Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

FP7

SERVICE Report Summary

Project ID: 206929
Funded under: FP7-REGPOT
Country: Serbia

Final Report Summary - SERVICE (Strengthening Railway Vehicles Center of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Kraljevo)

Executive Summary:
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
About the project: The main goal of the project SeRViCe was to increase the scientific-research potentials of the Railway Vehicles Centre (hereinafter referred to as: RVC), which is an organizational unit within the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Kraljevo (hereinafter referred to as: FME) that belongs to the University of Kragujevac, Serbia. The beneficiary of the project results, the RVC, is a leading Serbian institution in the field of railway vehicle investigation and testing, providing research and development services to Serbian wagon factories and the Serbian Railways.
Project objectives: The project aim was to enhance the RVC potentials for railway vehicles research according to the contemporary world trends in the field of railway engineering. The project realization covered fulfillment of the following key objectives:
- Improvement of knowledge and skills of the research staff
- Acquisition of new research equipment that will complement the present equipment
- Definition of common research programmes with some of the leading EU research centres
Work performed: By the deadline for the project completion (30/04/2011) almost all planned activities were successfully realized. The only delay occurred in the realization of the activity related to the construction of the test track for testing railway vehicles. The reasons for delay could not be influenced because they were caused by vis major, before all by the consequences of the earthquake that struck Kraljevo and its surroundings on 03/11/2010 as well as by the turbulent local political situation reflected in several changes of the local authorities in Kraljevo. Those were the main reasons for the postponement and delay in solving legal and property issues connected with the land foreseen for the construction of the test track. With great efforts of the members of the project team and the RVC, as well as those of the FME, and with the significant help of the local community regarding the selection of the adequate location for construction and settlement of legal and property relationships, the test track was constructed and is now close to the FME building. It is important to emphasize that the delay in the construction of the test track did not, in any way, affect the fulfillment of the other objectives and accomplishment of the planned final results of the project. All the planned results of the project were successfully realized within the foreseen budget. According to the initial plan of the project, all the activities were realized in seven work packages.
- WP1, which was to improve the knowledge and skills of the RVC present staff, was realized in accordance with the project plan, with three two-way secondments, four study visits, and procurement of three modern software packages.
- WP2, which provided new employees to the RVC, had all its deliverables realized through the employment of two experienced and five young researchers.
- WP3, which aimed at improving knowledge of the complete RVC research staff and disseminating knowledge and experiences through organization of three workshops, was completely realized in line with the project plan.
- WP4, aimed at providing contemporary measurement equipment and a test track for testing railway vehicles.
- WP5, aimed at developing strategic partnerships with prominent European universities was realized according to the project plan with signing agreements on strategic partnerships.
- WP6, aimed at promotion and dissemination of project results was realized according to the plan, with organization of four media conferences, three info days, two TV broadcasts, running the project website, as well as with several project presentations and participation in some national and international conferences.
- WP7, aimed at ensuring project progress in a proper and timely manner.
Conclusion: All the planned activities were realized entirely according to the project plan and within the foreseen budget. Delay in the realization of certain activities did not affect the accomplishment of final results of the project. The scientific-research potentials of the RVC were considerably improved by increasing the level of knowledge, procurement of modern software packages, employment of new staff, procurement of modern measurement equipment and construction of the test track for testing railway vehicles, as well as by establishing contacts, relationships and partnerships with European and world research centres.

Project Context and Objectives:
SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES
The FME and RVC were established in Kraljevo due to the fact that the major Serbian wagon factory (Wagon Factory Kraljevo) resides there and have developed as a response to the needs of industry, and the FME has signed an agreement with the Wagon Factory Kraljevo for carrying out common research work within the RVC. Due to the unfortunate political situation in Serbia, the wagon industry and research in the respective field have lost their pace with the state-of-the art during the past decade. The RVC has also developed a regional co-operation with other Balkan countries, and was, because of its research experience, a participant in the FP6 project “RRTC” for establishing regional railway transport research and education institution. The aim of the project was to enhance the RVC potentials for railway vehicles research and investigation. The requests for research activities were focused on investigation of railway vehicles dynamics and investigation of fatigue of railway vehicles structures and components, so the project was mainly oriented towards strengthening of the RVC within this research area. The project goals were to support the RVC to respond to those needs through realization of the following basic objectives:
- Improvement of knowledge and skills of the research staff through exchange of know-how and experience with prominent research centres in the EU and development of series of workshops
- Recruitment of young and experienced researchers whose future work will be primarily oriented towards the selected research area
- Acquisition of new research equipment that will complement the present equipment for investigation of quasi-static and dynamic properties of railway vehicles
- Definition of common research programmes with leading EU research centres in the respective area, leading to development of strategic partnerships with those institutions
According to the initial plan, after achieving the project goals the RVC should be able to participate in research programmes of leading European research centres in the respective area, becoming an integrated part of ERA, as well as to provide a response to the needs of railway vehicles industry in Serbia and the Balkan region.

IMPROVEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS OF THE RESEARCH STAFF
Before the beginning of project implementation, the RVC had the staff whose experience ranged between 5 and 35 years developed through solving practical problems of railway vehicles design and investigation. The strong link with industry, however, was sometimes an obstacle for stronger development of some contemporary railway research areas that did not have an immediate impact in industrial practice. Combined with years of political isolation, it led to the absence from international conferences, non-existence of cooperation with European institutions, lack of contemporary literature and, eventually, to falling behind the state-of-the art in some vital research areas. Therefore, the RVC needed not only re education of its staff but also a strong research partner for two reasons: to support establishment of research programmes and research groups for relevant topics and to provide leadership after the project is ended in order to ensure sustainability of project results.
Taking into consideration all previously mentioned facts, and especially the fact that the project was to re educate researchers with experience, two-way secondments with prominent European research centres seemed to be the best mechanism for accomplishing the objectives. For appropriate development of the selected research fields within the project three kinds of two-way secondments had to be realized: in the field of experimental research of railway dynamics, in the field of theoretical research of railway dynamics, and in the field of theoretical research of mechanical structures and components fatigue. Two-way secondments had to enable the RVC research staff to take part in advanced projects of European partners and thus gain knowledge both about methodologies and problems, and in return, European experts had to provide assistance in applying advanced concepts to the problems which the RVC was faced with.
The second mechanism that had to contribute to the project objective was study visits, the practice that had shown success in improving knowledge in the past. Study visits are shorter, but allow group-to-group interaction with a wider impact, so they are suitable for studying the state-of-the-art and establishment of personal contacts. Within the project, four study visits to prominent research facilities carrying out experimental research of railway vehicle dynamics and mechanical structures and components fatigue had to be realized.
The third mechanism that had to be applied for improving knowledge was organization of workshops on the selected research fields. The leaders of those activities had to be the researchers engaged in two-way secondments. The main task of workshops was to educate the RVC researchers from all fields with the progress in the respective area in order to enhance cooperation between the RVC groups. The workshops had also to contribute to dissemination and sustainability of project results by providing research results to young researchers, engineers and colleagues from research institutions from Serbia and the Balkan region. Three workshops had to be realized during the project: one workshop on railway vehicles dynamics and two workshops on mechanical structures and components fatigue.
At last, the project had to enable the improvement of knowledge of the present staff through provision of modern software as a necessary means for application of improved knowledge and ensuring sustainability of project results.

