and hosted websites:
Affiliated Websites and Conferences organized by the HPDST Programme:
• The Hellenic Archives of Scientific Instruments
• The 5th International Conference of the European Society of History of Science
• The 7th Panhellenic Conference on "History and Philosophy of Science in Teaching Physical Sciences"
• Hosted Websites and Conferences
• The International Academy of History of Science
• Inter-Divisional Teaching Commission of the International Union for the History and Philosophy of Science
• The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies
• The International Conference on Critical Education
• The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project
• The Hellenic Society for the Study of Ancient Egypt

HPDST Exhibitions
The Antikythera Mechanism exhibition
Presentation
The Antikythera Mechanism is an ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine from the second century BC, also known as the "World's First Computer". It was discovered by Greek sponge divers in 1901. Ten years ago, the Antikythera Mechanism was a little-known curiosity with a small and dedicated following of academics. Today, it is celebrated internationally as an outstanding landmark in the history of technology. This transformation has been generated by new scientific investigations after 2005, which have revealed a series of breakthroughs about how it worked and about the context of the ancient Greek culture that created it.
The need for public understanding
These breakthroughs have created the need for actions focused on public understanding, such as articles, books, dedicated websites, movies, and exhibitions. Greece is a privileged country for such actions, since the Mechanism is kept and exposed within the National Archaeological Museum, where worldwide specialists and audience converge to see and study the object; at the same time, the Mechanism is becoming a “national icon” in Greece, which is a guarantee of success for events focusing on this object; on the other hand, science exhibitions have proved to be very successful in disseminating research results towards the general public and the stakeholders at large. Taking these facts into account, the HPDST team planned an international exhibition focusing on the Antikythera Mechanism, but putting it into the context of the ancient astronomy and technology; this was achieved in collaboration with the Greek and international institutions responsible for the research on this ancient artifact. Due to its international and state-of-the-art scope, the exhibition has acted as a springboard for many future activities undertaken by the team.
The creation and first presentation of the exhibition: Athens, NHRF, December 7 2009 – January 29, 2010.
The HPDST team joined forces with three other institutions in order to achieve the pluridisciplinarity needed for this particular exhibition. These institutions are:
- The National Archaeological Museum (NAM)
- The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project (AMRP)
- The Association for Ancient Greek Technology Studies (EMAET)
The exhibition was designed by the team, in collaboration with the awarded for its achievements graphic company DesignBond. The team defined the exhibition structure as a series of 8 "questions and answers" about the Antikythera Mechanism, and interacted with the graphic company which designed the exhibition architecture and visiting path within the NHRF building, the panels, the stands and the lighting, as well as the advertisement material (posters and banner). The graphic company also designed an illuminated Plexiglas construction with processed and laser-engraved images from CT scans.
An illustrated catalog has been edited, also designed by DesignBond.
The media coverage was extended since the team had agreements with 4 media sponsors (3 national radios and one major newspaper), and also thanks to the overall interest generated in Greece (websites, blogs etc.) These resulted in increased visits of the venue and in proposals for moving the exhibition in other places within Greece and abroad.
The exhibition was scheduled from December 7, 2009 to January 29, 2010. The total audience for the whole period was more than 5,000 visitors and numerous schools. There was a special guidance for the schools by members of the team in close collaboration with teachers.
The interest generated led to the planning of a wider exhibition at the National Archaeological Museum (NAM) that would present the whole treasure of Antikythera shipwreck and redesign the display of the Antikythera Mechanism in the Museum. At the same time, HPDST received a number of proposals for hosting the exhibition in various countries.
The Antikythera exhibitions in other Greek towns
The exhibition, each time adapted according to the local possibilities and needs, has been presented to:
− The NHMC, a preeminent museum in the city of Heraklion, with permanent collections attended by hundreds of visitors, including tourists. The HPDST team, in collaboration with the NHMC administration, was able to raise funds from sponsors. This allowed adapting the exhibition to its new venue, redesigning the panels, and producing new versions of the multimedia material. The exhibition was inaugurated in Heraklion in July 12 2010 and run until July 2011, far beyond the scheduled closing date at October 31.
− The HPDST team also assisted the Kythera Municipality in refurbishing an older exhibition produced by the Ionic Centre and the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project; in particular, it provided some of the multimedia material designed for the NHMC exhibition, and a model designed by a collaborator of the team, the mathematician Dionysios Kriaris. The exhibition moved in two venues in Kythera, from August 12 to September 19, 2010 with significant coverage from Greek media and news agencies. The experience gained will serve in designing the permanent exhibition at Antikythera (which is under the same administration as Kythera).
The Antikythera exhibitions in Europe:
1 Barcelona, November 2010
http://www.hpdst.gr/events/exhibitions/antikythera-mechanism/barcelona
Presented in the frame of the 4th International Conference of the European Society for the History of Science. Venue: Institut d’Estudis Catalans
2 Serbia, Belgrade: 18 May-25 June 2011
http://www.hpdst.gr/events/exhibitions/antikythera-mechanism/belgrade
The exhibition was presented at the University Library main hall and was accessible to all Library visitors. An illustrated catalog in Serbian has been edited.
3. Italy, Pavia, 21-28 June 2011
http://www.hpdst.gr/events/exhibitions/antikythera-mechanism/pavia
In collaboration with the Centro Interdipentamentale di Ricerca per la Didactica e la Storia delle Scienze of the Sistema Museale d’Ateneo. Venue Santa Maria Gualtieri, an 11th century Church transformed in cultural center of the city of Pavia.
A brochure in Italian has been edited.
4. Paris, Musée des Arts et Métiers, 27 June 2011-27 June 2012 (may be expanded).
http://www.antikythera-mechanism.gr/fr/events/exhibitions/paris-arts-et-metiers
The exhibition attracted important sponsoring (50,000 Euros) by Hublot watchmakers, Switzerland. The exhibition is enriched with the collections of the stock of the CNAM.
Educational material in French has been edited.
5. Liège, Museum Embarcadère du Savoir, 15 September-to 16 December 2011
http://www.embarcaderedusavoir.ulg.ac.be/leshorlogers.html
The exhibition called « Les horlogers du ciel » comprised clocks, astrolabes and planetaria from the collections of the Museums of Liège (Musée de la Vie Wallone, Grand Curtius, École d’horlogerie et armurerie), as well as the Dondi’s horologium reconstruction send by the Observatory of Paris.
Special educational activities accompanied the exhibition.
A Press release folder has been edited.
6. Austria, Poellau, 30 September 2011 – 15 January 2012
http://www.hpdst.gr/events/exhibitions/antikythera-mechanism/poellau
The exhibition was presented at the European Center for the History of Physics, a castle arranged for exhibitions and scientific events.
A special brochure in German has been edited.
7. Berlin, Max Planck Institute, 15 October 2011 –30 January 2012
http://www.hpdst.gr/events/exhibitions/antikythera-mechanism/berlin-max-planck
The exhibition was presented at the main Hall of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science.
8. Basel, Switzerland, March 2012.
http://www.hpdst.gr/events/exhibitions/antikythera-mechanism/basel
The illustrated catalogue in English was specially reedited.
• The big exhibition at the NAM and future venues.
National Archaeological Museum of Athens, 5 April 2012 – 12 April 2013
http://www.hpdst.gr/node/665
An important event after Hephaestus implementation is the great Antikythera shipwreck exhibition in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens (NAM) which presents the main pieces of the treasure founded in 1900. The room 3, entirely dedicated to the Mechanism is a result of the initial Hephaestus exhibition. The event has been made possible due to Hephaestus networking and relations with the sponsors. Hublot has sponsored the biggest part of this event and donated to the Museum the new showcase of the Mechanism (cost 200,000 Euros). For the first time all the 82 fragments of the Mechanism are displayed (until now only the main 3) with 3D projections of the reconstruction of the Mechanism inside the showcase. The NAM estimates that the number of visitors will reach 300,000.
All the exhibitions are accompanied by educational activities and guided visits for schools and interested groups.
The exhibitions were covered by the Media. Press conferences have been organized in Athens, Paris, Liège, Belgarde, Pavia, Poellau and Basel.
Next venue of the exhibition: Beijing, China, August 2012. Also planned for Hong Kong.

Exhibition Circinus: Geometry in Art and Science
NHRF, Athens, 30/11/2010-30/1//2011.
http://www.hpdst.gr/events/exhibitions/451
The exhibition "Circinus: Geometry in Art and Science" displayed historic drawing and measurement instruments from the private collection of the architect Thanasis Koutrouvelis. The exhibits covered a period ranging from the Greco-Roman antiquity to the middle of the 19th century. The main theme is the relation between history of technology and history of art, focusing on Geometry and highlighting its role in all stages of creative drawing. Within this context the instruments on display are presented as the practical, or rather applied side of mathematical theory, and the visitor toured through drawing techniques, artistic models, and ways of thinking in classical architecture and other disciplines. Catherine Carella, HPDST member who has been a visiting fellow to the Oxford Science Museum during the first reporting period was the curator of Circinus.
The exhibition was co-organized by the National Hellenic Research Foundation, the Museum of the History of Science of the University of Oxford, and the Foundation of the Hellenic World, all of which are participating by sending support material in the form of film, documentaries and interactive computer programs. Among the series of public events organized to accompany the exhibition there have been documentaries on mathematics in the antiquity, produced by the BBC and by the Hellenic World Foundation, as well as lectures by invited speakers, such as Prof. Theodosios Tassios, Dr Stephen Johnston, Prof. Christina Phili, Prof. Eftychis Papadopetrakis, Mr Thanasis Koutrouvelis, the sculptor Costas Varotos and Dr Efthymios Nicolaidis.