RECRUITMENT OF STAFF
Before the beginning of the project, the RVC had two mechanical engineers with PhD, one electrical engineer with PhD, and one mechanical engineer with MSc degree, supported by two mechanical engineers and two technicians. In order to develop research programmes in the selected fields, it was necessary to employ both experienced and young researchers. For achieving this goal, it was foreseen to use both the internal resources of the FME for improvement of the research programme of mechanical structures and components fatigue and external help by engaging experienced researchers in the field of railway vehicles dynamics. The primary targets were the Serbian researchers that moved to the EU countries and the USA, but it was also believed that experienced researchers from the West Balkans and East European countries may also be interested in joining the RVC. This was considered one of the biggest risks for successful implementation of the project because it was very difficult to attract researchers from western developed countries to economically undeveloped regions such as the region of central Serbia. The project had to contribute to this goal by providing two experienced researchers (preferably one for experimental and one for theoretical dynamics of railway vehicles) and young researchers that should be attracted by the possibility to work with recognized experts on inspiring problems and to learn about advanced topics.

ACQUISITION OF NEW RESEARCH EQUIPMENT
During its previous work, before the beginning of project implementation, the RVC had developed and acquired a lot of equipment needed for railway vehicles investigation. It had already built or purchased the equipment for investigation of static properties of railway vehicles, equipment for measurement of quasi-static properties of railway vehicles, equipment for investigation of dynamic properties of railway vehicles, and equipment for investigation of braking of railway vehicles in static conditions and during the ride. It was planned that the project should support development and acquisition of advanced test track and measurement equipment that would enable the RVC to perform state-of-the art experimental investigations of quasi static and dynamic properties of railway vehicles.
Test track for investigation of quasi-static properties of railway vehicles: Contemporary research results have shown that credible estimations of derailment safety of railway vehicles cannot be made without quasistatic tests comprising pushing of railway vehicles through a test track with unfavorable track geometry ("S curve", defined in International Railway Union standard UIC 530 2). The project had to contribute to construction of a test track with defined geometry. Such a task comprised investigation of experiences of research centres that already constructed similar test tracks, elaboration of technical documentation, tendering procedures for construction material and construction works. While development and selection of track parameters was the subject of railway engineering, a part of this task was the subject of civil engineering, so subcontracting was planned in the realization of this activity.
Equipment for measurement of forces at wheel-rail contact: An important part of contemporary research work in the field of railway dynamics is devoted to measurement and calculation of forces acting in wheel-rail contact. One of important results of those investigations is that the critical parameter determining railway vehicle ride safety and track fatigue, the ratio of horizontal and vertical component of wheel-rail contact force is to be measured as close to the contact point as it is possible and by methodology that is as direct as it is possible. This conclusion became part of international standards (International Railway Union UIC 518, for example). The RVC developed its own indirect methodology of measuring forces in wheel-rail contact based on measurement of accelerations and forces acting on axis bearings. Acquisition of contemporary equipment capable of measuring forces at the contact point had to be a great improvement of the capabilities of the RVC. The project had to contribute to re-enforcement of the RVC by supporting provision of equipment for measurement of forces in wheel-rail contact. Provision of the described measurement equipment implied the tendering procedure, analysis of offered measurement methodologies, purchasing of equipment and training of the RVC staff for application of the selected equipment.

DEFINITION OF COMMON RESEARCH PROGRAMMES WITH LEADING EU RESEARCH CENTRES
Accomplishment of this goal had to be enhanced by accomplishment of other project goals since the researchers who took part in the exchange of know-how had to be the carriers of this activity, which had to be carried out in accordance with both knowledge, staff and equipment provided in the course of the project. Essentially the final goal of the project, definition of common research programmes had to provide not only sustainability of project results but also their maximum impact in practice by integrating research efforts in order to reduce multiple investigations of basic research topics without the influence on competitiveness of research centres or manufacturers (it especially holds for railway safety topics). At least two common research programmes had to be developed, one relating to railway vehicles dynamic research and the other relating to mechanical structures and components fatigue.

OVERALL STRATEGY AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The strategy to achieve the project objectives was developed under the influence of several important factors that led to the selection of support mechanisms believed to be the most appropriate for the project.
Human resource re enforcement: Before the beginning of project implementation, the RVC staff consisted of experienced researchers, four of them being at the same time university teachers aged 30-65; for various reasons their mobility was decreased; therefore, human resource improvement demanded shorter types of leave; that led to the conclusion that two way secondments, study visits and workshops as support mechanisms were suitable for improvement of knowledge of the present staff. The present staff was not sufficient for carrying out advanced research; as the engagement of young researchers only could not benefit to development of advanced research activities, engagement of experienced researchers was a mechanism that would support re enforcement of the RVC during the project.
Improvement of research equipment: The important question was selection of research equipment. The test track for quasi static investigation of railway vehicles and measurement equipment for wheel track interaction were selected for two reasons: such equipment did not exist in Serbia (and in the rest of the Balkan region, either), and they were needed for development of high quality research in the field of railway vehicles dynamics. Finally, since contemporary railway dynamics relies on computer simulation of railway vehicles dynamics based on tested models, provision of commercial software packages should largely contribute to effectiveness and competitiveness of the research that was carried out.
Sustainability of project results: The strongest threat to the project outcomes may be the lack of top research requests from the surroundings which are a real driving force for development of research; the mechanism selected to ensure sustainability of the project results was development of strategic partnerships with prominent research institutions because participation in advanced research projects should ensure that the RVC would keep pace with the state of the art in the respective research area. Arrangement of applied mechanisms into work packages and their timing was developed according to the following (sometimes contradictory) requests:
- intention to maximize the effect of foreseen activities on project objectives, which forced human resources development ahead of provision of equipment
- the fact that the effect of secondments and study visits is maximal when they are performed while the hosting side has its working activities of interest for the visiting side; therefore, while durations of secondments and study visits are predictable, their start dates and end dates should be movable
- on one side, the tendency toward group activities according to their contribution to the requested objectives, and on the other side, the tendency toward group activities according to the research field to which they contribute for the sake of easier human resources management
- general independence of the activities concerned with improvement of railway vehicles dynamics research programme from the activities concerned with improvement of railway vehicles fatigue research programme, leading to parallelism between those activities
- dependencies between (by its nature independent) activities and work packages caused by the fact that the personnel that gained knowledge in one phase of the project has to use it for preparatory activities (not essential activities) in other project phases
- assumption that recruitment and provision of equipment are the activities that carry the most of uncertainties regarding their duration
- tendency to move the activities that depend on equipment providers towards the start of the project in order to provide time reserves for the case of delay in the process of equipment delivery
Considering previous factors, the activities were grouped into seven work packages:
WP1: Knowledge, grouping activities that had to lead to improvement of knowledge of the present staff of the RVC and the FME, therefore two-way secondments, study visits and software procurement. As some of other work packages, it had a twinned structure, supporting similar activities performed for both selected research fields (project "pillars").
WP2: Recruitment, grouping activities that had to contribute to employment of new staff within the RVC, oriented towards investigation in the selected research area;
WP3: Workshops, grouping activities centered on workshops on contemporary achievements in the selected research area; this work package also had a twinned structure of activities concerning railway vehicles dynamics and railway vehicles fatigue activities. The workshops formed a separate work package because they had to contribute both to re enforcement of knowledge and project results dissemination. This package, however, depended on WP1 because the staff seconded in WP1 had to prepare the workshops in cooperation with the institutions with which they established partnerships during WP1.
WP4: Equipment, grouping activities that had to lead to provision of equipment. This package had two groups of activities: the first one relating to provision of equipment for measurement of wheel rail interactions, and the second one relating to construction of the test track. This work package had also to wait for relevant activities from WP1 to be finished because appropriate selection of equipment and methodologies depended on the knowledge and experiences gathered during WP1.
WP5: Partnerships, group of activities that had to result in development of common research programmes between the RVC and prominent research institutions in the respective research field.
WP6: Promotion and dissemination, group of activities referring to raising both public and professional awareness, promotion of project results, and application of the results in practice within the network of RVC academic and industrial partners.
WP7: Management, group of activities referring to project progress monitoring, taking preventive measures, application of contingency activities, accounting, internal and external reporting.