The exhibition catalogue is an illustrated 20-page booklet presenting characteristic examples of the display and key pieces of the collection. Descriptions of some of the most important, controversial, or typical items are included, as are timetables and explicative panels.
Educational activities have been organized during the exhibition, attended by school classes of secondary education.

Exhibition “Abacus: Aspects of Computers History in Greece”
1. Athens, NHRF, 6 December2011 – 31 January 2012.
2. Chios island, Municipality exhibitions center, February 2012.
3. University of Jannena, March 2012.
http://www.hpdst.gr/events/exhibitions/abacus
The exhibition presented aspects of the technological history of Greece as well as issues related to scientific and technological heritage. Through the history of calculating machines and the subjects who create and manage them, it unravels the country’s social and economic history, the role of technological equipment and innovation, whereas collective ideas and national guidelines are denoted.
The exhibition was designed according to a museological scenario developing in four units:
• Calculating with Abacus & Gears
• Punched cards & Electronic Probes / Computing Machines in Greece 1920-1970
• Personal computers & National Strategies / Greece 1970-1980
• And one devoted to the establishment and development of the National Documentation Centre (EKT) under the title “From large Greek databases to open digital content”.
The Abacus exhibition had a strong educational character, accompanied by an Educational Programme with three Activities, a Workshop for school groups and young audiences entitled Constructions with Gears, Symbols, Codes and Cryptography and The Algorithm which was the Little Red Hood.
Publications:
A bilingual Greek – English illustrated catalogue
An educational portfolio for children including an exhibition guide and Activity Working Sheets.

Exhibition “The Keys of Knowledge”
http://www.hpdst.gr/events/exhibitions/keys-of-knowledge
Athens, NHRF, 15 June – 16 July 2011
Exhibition of science textbooks, of the period 18th- early 20th centuries collected from various countries. Care was taken to include exhibits from many European areas and languages, as well as from North America.
An illustrated catalogue in English has been published.

Documentary film on the Antikythera Mechanism
The success of Hephaestus Antikythera Mechanism exhibition and the networking of Hephaestus permitted HPDST to participate to the world class documentary film “The World’s First Computer”.
The details of the documentary are as follows:
Director: Mike Beckham
Script: Mike Beckham
Photographer: Steve Gray
Montage: Simon Ruben
Sound: Leandros Dounis, Haralambos Yannakakis, Tim Watts
Music: Stephen Daltry, Stefanos Konstantinidis
Producer: Tony Freeth
Production: Images First Ltd tony@imagesfirst.com
Co-production: Αnemon Productions, ΕΡT AE/ERT SA Hellenic Broadcasting Corp., ARTE, NHK Japanese National Broadcasting, Roger Hadland, Nikon, National Hellenic Research Foundation (FP7, Capacities, Hephaestus project).
Type: DigiBeta Color
Production Country: UK-Greece
Duration: 75'
Production Year: 2012
First presented on ARTE, April 1, 2012, ERT (Greek national television) April 5, 2012 and on BBC 4, May 10, 2012. A worldwide distribution is planned. The film is also presented to international festivals for documentary films.
Presentation of the documentary:
A historical and scientific investigation telling the extraordinary story of how ancient Greeks built a computer 2,000 years ago. Set against the glorious backdrop of classical Greece, the film explains how the ancients had the knowledge and creativity to put together such a machine. But who was the genius inventor behind it? And what was it really for? By focusing on the work of another rival scientist, the story follows an international research team, who finally solved the puzzle of the Antikythera Mechanism. Scientific breakthroughs illustrated with the latest scientific data and stunning graphics reveal a trail of mysterious numbers that solved the conundrum of the gears – a real life Da Vinci code set in ancient Greece.

The International Journal for the History of Scientific Ideas Almagest
A world class international journal for the history of scientific ideas, Almagest, has been launched by HPDST and diffused by the international editing house Brepols. The editorial board comprises well known scholars in the field of history of science from Europe and America.
Published bi-annually. Issues: 1-1 May 2010, 1-2 November 2010, 2-1 May 2011, 2-2 November 2011, 3-1 May 2012.
The design of Almagest was awarded by the 1st Prize for magazine design of the Evge Awards 2011.
Editorial Board of Almagest
Barahona, Ana, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
Bevilacqua, Fabio, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Italy
Blay, Michel, Centre d'Archives de Philosophie, d'Histoire et d'Édition des Sciences, CNRS-ENS, France
Chatzis, Konstantinos, Université Paris-Est -- Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés (UMR CNRS 8134), France
Cullen, Christopher, Needham Research Institute, Cambridge, UK
Demidov, Sergei, Institute of History of Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Figueirôa, Silvia, State University of Campinas, Brazil.
Halleux, Robert, Centre d’Histoire des Sciences et des Techniques, Université de Liège, Belgium
Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin, Research Center for Islamic History, Art and Culture, IRCICA, Istanbul, Turkey
Jullien, Vincent, Université de Nantes, France
Knobloch, Eberhard, Technische Universität, Berlin, Germany
Kostov, Alexandre, Institute for Balkan Studies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria
Liu Dun, Institute for the Study of Natural Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Numbers, Ronald, University of Wisconsin, USA
Petkovic, Tomislav, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Petrovic, Alexandar, University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Rommevaux, Sabine, Centre d’Études Supérieures de la Renaissance, CNRS-Université de Tours, France
Vogt, Annette, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Germany
Editors: Efthymios Nicolaidis, National Hellenic Research Foundation, and Constantine Skordoulis, University of Athens, Greece
Managing Editor: Antigone Nounou, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Greece
Assistant editor: Gianna Katsiampoura, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Greece
Editorial Statement of Almagest
Almagest views the history of science both as a history of ideas and as a history of activities that have taken place in institutional and social contexts. In its pages, the journal aims to address not only the philosophical assumptions underpinning scientific ideas and developments, but also the reciprocal influence between historical context and these phenomena.
Almagest holds that an accurate understanding of scientific activity requires a deep appreciation of its situation in time and place, and, consequently, that emphasis should be laid not only on the universal validity of such activity but also on its local particularity. And yet, despite pioneering efforts from the 1930s through the 1950s, as well as important developments in the historiography of science since then, a genuinely interdisciplinary, comparative historical perspective is still in its infancy. Acknowledging this lacuna, and recognizing the potential applications of this approach, we aspire to publish essays on the history of science that take advantage of such a perspective, and contribute to a better understanding of major issues of the present day, such as those concerning cultural conflicts, multiculturalism, cultural fusions and globalization.
Given the defining features of Almagest’s approach, the history of science, of scientific ideas, of research priorities and agendas, and of conceptualizations of nature is perceived as being related in reciprocal ways not only to History, broadly construed, but also to various cultural factors, including geo-political, social, economic, religious, and technological ones. Thus, the journal invites papers that examine and analyze the relations between scientific activity on the one hand and, on the other, the specific geographic locations, political context, social conditions, religious undercurrents, and the technology of a given era.
Another aim of Almagest is to promote the teaching of history of science by advocating its utilization in science courses at all levels and forms of education (from elementary schools, to universities, to public education). We place particular emphasis on the teaching of history of science in programs dedicated to the preparation of future science teachers. Our editorial board strongly believes that historians of science can contribute substantially to the scientific education of both students and the general public, especially at a time when the answers to the question “What counts as science?” have major implications for several decisions contemporary society has to make. These decisions range from what ought to be available to students in their school curricula to the course of action required for the preservation of our environment. The journal, therefore, also invites papers on the utilization of history of science in science education.
Last but not least, Almagest aims to constitute a forum for historians of science from Southeastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, which will promote their research and make it known to the international community of historians of science.
Selected papers of Hephaestus Conferences, Seminars and Workshops have been published in Almagest.

HPDST Newsletter for the History of Science in Southeastern Europe
Edited semi-annually in July and December of each year. Six issues (11 to 16) have been published during Hephaestus implementation. In next issue (17) the papers of the first workshop of the network of history of science in Southeastern Europe will be published.
The editorial committee of the Newsletter is composed by members of the network of historians of science and technology of Southeastern Europe, from Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, Serbia and Croatia and Romania.
The Newsletter is edited both in printed and in electronic version on HPDST website (www.hpdst.gr). The printed version is sent by post to about 200 institutions related to history of science all over the world (libraries, departments, societies) and distributed to HPDST events (conferences, exhibitions etc.).
The Newsletter has 2616 subscribers in its e-form.

Other Hephaestus publications
Vincent Jullien, Efthymios Nicolaïdis and Michel Blay (eds), Europe et sciences moderns, histoire d’un engendrement mutuel – Europe and modern sciences, the history of a mutual engenderment, Centre Atlantique de Philosophie – National Hellenic Research Foundation, Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, 2012.
George N. Vlahakis, Oceanography in Greece, 18th – 20th centuries, European Federation of Marine Sciences publications, 2012.
Efthymios Nicolaidis (ed.), Aspects de la recherche Hellénique en Histoire des Sciences. Thematic issue of Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences, 60-1, (2010).
Gianna Katsampoura and Annette B. Vogt (eds), Gender Studies and Science: Problems, Tasks, Perspectives, Athens: National Hellenic Research Foundation -Nissos, 2012.
K. Skordoulis and D. Hill (editors), Critical education, proceedings of the 1st international conference, Athens: Nissos, 2012.
Kritiki, Critical science and education, issues 9 (2009), 10 (2010), 11 (2011) and 12 (2012).