Project Results:
DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN S&T RESULTS / FOREGROUNDS

The main S&T results / foregrounds of the work, achieved through the individual tasks in order to reach project objectives included in Annex I of the Grant Agreement, for the whole project duration period (from month 1 to month 36), with all necessary details for each work package is summarized below.

WP1 – KNOWLEDGE
The essence of the WP1 is improvement of knowledge of present researchers in RVC through two-way secondments, study visits and provision of software for simulation of railway vehicles dynamics and structural analysis of mechanical structures.

Objectives in accordance with Annex I of the Grant Agreement:
- Carrying out the secondments for experimental methods of railway vehicles dynamics
- Carrying out the secondments for theoretical methods of railway vehicles dynamics
- Carrying out the secondments for theoretical methods of mechanical structures fatigue
- Organization of three study visits for experimental methods of railway vehicles dynamics
- Organization of one study visit for experimental methods of mechanical structures fatigue
- Provision of software package for simulation of railway dynamics operational
Within this work package, the following main S&T results / foregrounds are achieved:

ACTIVITY 1: SECONDMENTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF RAILWAY VEHICLES DYNAMICS
Two-way secondments in the field of experimental methods of railway vehicles dynamics were realized in cooperation with the Department for Mechanical, Nuclear, Aviation, and Metallurgical Engineering – DIEM from the University of Bologna (hereinafter referred to as: DIEM), Italy.
From the FME, Dr Zlatan Soskic, a member of the SeRVICe project team and a member of the RVC participated in the secondments. Working for many years at the FME, and in the RVC, Dr Soskic has intensively been dealing with experimental testing of dynamic characteristics of railway vehicles and other machine structures. He spent the total of 6.5 researcher months on secondments at DIEM, where he considerably improved his scientific-research knowledge and gained new experiences. On the other hand, the following researchers from DIEM participated in secondments: Dr Giangiacomo Minak, Dr Cristiano Fragassa, A. Radovani, E. Maione, and R. Pancirolli. They spent the total of 5 researcher months in Serbia at the FME. While staying in Serbia, they had the opportunity to exchange experiences and get introduced to the scientific-research work and teaching process at the FME. They also had the opportunity to meet the researchers from the RVC and exchange their experiences in the field of experimental dynamics.
During his stays in Italy, Dr Soskic got introduced to a detail to the methods of work at DIEM. He acquired new and very important knowledge and experiences in the field of research, development and management of scientific-research projects. Besides, his participation in the secondments was one of the preconditions for realization of the activities within the work package WP5, “Establishing strategic partnerships with DIEM Department of the University of Bologna“, which is a part of the activities oriented toward creation of strategic partnerships between the RVC and leading European institutions. In addition to this, the FME and DIEM achieved very significant common research results; they organized activities from the domain of the work packages WP3 and WP5 of the SeRViCe project and developed new common proposals for international projects.
On the other hand, during their stays at the FME, the Italian researchers got introduced to the existing methods of the teaching and scientific-research work at the FME, as well as to the researchers and the existing scientific-research equipment of the RVC that was developed within the SeRViCe project. The researchers from Bologna were shown the measurement equipment for experimental testing of railway vehicle dynamics that was developed within the work package WP4. In addition, the Italian participants in secondments transferred their experiences in the field of research, development and management of projects to the researchers in the SeRViCe project, employees and students of master and doctoral studies at the FME. The members of the SeRViCe project team, employees and students of the FME were thus introduced to the latest European and world theoretical and experimental methods that were applied in development and research.
Implementation of two-way secondments with DIEM significantly raised the level of professional knowledge of the staff from the RVC in the field of research and development as well as in the application of the state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental methods in development and research. In addition, the implementation of two-way secondments enabled the RVC research staff to take part in advanced projects of DIEM, and also in development of new common project proposals. For the RVC and the FME this is an extremely important result of secondments with the University of Bologna. Some of the important common projects proposals, research and activities realized during secondments with DIEM Department of the University of Bologna as well as contacts made are given in further text:
- Project proposal “SimulCarve”
- Collaboration on the periodic report for the first year of the “SeRViCe” project
- Preparation of scientific papers for publication at international conferences
- Project proposal “Adria-HUB”
- Work at the course “Sensori per machini automatichi”
- Experimental testing of machine dynamics
During secondments, Dr Soskic made contacts with a lot of researchers and teachers from the University of Bologna and their partners. Establishing those contacts is of huge importance for further work and development of the RVC and the FME as well as for their integration in modern European and world scientific-research circles.

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
Activity “Secondments for experimental methods of railway vehicles dynamics“ was realized with 11.5 researcher months, and not with 14 researcher months as planned. The difference of 2.5 researcher months was redistributed to the ‘’Secondments for theoretical methods of mechanical structures fatigue’’. The mentioned redistribution of researcher months was caused by Dr Soskic’s obligations, as well as by the obligations of the other researchers and members of the SeRViCe project team in teaching and examination terms at the FME, their obligations in other work packages of the SeRViCe project and those in other international and national projects. It is important to emphasize that this redistribution did not affect the total number of planned researcher months for the secondments and that at the end of the project all secondments were realized completely, with the total scope of 36 researcher months as planned at the beginning of the project.
Within the realized secondments for experimental methods of railway vehicles dynamics, research knowledge and experiences of the members of the RVC and the FME in general were considerably improved. The researchers from the RVC were introduced to modern methods of experimental dynamics used in modern research at DIEM. During their secondments, they practically participated in research and development in the existing scientific-research projects of DIEM, when they had the opportunities to use state-of-the-art equipment in the field of experimental dynamics. One of the significant results of those secondments is establishing the strategic partnership between the FME and the University of Bologna, which was one of the objectives of the work package WP5 of the SeRViCe project, and which refers to creating strategic partnerships between the RVC and leading European scientific-research institutions. The result of that strategic cooperation is several common proposals for international projects which foresee participation of a large number of researchers from the FME and the University of Bologna. A lot of contacts with reputable researchers from leading European scientific-research institutes and universities, as well as with those from industry, were established. In addition, perhaps the most important fact which should be emphasized is that within the activity “Secondments for experimental methods of railway vehicles dynamics“ it was planned that the researchers from Serbia should spend the total of 12 researcher months in Italy, and the reasearchers from Italy the total of 2 researcher months in Serbia. But, this activity was realized in such a way that the researchers from Serbia spent the total of 6.5 months in sceondments in Italy, and the researchers from Italy the total of 5 months in Serbia. So, from the planned ratio 6:1, the ratio of secondments was improved to less than 2:1. This is a very important result because at the beginning of implementation of the SeRViCe project one of the biggest risks for the success of the project was attracting foreign researchers to economically undeveloped regions, such as the region of central Serbia and Kraljevo. Huge success was thus achieved and it is reflected in the presence and number of foreign researchers who participated in secondments and visited the FME, and the numbers are far larger than it was planned by the project.