The illustrated catalogues of the four exhibitions Antikythera Mechanism, Circinus, Abacus and Keys of knowledge (see under relevant sections).
Educational material for the exhibitions Antikythera Mechanism and Abacus (see under relevant sections).
Note: the publications of HPDST members in journals, proceedings and thematic volumes resulting from Hephaestus project are to be found on HPDST website, www.hpdst.gr

Potential Impact:
Foreword
The project Hephaestus was conceived in order to expand the activities of the HPDST team and bring them at the level of cutting edge international scholarship. The areas of interest of HPDST include History of Science and Technology, Philosophy of Science and Didactics of Science and Technology. A SWOT report on the activities of the team, authored by internationally acknowledged experts on these fields, identified a number of issues that would help establish strong connections and strategic partnerships with the international community and enable the emergence of HPDST a team of excellence at an international level. Hephaestus was designed to address these issues, by putting forth the following goals:
• Enhance the research capacity of the team, by utilizing opportunities, presented at a European level
• Improve the potential of team members
• Initiate collaborations with European research institutions and University that are recognized centers of excellence
• Develop a research network to facilitate cross-fertilization and recognition of the team’s work
• Intensify the team’s visibility to specialists and the general public alike, and to establish close collaborations with the local socio-political authorities.
In accordance, the program actions that were to be implemented under the aegis of Hephaestus, as per the grant agreement, were the following:
• Exchanges of scholars for mid and long term research visits.
• Organization of three research seminars, three workshops and two international conferences.
• Organization of exhibitions and production of a documentary film.
• Publication of a thematic volume and other works of scholarship.
• Promotion of the team to international events.
• The enlistment of two full time researchers for two years.
• The development of an international journal.
• The creation of a web portal.
• The creation of international networks of collaboration.
The potential impact of the program is to be judged by taking into consideration two different, though correlated, areas of influence. The first is Hephaestus impact on the team and the second, the socio-economic and wider societal implications of the project and the dissemination and exploitation of the project’s results. These will be considered in the light of the actions that the project was to implement, according to the grant agreement.
Hephaestus Impact on the HPDST Action Plan
The know-how and collaborations initiated by the team enabled the successful acquisition of two research grants for the period 2012-2016, totaling 985.00 Euros, by local and European funds. This fact will enable to pursue the cutting edge research on areas of interest of the team. It is thus evident that one of the main goals of the project, the acquisition of skills as a team of excellence which will enable a sustainable level of research output, has been successfully met. In addition, the impact of Hephaestus will be able continue far further than the period covered by the grant agreement.
Impact on the scholars belonging to the team
Eight HPDST researchers have paid medium and long term research visits into international centers of excellence, specifically Max Planck Institute for the History of Science; Centre d’Archives, Philosophie et Édition des Sciences (CNRS-ENS); Centre d’Histoire des Sciences et des Technique of the Université de Liège; History and Philosophy of Science Department of the University of Cambridge; School of Arts and Education of Middlesex University; SYRTE (CNRS- Observatoire de Paris), Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Needham Research Institute, History of Science Museum of the University of Oxford and Département de Philosophie, Université de Nantes . Two of the young scholars that took part in research visits action have gone on to secure independently graduate and postdoctoral fellowships in prestigious international centers of excellence, such as the University of Princeton and the American Chemical Heritage Foundation. Two senior researchers of the team have been elected members in prestigious international scientific societies. It is thus obvious that Hephaestus had a large impact on HPDST members, whose research has been judged by peers to be of high international standards, according to their level of seniority. Furthermore, one of the senior researchers published a book on his field of specialty in John Hopkins University Press which is expected to become a book of reference. One of the two enlisted senior researchers for two years has secured recruitment at HPDST and the second one a three years contract with the University of Athens. These developments strongly point to the fact that the potential impact in the future will continue to grow, as the team members mobilize the new resources available.
Cross fertilization impact
As per the grant agreement, one of the areas Hephaestus was expected to have an impact was on the cross-fertilization of the European research space and its structural homogenization. As per the original call, researchers’ mobility was expected to be a vehicle for such achievements. In this area, the project has had so far, and will continue to have, a large impact. Fifteen scholars from twelve European institutions have visited HPDST, for medium and long term visits. Specifically researchers from the following institutions have been hosted: Max Planck Institute for the History of Science; Centre d’Archives, Philosophie et Édition des Sciences (CNRS-ENS); Centre d’Histoire des Sciences et des Technique of the Université de Liège; History and Philosophy of Science Department of the University of Cambridge; School of Arts and Education of Middlesex University; SYRTE (CNRS- Observatoire de Paris); Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers; Needham Research Institute; Centre Alexandre Koyré, École des Hautes Études en Science Sociales; Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés (CNRS-ENPC); Département de Philosohie of the Université de Montpelleir and Département de Philosophie of the Université de Nantes. This has enabled new research avenues and research projects to be initiated both locally and in the European institutions. As can be seen from the relevant publication records and the research projects initiated, the impact of the mobility actions has been significant, in both content and volume of research output. Furthermore, Hephaestus is expected to have a major impact in the creation of a common research mentality, which will facilitate the future collaboration among these institutions and other in their respective countries. It must also be noted that Hephaestus’ activities have enabled visitors to be productive in their own research, which was later published in international peer reviewed journals and monographs.
Impact on Strategic partnerships
Under the auspices of Hephaestus, HPDST has initiated a total of seven international long term partnerships by signing relevant agreements, specifically with the following institutes:
• Centre d’Histoire des Sciences et des Techniques de l’Université de Liège
• The Needham Research Institute, Cambridge, UK
• Musée des arts et métiers – CΝΑΜ, Paris
• UFR Lettres et Langages de l’université de Nantes, France
• The Institute for the History of Natural Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
• Institute of Contemporary History, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
• SYRTE, CNRS - Observatoire de Paris
These are expected to yield significant results in the next few years, through bilateral and collective research output, the training of new scholars and the creation of common research interests and projects. Furthermore, the integration of local and international research space through the activities of Hephaestus has already created working opportunities for members of all institutions and is expected to continue to do so in the near future.
Furthermore Hephaestus has initiated collaborations with the Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge (Project DACALBO), the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science (Women in science, biographies of physicists), the CAPHES, CNRS-Ecole Normale Supérieure (Project NARSES), the School of Arts and Education, Middlesex University (Series of the Conferences on science education), the Centre Alexandre Koyré, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales – CNRS (History of the French military and scientific mission to Peloponnesus), the Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés, CNRS-Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (project of the study of scientific and technological modernization of Southeastern Europe) and the CNAM (Antikythera exhibition).
Hephaestus’ activities have also been instrumental in the institutionalization of the Network for the History of Science in Southeastern Europe initiated by HPDST, which has now been recognized and put under the aegis of UNESCO.
Impact on the scientific field
HPDST activities under the auspices of Hephaestus have influenced research on the fields of history, philosophy and didactics of science. They are also expected to have a continuing impact after the program’s end. First and foremost, HPDST has launched the international, peer reviewed journal Almagest, devoted to the history of scientific ideas and focusing on scholarship on Eastern Europe and Eastern Mediterranean. Its editorial board is composed by prominent scholars from all over the world. It has met with overwhelming response by experts and stakeholders and thus has a significant impact on Eastern European studies. Furthermore, it’s the first and only journal of its kind and has enabled the diffusion of research from scholars and experts to audiences that they normally do not reach. At the same time, renowned international scholars of the field have already published in the journal. The journal’s continuously expanding audience and its diffusion by the prestigious international publisher Brepols guarantees that its impact will be significant in the next years.
Moreover, Hephaestus has enabled the creation of a consortium with the goal of writing a European textbook on history of science, which has secured a publishing agreement with Vuibert publishers. This is the first of its kind and it is expected to have a twofold impact: It will be accessible and thus engage a variety of stakeholders, such as policy makers, educationists, teachers and of course students. Secondly, it will create a strategic alliance of partners in several institutions, which will develop pedagogical expertise on the field of teaching history of science over an integrated European space. Both developments are expected to have a significant impact on history of science and technology in the next few years.
The cross-fertilization of history of science and education is also to be pursued by an international Master on scientific and technological heritage. It is to be the first Master of its kind that will be explicitly European in scope and is expected to engage a variety of stakeholders in education and history of science and technology. The Master will have important socio-economic impact as it will create new employment opportunities through its implementation and will also offer its students a variety of employment opportunities in a new cultural field.
Furthermore, Hephaestus has initiated ten different international collaborative research projects, which involve over several European institutions recognized as centers of excellence. These are:
• “Europe and science, a mutual engenderment”, an international collaborative project which has already organized a conference, has published a thematic volume, and is already planning a second conference within 2013 in Nantes. It has impacted the research of a number of senior and junior scholars over several institutions
• ‘Byzantine Alchemy’, a project that has already secured EU funding, through the National Strategic Research Framework for the period 2012-2015. Its theme of study is state-of-the-art and has garnered the attention of recognized experts both within Europe and abroad. It is expected to significantly influence the history of alchemy, chemistry and the history of religion but also for pharmacy as it will enrich our knowledge of traditional pharmaceutical receipts.
• A research project on the modernization of the Southeastern European countries, which is being initiated by the Network of history of science in Southeastern Europe. It is the first that brings together scholars and researchers from the region, and it is expected to engage a variety of stakeholders in all participating regions. It will also enable the creation of a new regional study focus within history of science.
• A project on the preservation of contemporary scientific heritage, which is being carried out by a network initiated by CNAM. It is to bring together stakeholders from the industry and policymaking, as well as experts and researchers.