ACTIVITY 2: SECONDMENTS FOR THEORETICAL METHODS OF RAILWAY VEHICLES DYNAMICS
Two-way secondments in the field of theoretical methods of railway vehicles dynamics were realized in cooperation with KTH Railway Group from the KTH Royal Institute of Technology from Stockholm (hereinafter referred to as: KTH), Sweden. From the FME, MSc Nebojsa Bogojevic, member of the SeRVICe project team and member of the RVC, participated in secondments. MSc Bogojevic works as teaching assistant at the FME, at the group of subjects on railway engineering. In his master’s thesis, as well as during his work at the FME and in the RVC, MSc Bogojevic has been intensively dealing with theoretical and experimental identification of dynamic characteristics of railway vehicles and other machine structures. The possibility for improving his knowledge in this field in such a reputable European and world institution as the KTH was of huge importance for further work and development of the RVC and the FME. He spent the total of 12 researcher months on secondments in Sweden. There he considerably improved his scientific-research knowledge and gained new experiences. On the other hand Prof. Dr Mats Berg and Saeed Hosein Nia, researchers from the KTH participated in secondments. They spent the total of 1 researcher month at the FME in Serbia. While staying in Serbia, they had the opportunity to exchange experiences and get introduced to the scientific-research work and teaching process at the FME. They also had the opportunity to meet the researchers from the RVC and exchange their experiences in the field of experimental dynamics.
During his stays in Sweden, MSc Bogojevic got introduced to a detail to the methods of work of KTH. He acquired new and very important knowledge and experiences in the field of research, development and management of scientific-research projects. Besides, his participation in the secondments was one of the preconditions for realization of the activities within the work package WP5, “Establishing strategic partnerships with the KTH Royal Institute of Technology“, which is a part of the activities oriented toward creation of strategic partnerships between the RVC and leading European institutions. In addition to this, the FME and the KTH achieved very significant common research results and they organized activities from the domain of the work packages WP3 and WP5 of the SeRViCe project.
During his stays at the KTH MSc Bogojevic realized some of the following activities: attending lectures on dynamics of railway vehicles; introduction and study of “Gensys“ software for modelling dynamics of railway vehicles; elaborations of the tasks on dynamics of railway vehicles; simulations of quasistatic and dynamic behaviour of a railway vehicles; examinations in dynamics of railway vehicles; development of a model of freight waggon with increased carrying capacity for transportation of steel type ''MALMVAGN Fammoorr 050'' in “GenSys“ software; analysis of main elements of the waggon; analysis of geometrical dependencies of waggon elements; analysis of kinematic behaviour of waggon elements; definition of the model in “GenSys“ software; review of papers in this field related to bogies with wedges; analysis of kinematic motion of wedges in secondary suspension system of waggons; analysis of track geometry on the track section Malmbanan/Oftobanan; analysis of wheel geometry (wheel thread) for freight waggons for transportation of iron ore; calculation of characteristics of springs in secondary suspension system of waggons; calculation of characteristics of springs in secondary suspension system of waggons under the wedges; calculation of characteristics of springs at sidebearers, and definition of a track model in “GenSys“ software.
On the other hand, during their stays at the FME, the Swedish researchers got introduced to the existing methods of the teaching and scientific-research work at the FME, as well as the researchers and the existing scientific-research equipment of the RVC that was developed within the SeRViCe project. The researchers from the KTH were shown the measurement equipment for experimental testing of railway vehicle dynamics that was developed within the work package WP-4. In addition, Prof. Dr Mats Berg transferred his experiences in the field of research, development and management of scientific-research projects in the field of railway engineering to the researchers in the SeRViCe project, employees and students of master and doctoral studies at the FME. The members of the SeRViCe project team, employees and students of the FME were thus introduced to the latest European and world theoretical and experimental methods that were applied in the field of identification of dynamic behaviour of railway vehicles.

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
Implementation of two-way secondments with the KTH significantly raised the level of scientific and professional knowledge of the researchers from the RVC in the field of research and development as well as in the application of the state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental methods in the field of identification of dynamic behaviour of railway vehicles. In addition, the implementation of two-way secondments enabled the RVC research staff to take part in some advanced projects of the KTH, such as the problem of identification of dynamic behaviour of the freight waggon with increased carrying capacity for transportation of steel type ''MALMVAGN Fammoorr 050''. For the RVC and the FME this is an extremely important result of secondments, which enables improvement of the existing knowledge in the field of dynamics of railway vehicles. During his secondments, MSc Bogojevic made contacts with a lot of researchers and teachers from the KTH and their partners. Working on scientific-research projects, he established special cooperation with Prof. Sebastian Stichel, Director of KTH Railway Group. Establishing these contacts is of huge importance for further work and development of the RVC and the FME as well as for their integration in modern European and world scientific-research circles. The activity was realized with 13 researcher months, exactly as planned by the project. One of the significant results of those secondments is establishing the strategic partnership with the KTH, which was one of the objectives of the work package WP5 of the SeRViCe project, and which refers to creating strategic partnerships between the RVC and leading European scientific-research institutions. The result of that strategic cooperation in the future period is several common proposals for international projects which foresee participation of a large number of researchers from the FME and the KTH.

ACTIVITY 3: SECONDMENTS FOR THEORETICAL METHODS OF MECHANICAL STRUCTURES FATIGUE
Two-way secondments in the field of theoretical methods of mechanical structures fatigue were realized in cooperation with The Department for Mechanical, Nuclear, Aviation, and Metallurgical Engineering – DIEM, from University of Bologna, Italy. From the FME, the members of the SeRVICe project team Dr Snezana Ciric Kostic and Dr Milosav Ognjanovic participated in the secondments. Working for many years at the FME, Dr Snezana Ciric Kostic and Dr Ognjanovic have intensively been dealing with the problems of theoretical methods of mechanical structures fatigue. In their work, they have partly dealt with the current problems of fatigue and reliability of railway vehicle elements. They spent the total of 6.75 researcher months on secondments at DIEM, where they considerably improved their scientific-research knowledge and gained new experiences. On the other hand researchers from DIEM, Ana Pavlovic and Ezequiel Poodts, participated in secondments. They spent the total of 4.75 researcher months in Serbia at the FME. While staying in Serbia, they had the opportunity to exchange experiences and get introduced to the scientific-research work and teaching process at the FME. They also had the opportunity to meet the researchers from the RVC and exchange their experiences in the field of theoretical and experimental methods of mechanical structures fatigue.
During their stays in Italy, Dr Snezana Ciric Kostic and Dr Ognjanovic got introduced to a detail to the methods of work at DIEM. They acquired new and very important knowledge and experiences in the field of research, development and management of scientific-research projects. Besides, their participation in the secondments was also one of the preconditions for realization of the activities within the work package WP5, “Establishing strategic partnerships with DIEM Department of the University of Bologna“, which is a part of the activities oriented toward creation of strategic partnerships between the RVC, i.e. the FME and leading European institutions. Regard to this, the FME and DIEM achieved very significant common research results, they organized activities from the domain of the work packages WP3 and WP5 of the SeRViCe project and developed new common proposals for international projects.
On the other hand, during their stays at the FME, the Italian researchers got introduced to the existing methods of the teaching and scientific-research work at the FME, as well as to the researchers and the existing scientific-research equipment of the RVC. In addition, the participants in secondments from Italy transferred their experiences in the field of research, development and management of projects to the researchers in the SeRViCe project, employees and students of master and doctoral studies at the FME. The members of the SeRViCe project team, employees and students of the FME were thus introduced to the latest European and world theoretical and experimental methods in the field of mechanical structures fatigue.
The implementation of two-way secondments with DIEM significantly raised the level of professional knowledge of the staff from the RVC and the FME in the field of research and development as well as in the application of the state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental methods in development and research. In addition, the implementation of two-way secondments enabled the RVC and the FME research staff to take part in advanced projects of DIEM, and also in the development of new common projects proposals. For the RVC and the FME this is an extremely important result of secondments with the University of Bologna.
During their secondments, Dr Snezana Ciric Kostic and Dr Milosav Ognjanovic made contacts with a lot of researchers and teachers from the University of Bologna and their partners. Establishing these contacts is of huge importance for further work and development of the RVC and the FME as well as for their integration in modern European and world scientific-reasearch circles.
The activity was completely realized, with the total of 11.5 researcher months, out of which 6.75 researcher months were spent on secondments of Dr Snezana Ciric Kostic and Dr Milosav Ognjanovic, and 4.75 researcher months were spent on secondments of Italian researchers, Ana Pavlovic and Ezequiel Poodts, in Serbia. The activity was realized with 11.5 researcher months, and not with 9 researcher months as planned. The increase of 2.5 researcher months was redistributed from the Secondments for experimental methods of railway vehicles dynamics. This redistribution did not affect the total number of planned researcher months for the secondments within the work package WP1 and that at the end of the project all secondments were realized completely, with the total scope of 36 researcher months as planned at the beginning of the project.