• A research project on the history of informatics, based on the success of the Abacus exhibition. It will influence both educational practices and the history of the discipline.
• ‘Science and religions in Southeastern Europe and East Mediterranean’, a project that has been funded by EU, under the National Strategic Research Framework for the period 2013-2016. It is expected to have a significant impact on the fields of history of science and religion, due to its pioneering scope and on stakeholders for the European integration of Eastern European countries.
• ‘History of science in the teaching of science’ project, which is being organized by the homonymous network. Its main venue is the Critical education conferences series and it has managed to bring together experts from all over the world. Its impact has also being as diverse.
• ‘The history of scientific policies in Europe’. A first workshop on the subject has been organized and a project is being initiated under the leadership of CHST, Univ. of Liège is expected to have an important soci-economic impact as it will offer new information for science policy-making.
• ‘Mobility of scholars and experimental exactitude’ is a project that has been initiated in collaboration with SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris. It is to engage senior and junior scholars from both institutions and produce cutting edge research as well as an exhibition.
• ‘The French military and scientific expedition to Peloponnesus in 1829-1831’. This project is in collaboration with the École Française d’Athènes and the Centre Alexandre Koyré, CNRS-École des Hautes Études en Science Sociales. The project involves all the three Institutes for History of the National Hellenic Research Foundation and is a multidisciplinary venture that will engage experts from many countries and disciplines.
Socio-economical impact
Hephaestus implementation has a socio-economical impact on four fronts: the diffusion of the history of science and technology to the wide public, science education, the information provided to stakeholders, and employment.
Concerning the diffusion of the history of science and technology, Hephaestus has succeeded in organizing large scale public events, presenting the history of science and technology as part of the cultural heritage that shaped European civilization, presenting at the same time its globalizing aspect. The Antikythera Mechanism exhibition, often enriched with other material, presents to the public the birth of European technology and its cross-fertilization from the Antiquity to the 19th century. Note that the estimated number of visitors of the NAM exhibition is about 300,000 and the audience of the documentary is expected to be several millions (already diffused on BBC 4 Channel, May 10, 2012 and ERT Greek national channel, April 5, 2012). The Abacus exhibition with the development of educational activities aims to familiarize the public and the pupils with the principles of computing and thus to reduce the gap between the users and present technology. The European Master will have important socio-economic impact as it will permit number of new employments for its implementation and also will offer its students a variety of employment opportunities in a new cultural field.
Concerning science education, Hephaestus’ implementation offered new pedagogical tools to the teachers of primary and secondary education in order to reduce the gap between the humanities and exact sciences and to help students’ better understanding of scientific concepts and practices. This action thus directly engages the problem of the diminishing number of students following scientific studies in Europe, by rendering such courses more attractive.
On the front of the information provided to stakeholders, Hephaestus implementation has permitted the creation of at least three networks and research projects of interest. The network for the study of the history and societal impact of the European scientific policies has an obvious outcome for decision making. The network for the study of the scientific and technological modernization of Southeastern Europe has important social implications. The project of the study of the relations science – religions in the Eastern Europe has also direct implications on the making of the European integration and is of interest for the stakeholders.
Concerning employment, Hephaestus has permitted to create a number of new jobs in both direct and indirect manners. Directly, the two new projects for which HPDST has received a total funding of 985,000 Euros for the next four years, create employments for researchers and specialized personnel. Indirectly, the large development of Hephaestus exhibitions and diffusion activities (documentary film) has and will continue to create employments financed both by sponsorship and by the end users. Moreover, the development of new research fields and networks opens a series of opportunities for young researchers and for specialized staff.
Dissemination of results and visibility of the team
The activities of Hephaestus have had a significant and major impact on the dissemination of results produced by HPDST. First and foremost, a web portal has been created, which functions as the hub of activities for the members of HPDST and their international collaborators. Furthermore, it serves as one of the main vehicles of dissemination of the activities of the team and the future events it organizes. It also serves as a prominent vehicle for dissemination of international activities in the area, as it hosts international sites such as those of the International Academy of History of Science or the Inter-Divisional Teaching Commission of the International Union for the History and Philosophy of Science. Digital metrics prove that it is a very successful internet site and one that is constantly enriched. It is expected to continue to play a major role on the activities of the team. Furthermore, it has also had a socio-economical impact, as it has attracted the attention of various stakeholders, such as educators and policy makers.
Other dissemination activities which have appeared under Hephaestus include the circulation of the Newsletter for the history of science in Southeastern Europe, which is the only one of its type to exist in Southeastern Europe and one that has a significant impact in the field in the area. It is widely disseminated in many countries and it is published in English, to ensure maximum visibility. In the same vein, the journal Kritiki is the only interdisciplinary journal of its kind to be published in Greece and as such, draws together and influences a variety of Greek scholars. It acts as a medium of exchange between local researchers and the various other collaborators of the team. It thus has a significant multiplying effect, enabling the resources of Hephaestus to be diffused in Greek intellectual space.