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
Within the realized “Secondments for theoretical methods of mechanical structures fatigue”, research knowledge and experiences of the members of the RVC and the FME in general were considerably improved. The researchers from the FME were introduced to modern theoretical and experimental methods of mechanical structures fatigue used in modern research at DIEM Department and the University of Bologna. During their secondments, they practically participated in research and development in the existing scientific-research projects of DIEM, when they had the opportunities to use state-of-the-art software and measurement equipment. Of particular importance is training in work with software package Ansys, which was purchased within the SeRViCe project, aslo within the work package WP1. One of the significant results of those secondments is establishing the strategic partnership between the FME and the University of Bologna, which refers to creating strategic partnerships between the RVC and leading European scientific-research institutions. The result of that strategic cooperation is several common proposals for international projects which foresee participation of a large number of researchers from the FME and the University of Bologna. The FME appears as a participant in several such agreed projects of the University of Bologna. A lot of contacts with reputable researchers from leading European scientific-research institutes and universities, as well as with those from industry, were established. In addition, perhaps the most important fact which should be emphasized is that within this activity it was planned that the researchers from Serbia should spend the total of 6 researcher months in Italy, and the researchers from Italy the total of 3 researcher months in Serbia, at the FME. Despite the planned 3 researcher months, this activity was realized in such a manner that the researchers from Italy spent the total of 4.75 researcher months on secondments in Serbia. So, from the planned ratio 3:1 the ratio of secondments was improved to less than 1.5:1. This is a very important result because at the beginning of implementation of the SeRViCe project one of the biggest risks for the success of the project was attracting foreign researchers to economically undeveloped regions, such as the region of central Serbia and Kraljevo. Huge success was thus achieved and it is reflected in the presence and number of foreign researchers who participated in secondments and visited the FME, and the numbers are far larger than it was planned by the project.

ACTIVITY 4: STUDY VISITS FOR EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF RAILWAY VEHICLES DYNAMICS
This activity meant the three study visits to the three research centers dealing with railway vehicles dynamics. These centers are selected by Project Board Member for railway vehicles dynamics, applying the following criteria: Relevance for remaining SeRViCe project activities, at first place S?curve construction; Recommendations by project partners, KTH University Stockholm and University of Bologna; and Reputation and recent research results.
The selected institutions were:
- VUKV Cerhenice (Czech Republic), deals with development and testing of railway vehicles, their parts and other components, having in this moment the best closed test?circuit in Europe, but also many other test facilities,
- MAV test center in Szolnok (Hungary), test facility that recently upgraded S?curve test track similar to the one that should be developed in course of SeRViCe project,
- Alstom Transport (France), manufacturer of TGV high?speed railway vehicles, and Nacco (France), one of the leading European railway transport operators

Study visit to VUKV Cerhenice (Czech Republic)
In the period from 03/03/2009 to 03/09/2009 talks were conducted with representatives of agencies for railway CHD and Testing Center VUKV. On 06/03/2009 the experiment in the center VUKV Cerhenice, (Prague, Czech Republic) was attended. In VUKV participants of study visit have visited the following test facilities: Examination through S curve; Impact test; Static testing; Torsion rigidity test vehicles in accordance with ORE B 55 Rp. 8; Bogie torque moment measurement; Measuring axle developed by VUKV; and Stand for calibration of measuring axle assembly. As part of a visit to the test center carried there were also discussions with general manager of VUKV Mr. Zdenek Malkovsky. Participants of study visit were: Miroslav Velemir, Serbian Railways; Radovan Terzic, Serbian Railways; Prof. Dr. Arandjel Babic, FME, Prof. Dr. Dragan Petrovic, FME, and M.Sc. Nebojsa Bogojevic, FME. Bearing in mind the needs of RVC for the implementation of FP7 project "SeRViCe" the discussions considered the following areas:
- S?curve test track
- Measurement wheelset
- EU regulations

Study visit to MAV test center in Szolnok (Hungary)
For the sake of observing both phase of re?construction and operation of S?curve, two study visits to MAV test center were carried out.
- The first visit: In a period between 10-13 March 2009, is realized the study visit to the "Railway engineering and measuring service center" in Szolnok, part of Hungarian Railways – MAV's VMMSZK, and had talks conducted with: Professor Jozsef Csiba, MAV director of the institute and a professor at the Technical University of Budapest; Katon Gzula, Head of the Institute for Development MAV testing methodologies; and Istvan Lukac, head of the unit MAV for experimental testing of railway vehicles. Talks were attended by colleagues who helped in organization of the meetings: Prof. Dr. Duro Sefcic, Professor of Civil Engineering in Subotica, retired and B.Sc. Lazar Mackovic, Technical Manager of company "Ba?kainvest ", Subotica. Participants of study visit from the FME were: Prof. Dr. Arandjel Babic; Prof. Dr. Dragan Petrovic; and M.Sc. Nebojsa Bogojevic.
- The second visit: In frame of second study visit the members of project team visited the: Testing stations in the State Railways of Hungary Szolnok, where the observed dynamic testing of freight cars by pushing through the "S curve"; Technical University of Budapest; and Company "Backa?Invest" in Subotica. The main aim of this activity is to create conditions for carrying out preliminary design for the construction of the "S curve". Preparation of preliminary design of construction of high?quality "S?curve" should enable the design with realistic parameters specifications of works and materials. The criteria for successful achievement goals are reflected in the reduction of costs of implementation of construction at the same time fulfilling a number of functional requirements specified in relation to the project application. A major problem is the oversight of the project application, which refers to the preliminary examination regulations defined by UIC 530?2. Creating conditions for carrying out the preliminary experimental test conditions significantly raises the volume and quality of work testing station in the RVC.

Study visit to companies "Alstom" and "Nacco" in Paris (France)
In the period 5/4/2010 – 10/4/2010 a project team of 10 researchers from FME visited companies "Alstom" and "Nacco" in Paris. Visit to company "Alstom" was made on 07/04/2010. The project team was greeted from the Dr Pierre Dersin, Director of the Alstom project team; Michele Pugnaloni, engineer in Department of RAM; and Dr Daniel Cadet, Director for external technical relations and representative of Alstom to support the project SeRViCe. Participants of study visit are detailed introduced with the organizational structures, activities and plans of the ALSTOM Company which is leader in activities related to rail transport and a good observer of the development in the field of railway transport of the world. In discussion Dr Cristiano Fragassa presented problems of applying of his parent company, University of Bologna, for new projects in the EC FP7 calls, and he pointed out that the support of Alstom to University of Bologna would at that moment be of great help for projects dealing with the application of new materials in mechanical engineering. Coordinator of project SeRViCe Prof. Dr Dragan Petrovic presented the FME and RVC as well as the previous results of the project SeRViCe. He also presented plans of RVC related to the development of rail vehicles components from composite materials and development of systems for on-line monitoring of the conditions of wheelsets of railway vehicles. The idea of a new project SmartAxles, submitted to EC was also presented. The Alstom representatives have shown large interest in the idea of this new project proposal in terms of technical achievements of the end product of this new innovation of the entire project.
In addition to the visit to company Alstom were on a daily basis performed talks with Dr Stevica Varadinac from the company "NACCO", which deals with standards necessary to fulfill the criteria required technical characteristics of freight wagons in their quasistatic and dynamic testing. He passed the experiences he gained in this company in the design of freight cars and their characteristics testing methods applied in the French professional circles. With Dr Varadinac were conducted interpretation, reviews and discussions of UIC announcements, whose knowledge of the application is required for the successful implementation of activities related to railway vehicles dynamics part of SeRViCe project.