Under Hephaestus, HPDST has highly enhanced its international visibility as a center of academic excellence in its field. Under the terms of the grant agreement, it has done so through the organization of exhibitions, conferences, research seminars and workshops. The impact of each kind of activity is as follows:
• Three international conferences, the first of their kind have been organized and were very successful. In each case, a new interdisciplinary question was approached through the use of state-of-the-art scholarship, attracting a large number of scholars from many fields. Both of the conferences were co-organized with international partners and have spawned research avenues and novel approaches, impacting their respective fields. It must be noted that the original grant agreement called for only two conferences, and that two conferences have inaugurated a series of events which will continue far beyond Hephaestus implementation.
• The visibility of the team due to Hephaestus project permitted HPDST to obtain the organization of the 5th International Conference of the European Society for the History of Science (http://5eshs.hpdst.gr), to be held in NRHF, Athens, 3-5 November 2012 (about 450 participants).
• Four research seminars, again instead of three planned by the grant agreement, have been organized in collaboration with scholars abroad, and have been successful. Peer review has proven that they had an impact on the field. Furthermore, in each seminar a new venue of research was initiated, which further enhanced its future impact. They also acted as important guiding events for young scholars now entering the field, thus expanding their impact beyond scholarship.
• Five international workshops, instead of three initially planned, were organized, all with the active participation of scholars from all over Europe. They were very successful in establishing the status of the field and to promote cutting edge research. Two of these initiated international networks (European scientific policies and Southeastern Europe studies) which will expand the research on their respective fields.
• Finally, Hephaestus had its greatest impact on of the areas that the SWOT analysis had identified as a weakness of HPDST, namely museology. Under the auspices of the program, a number of widely successful exhibitions were launched, which were later invited to various centers of excellence all over the world, with significant socio-economical impact.
1. The Antikythera Mechanism Exhibition has been presented in three different spaces in Greece and is being presented for one year in the National Archaeological Museum (NAM). It has also appeared in Paris, Liege, Barcelona, Poellau, Pavia, Belgrade, Switzeland, Berlin and will appear in Beijing. It has attracted thousands of visitors (expected visitors at the NAM 300,000) and has established HPDST as a team of excellence in the field. It has also attracted independent funding and is in the process of becoming a permanent exhibition, further widening the impact among different kinds of stakeholders.
2. Accordingly, HPDST has managed to co-produce a documentary based on its activities around the Antikythera mechanism. It draws together French, Japanese and Greek national channels and is expected to have a worldwide impact (it has already been diffused on ATRE, ERT-Greek national channel and BBC 4). It is also proof of a wide engagement with a variety of stakeholders, both locally and internationally.
3. HPDST also presented the exhibition Circinus locally, which was the first exhibition of its kind and was visited by schools and the general public alike. This further strengthened the team’s impact in the vital area of secondary history and science education.
4. The exhibition Abacus was not only the first exhibition on the history of computing in Greece, but also explicitly engaged with educational practices, bringing cutting edge museology into effect. It also was successful and engaged many political and educational stakeholders. It is in the process of being hosted internationally, expanding its impact to experts and the general public alike.
5. The Keys of knowledge exhibition was the first on the history of science textbooks in Greece. It brought together for the first time a number of textbooks yet not researched and was visited by many visitors. Its impact, as evidenced from articles in widely read newspapers, was significant.
Conclusions
Hephaestus has proven to have had a wider impact that first envisioned on the grant agreement. The goals achieved have superseded the ones originally put forth by HPDST and thus the potential impact is greater. It has engaged stakeholders, experts, junior and senior scholars, educators and the general public in various places all over the European space, it has enabled the significant increase of HPDST’s research output, it has had socioeconomic impact through the creation of widely visited exhibitions, educational activities, internationally distributed documentary film, the obtaining of important funding for two new research projects, the obtaining of important private sponsorship for its Antikythera exhibition and the successful organization of number of dissemination activities. Hephaestus has also enabled the mobilization of HPDST’s researchers potential and has led to their appointment in prestigious positions. It opened new employment opportunities both in HPDST scientific fields and in the area of cultural events. It promoted HPDST to a team of reference worldwide in the fields of the relations science – religions, of Byzantine science, of the history of Alchemy and of the organization of scientific exhibitions. With Almagest’s publication, Hephaestus offered to the team a powerful tool for the shaping of the field of history of science at an international level. Finally, it has helped the creation of networks and collaborations both in Southeastern Europe and across recognized European centers of excellence. For all these reasons, Hephaestus’ potential impact is expected to be very significant and lasting.

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Record Number: 196139 / Last updated on: 2017-03-22
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