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
Study visits realized in frame of this activity were of great importance for realization of some activities of project SeRViCe. The visits to leading European centers which dealing with experimental dynamic of railway vehicles were provided very useful guidelines for realization of activities concerned with development and procurement of measuring equipment and construction of test track with the ‘’S’’ curve from the WP4. The level of knowledge of staff of RVC is significantly increased through introductions with contemporary solutions in field of testing of railway vehicle dynamics which is used by the leading European operators and suppliers of railway vehicles. In addition, these study visits were provided better consideration of directions of further development of RVC and its potential chances on global European level. The exchanging of information with experts from the leading European institutions which deal with railway mechanical engineering was provided consideration of directions of further research activities of RVC, especially those which is related to the innovative solutions in field of safety and security of railway vehicles. The large number of contacts with international researchers was made, not only from the field of education, but also from the industry, that will be of great importance for development of RVC in future.

ACTIVITY 5: STUDY VISIT FOR EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF MECHANICAL STRUCTURES FATIGUE
This study visit included visit to Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Bratislava (Republic of Slovakia), to Laboratory for investigation Railway Vehicles in Zilina – University of Zilina (Republic of Slovakia) and to Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Pardubice (Czech Republic). Study visit was performed in period from March 28th until April 05th 2011. Participants in this study visit were following members of the project team: Prof. dr Arandjel Babic, Associate Professor; Vesna Brasic, PhD student, researcher; Marina Pljakic, PhD student, researcher; and Nemanja Ilic, PhD student, researcher, all from FME.

Study visit to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Bratislava
Visit to the faculty of mechanical engineering in Bratislava was made on 30/03/2011. The participants of study visit were greeted by Prof. Ing. Miroslav Veres and Prof. Ing. Marian Tolnay from the Institute of manufacturing systems, environmental technology and quality management. They introduced participants of study visit, first with history of Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, which is the most significant University of technology in Slovakia. participants of study visit were visited innovative center and laboratory for production systems, automatics and robotics.

Study visit to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zilina
Visit to the faculty of special engineering is made 31/03/2011. The project team was greeted by Prof. Ing. Bohuš Leitner and chairman Ing. Eva Sventekova. They met participants of study visit with important information about college degree programs and their faculty where the teat introduced that University of Zilina consists of. During the visit to the University of Zilina the participants of study visit were greeted by Prof. George Gerlicij, Ing. Daniel Kalin?ak, and Ing. Sage Milan. They met project team with the most important areas of research in the field of investigation railway wheel. They presented some interesting research projects of professors and students in the area of applied mechanics. It was presented computational modelling and simulation of engineering problems in programs Ansys and Cosmos. There was also the most important visit to the University laboratories for testing railway vehicle where participants of study visit were introduced with project which this centre for transportation research works in cooperation with famous Germany Institute Minden. In this Center MSC.ADAMS and MSC.MARC software are using for full vehicle NVH analysis. For experimental methods of mechanical structures fatigue in this center, participants of study visit were introduced with software FEMFAT/FATigue. They were also introduced with facilities in laboratories of center on which it is done an experimental proving of computational results.

Study visit to the University of Pardubice
Study visit to the University of Pardubice is made on 04/04/2011. The participants of study visit were greeted by Prof. Peter Prussians and Mr. Jaromir Zelenka. They made introduction with the program of their strategic research labs. The participants of study visit were introduced with the subject fields of research of research center for railway vehicles, as follows: Research on material characteristics and their application when constructing rail vehicles and producing their components; Research on dynamic strength, rail vehicles lifetime and their components; Research on ensuring the safe operation of rail vehicles; Research on noise and vibration of rail vehicles; Research on adhesion and dynamics of rail vehicles propulsion; and New trends in rail vehicles construction and their components.

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
The study visit in area of fatigue of mechanical structures was of great importance for education of researchers of RVC and FME, as for realization of further activities of project SeRViCe. The level of knowledge of participants in this study visit is significantly increased through introductions with contemporary solutions in field of testing of railway vehicles, as in field of experimental methods of mechanical structures fatigue. The exchanging of information with international researchers was provide better consideration of direction of further development of RVC, as further development of careers of young researchers, participants in this study visit. The large number of contacts with international researchers was made, not only from the field of education, but also from the industry, that will be of great importance for development of RVC in future.

ACTIVITY 6: PROVISION OF SOFTWARE PACKAGE FOR SIMULATION OF RAILWAY DYNAMICS
In accordance with the initial plan of the project SeRViCe, the following software packages were procured in two phases:
- Software package for structural analysis of machine structures – I PHASE (SolidWorks 2009 and Ansys V12)
- Software package for simulation of railway vehicles dynamics – II PHASE (Gensys)
The procurement of the mentioned software packages was realized in phases because of differences between them as well as because of the complexity and scope of work on the preparation of tender documentation and realization of public procurements in compliance with the valid laws. Besides, the reason for procurement of Software package for simulation of railway vehicles dynamics in the later, second phase was waiting for the completion of the secondment for theoretical methods of railway vehicles dynamics. MSc Nebojsa Bogojevic from the FME participated in this secondment. During his secondment at the KTH he had the opportunity to use modern software packages for simulation of railway vehicle dynamics. Upon the realization of that secondment, consideration of all impressions and consultations with the colleagues from the KTH it was decided to procure software package Gensys after his return to Serbia.

Phase I – Software package for structural analysis of machine structures (SolidWorks 2009 and Ansys V 12)
The procurement of the software package for structural analysis of machine structures (SolidWorks 2009 and Ansys V12) was entirely carried out in compliance with the valid Public Procurement Law of the Republic of Serbia (“The Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“ no. 116/08). Pursuant to Article 30 of the mentioned Public Procurement Law, the tender documentation for procurement of software for structural analysis was prepared. The tender documentation contained two lots:
- Lot 1 – Software package for design of machine structures
- Lot 2 – Software package for calculation of machine structures
The tender documentation contained all the necessary provisions and instructions prescribed by the Law. The bids being submitted, the commission for public opening of bids and selection of the most advantageous bidder was formed. By decision of the members of the commission, the bid of the company ''Solfins d.o.o.'' from Belgrade was proclaimed the most advantageous bid for the first lot, and the bid of the company ''Simtek'' from Greece (Representation Office for the Balkans) was proclaimed the most advantageous bid for the second lot. Upon the expiration of all deadlines for any complaints prescribed by the Law, the contracts on delivery of software packages SolidWorks and Ansys were signed with these companies. It also foresaw the procurement of 6 licences of software package for design SolidWorks 2009 as well as 20 licences of software package for calculation by the finite element method – Ansys V 12. The delivering party delivered, and the ordering party received: SolidWorks Premium 2009 – 1 pc; SolidWorks Professional 2009 – 5 pcs; and Ansys V 12 – 20 network licences for work with software package. Upon the receipt, these software packages were installed on the computers of the members of the RVC and on the computers of the other members of the SeRViCe project team.

Phase II – Software package for simulation of railway vehicles dynamics (Gensys)
The procurement of the software package for simulation of railway vehicles dynamics, i.e. software package Gensys was entirely carried out in compliance with the valid Public Procurement Law of the Republic of Serbia (“The Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“ no. 116/08). Pursuant to Article 6 paragraph 3 of the Public Procurement Law (“The Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“ no. 116/08), Article 6 of the Rule Book of the Low Value Public Procurement Procedure (“The Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“ no. 50/2009), the Rule Book of Obligatory Elements of Tender Documentation in Public Procurement Procedures (“The Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“ no. 50/2009), the Decision on Instituting the Low Value Public Procurement Procedure (no. 80 of 28 January 2011) and the Decision on Establishing the Commission for Low Value Public Procurement (80/1 of 28 January 2011), the tender documentation for low value public procurement of software and a working station for simulation of railway vehicle dynamics in lots:
- Software package for simulation of dynamic behaviour of railway vehicles
- Working station for simulation of dynamic behaviour of railway vehicles
The tender documentation contained all the necessary provisions and instructions prescribed by the Law. The bids being submitted, the commission for public opening of bids and selection of the most advantageous bidder was formed. By decision of the members of the commission, the bid of the producer of software package Gensys from Sweden was proclaimed the most advantageous bid. Upon the expiration of all deadlines for any complaints prescribed by the Law, the contract on delivery of software packages Gensys, which included procurement of 100 licences, was signed with the representative of the software producer. Upon the receipt, these software packages were installed on the computers of the members of the RVC. The short description of procured software package is given below.

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
The procurement of the mentioned modern software packages created the conditions for significant improvement of scientific-research potentials of the RVC and the FME. In addition, the conditions for considerably increased quality of the teaching process at the FME were also created. The students of basic, master and doctoral studies now have the opportunities, within certain teaching subjects, to be trained in working with modern software packages. With the procured software packages, the researchers of the RVC and the FME will be able to equally participate in common scientific-research projects with the leading European scientific institutions, such as for example DIEM or the KTH, with which the FME established strategic partnerships within the SeRViCe project. Besides, the procurement of these software packages considerably increases the possibilities and potentials of the RVC and the FME for cooperation with industry, which is particularly reflected in solving practical problems. It enables the FME to accomplish its role of a promoter and initiator of application of advanced knowledge in the local community and the whole region.

WP2 – RECRUITMENTS
Recruitments belong to group of activities that are to contribute to employment of new staff within RVC, oriented towards investigations in selected research area. The activity has two tasks: employment of young researchers and employment of experienced researchers.

Objectives in accordance with Annex I of the Grant Agreement:
- Employment of two young researchers
- Employment of two experienced researchers
It contributes to strengthening of human resources of RVC of FME, and thus to the ultimate project goal of rebuilding of the RVC as modern research institution and part of integrated ERA. At the start of the project, RVC had two mechanical engineers with PhD, one electrical engineer with PhD, and one mechanical engineer with M.Sc. degree, supported by two mechanical engineers and two technicians. In course of project duration, project coordinator, Prof Dr Ranko Rakanovic was retired, and two mechanical engineers left for employment in industry. In order to develop research programs in selected fields, RVC needed to employ both experienced and young researchers.
Within this work package, the following main S&T results / foregrounds are achieved:

ACTIVITY 1: EMPLOYMENT OF TWO YOUNG RESEARCHERS
By the project plan, the project was supposed to lead to engagement of at least two young researchers – PhD students to work at RVC. Young researchers were expected to be attracted by possibility to work with recognized experts at inspiring problems, and to learn about advanced topics. They recruiting activities started after kick?off meeting. Candidates were looked for between graduated students of FME and other Serbian faculties of mechanical engineering. The candidates were invited for an interview and test of English language skills. A commission constituting of 5 members from FME (Prof. Dr Ranko Rakanovic - The first project coordinator, Prof. Dr Dragan Petrovic - Project Board member for railway dynamics and latter project coordinator, Dr Snezana Ciric Kostic - Project Board member for mechanical fatigue, Dr Zlatan Soskic - researcher, and M.Sc. Nataša Pavlovic - English teacher) selected the following candidates for two young researchers:
- Mr. Vladimir Stolic, B.Sc. mech.eng.
- Miss Vesna Brašic, B.Sc. mech.eng. (PhD student)
As the results of activities mentioned above, two young researchers (1 female and 1 male) were employed at RVC, from October 1st, 2008 (Mr. Stolic) and January 8th, 2009. It was planed that employment of young researchers have to be done until the end of first year of SeRViCe project, and that it should have a balanced participation of women and man in all activities. Therefore, the engagement of two young researchers was achieved earlier than it was initially planned. Due to retirement of Prof. Dr Rakanovic and departure of two engineers, new project coordinator decided to further strengthen RVC human resources through engagement of three PhD students from FME:
- Mr. Nemanja Ilic, B.Sc. mech.eng. (PhD student), from May 1st, 2010
- Miss Marina Pljakic, B.Sc. mech.eng. (PhD student), from May 1st, 2010
- Mr. Mirko Djelosevic, M.Sc. mech. eng. (PhD student), from June 1st, 2010

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
The goals of the activity "Employment of two young researchers" were completely realized within time and budget limits of the project. Initial hiring of two young researchers and further engagement of three PhD students brought to strengthening and profound rejuvenation of RVC and FME. Based on this the RVC and FME have a very good base for further projects and researching activities.

ACTIVITY 2: EMPLOYMENT OF TWO EXPERIENCED RESEARCHERS
By the project plan, the project was supposed to contribute to this goal by "providing two experienced researchers (preferably one for experimental and one for theoretical dynamics of railway vehicles) a chance to develop their own program in Serbia within project framework under favorable conditions, acting like ''research incubator''. The primary targets were planned to be Serbian researchers that moved to EU countries and USA, but also a hope was present that experienced researchers from West Balkan and East Europe countries could be also interested to join to work of the RVC. The activity was estimated to carry the most risk in the whole project, being that it was really hard to predict when experienced and motivated researchers would be found and engaged. In order to cope with this problem, other project activities were planned not to depend on experienced researchers, and (for Serbian conditions) significant amount of financial resources (comparable to those in "People" project) was planned for work of engaged experienced researchers for the period of project duration, in order to enable experienced researchers to develop their own research activities in cooperation with EU partners, so they can carry on with researches within RVC after project end. Experienced researchers were supposed to provide for 24 months of research work for the period of project duration.
Recruiting activities started after the end of the first project year. Candidates were looked for between researchers connected with partner institutions (University of Bologna, KTH University of Stockholm and Technical University of Vienna) but also through network of contacts established in previous years (University of Transport Sofia, University of Isparta). While the most contacted researchers were in field of railway vehicles dynamics, for various reasons, of personal and professional nature, agreement on engagement at FME was not arranged. Therefore, it was decide to engage experienced researchers from other research field considered in the project, fatigue of mechanical structures and components. The criteria applied in the process of selection of experienced researchers were: academic resume, management experience, potential for future research engagement, contribution to EC "brain?drain" reduction policy, and contribution to EC gender equality policy. After negotiations with researchers that expressed interest in engagement in work at RVC, and after careful consideration of interests not only of RVC, but also of FME as project beneficiary?project leaders together with Dean of the FME decided to engage the following two researchers:
- Mr. Cristiano Fragassa, Ph.D. mech.eng, from December 1st, 2009
- Miss Ana Pavlovi?, Ph.D. mech.eng, from December 1st, 2009
Dr Fragassa was engaged on part?time basis, while Dr Pavlovic is full?time engaged on the project. Here are more details on careers of selected researchers and justification for their engagements:

Dr Cristiano Fragassa: He was born in 1972 in Pescara (Italy). He got his PhD in mechanical engineering in 2004 from University of Bologna. His research field is design of mechanical structures, with focus on fatigue, failure and reliability of mechanical engineering components and systems. He is part?time engaged by FME as expert in fatigue of mechanical structures, and primary task is to develop new projects for FME.
Senior researcher in engineering and technology; University teacher in mechanical, nuclear and environmental engineering; Technical advisor for large and small enterprises in the fields of advanced materials, mechatronics design, process optimization, security and control; Project manager and coordinator on regional, national and EU projects (FP7, Eurostars, ERA?Manunet. etc.); External expert for evaluation of EU and national projects; Member of national and international technical committees; Member of editorial boards of various industrial journals.
- Carreer: 2004 – Management Consultant at MATMEC, Laboratory for Innovative Materials; 2003 – Assistant Professor at Engineering Faculty, Bologna; 2002 – Professional Consultant with Industrial skills on mechanical design; 2007 – 2008 International Fund Raising at Institute of Advanced Studies, Univ. Bologna; 2004 – 2006 Management Consultant at Institute of Advanced Studies, Univ. Bologna; 2001 – 2003 PhD researcher on reliability & security of industrial systems; 1999 – 2000 Researcher in advanced methodology for Reliability Centered Maintenance; 1998 – 1999 Researcher in material science at the National Research Centre; 1996 – 1998 Developing of scientific tools for MC simulation at Agriculture Faculty, Bologna; and 1994 – 1995 System manager and informatics lab assistant at Engineering Fac., Bologna
- Teaching experience: Professor for subjects: Engineering of industrial products, Advanced techniques for Design of Machines, Elements of Design of Machines, Security and Reliability of Mechanical Systems, Functional and Aesthetical Design of Mechanical Systems, Modeling and Optimization of Production System
- International bibliography: Over 100 papers on the Italian and international scientific-research journals, as on the proceedings from the national and international conferences.
- National bibliography: Over 60 papers on the national journals: “Fonderia” (Foundry), “Lamiera” (Metal Sheets), “Trattamenti e Finiture” (Treatments and surface finishing), “Macchine Utensili” (Tool Machines), “Tecnologia del Filo” (Rod Technology) and others.

Dr Ana Pavlovi?: She was born in 1982 in Kragujevac (Serbia), and is Serbian citizen. She got her PhD in mechanical engineering in 2011 from University of Bologna. Her research experience is gained in 8 national and international research projects made in collaboration between University of Bologna and other universities (like University of Erlangen, University of Braunschweig, University of Belgrade, University of Zagreb, University of Ljubljana) and industry (like "Fiat", "Magneti Marelli", "Maya engineering", "Fomet", "Bizzocchi" are most important partners). She also has 4 years of experience working as teaching in University of Bologna on subjects regarding CAD/CAM/FEM.
- Education: 2000 – Degree “Prva kragujevacka gimnazija” High School, Kragujevac, Serbia Grade: 4.55/5; 2005 – Graduated in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Kragujevac (Serbia), equivalent to a B.Sc.+M.S. in Mechanical Engineering with Grade: 10/10; 2006 – PhD studies at University of Kragujevac, Serbia; 2007 – PhD studies in “Methodology for validation of reliability and safety of industrial systems and products” at University of Bologna, Italy. In the collaboration between University of Kragujevac and University of Bologna it was make dual agreement for PhD studies that was ended at 2011 when she got PhD in mechanical engineering.
- Teaching experience: 2006 – 2007 Courses for students of University of Bologna in Bologna and Forli; 2007 – Teaching assistant in “Elements of Design of Machines”; 2007 – Teaching assistant in “Engineering of products”; and 2008 – Course for students “Software Solid Edge”/ “Software ProE”.
- Research projects: 2005, Parliament of Kragujevac, European project manager?TESEO; 2005, MARTAC, Italy, Optimization of heel testing equipment; 2005?07, Multidisciplinary Studies of Design in Mechanical Engineering?TEMPUS project; 2005?06, Engineering Fac., Bologna, Industrial Research?MATMEC project; 2006, EUROPE countries, ECDL for Serbian Administration?TEMPUS project; 2006, Magneti Marelli, Research for automatic changing gear; 2006?07, Engineering Fac., Bologna, Industrial Research?MATMEC project; 2006?07, Magneti Marelli, Advance methodology for improving reliability; 2007, MBE, Bologna, Italy, Redesign of manipulators; 2007, Bizzocchi, Forli, Italy, Research of behavior of telescopic arm; 2007?08, Magneti Marelli, Advance methodology for improving reliability; 2009?2010, FOMET, Imola, Italy, "Development of aluminum frames for vehicles and use of innovative design in terms of motorcycle safety and the use of a production system for melting and bonding of the semi?products"; 2009?2010, UNIBO/Magneti Marelli, "Realisation of FMEA/FMECA for new developed electric motor of Magneti Marelli, Analitical, numerical and experimental testing of double torsion springs, Numerical and experimental impact testing of CAB 230"; 2009?2010, UNIBO/Robopac, "Optimisation of frequency response of automatic machine"

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
The goals of the activity named "Employment of two experienced researchers" were completely realized within time and budget limits of the project. Two experienced researchers with international experience, engaged during 19th month of project duration significantly contributed to realization of the project goals with total effort of 24 man?months, as it was planned by project plan and agreed upon within Grant Agreement.

WP3 - WORKSHOPS
One of mechanisms to improve knowledge and disseminate project results was organization of workshops concerned with selected research fields. The leaders of those activities were researchers that took part in two-way secondments. The main task of workshops was to educate RVC researchers from all fields with progresses in respective area in order to enhance cooperation between RVC groups. The workshops should contribute also to dissemination and sustainability of project results by providing research results to young researchers, engineers and colleagues from research institutions from Serbia and Balkan region.

The project is to support development of three workshops in course of project duration:
- two workshops on mechanical structures and components fatigue
- one workshop on railway vehicles dynamics

Objectives in accordance with Annex I of the Grant Agreement:
- Workshop on railway vehicles dynamics
- Workshop on general fatigue of mechanical structures
- Workshop on railway vehicles and components fatigue
The idea of the workshops is to provide vertical and horizontal transfer of knowledge. In vertical transfer, it is necessary to provide international knowledge flow, and in horizontal one to provide exchange of knowledge between Serbian, and in wider context, Balkan researchers. Additionally, both vertical and horizontal transfers have to provide education of RVC staff, young researches and students, as well as to provide intensive dissemination of knowledge in Serbia and Balkan area.
Within this work package, the following main S&T results / foregrounds are achieved:

ACTIVITY 1: WORKSHOP ON RAILWAY VEHICLES DYNAMICS
The workshop on railway vehicles dynamics is planned to be carried out in the first quarter of the third project year, three months after ending of the secondments in the field of theoretical methods of railway vehicle dynamics. This activity considers extensive work which included the following groups of actions: as first, permanent communication with international institutions and experts in the area of railway vehicles dynamics, then communication with local institutions and experts in this area, promoting the workshop in order to increase interest for event in preparation; the second group of activities comprised finding the suitable venue and time for the event, determining event content, duration and other aspects of organization; and third group of activities, solving technical problems for event realization and, finally, event results analysis and reporting.
The workshop, with the title "Rail vehicle dynamics" was held on 12-14th April 2011, in hotel "Turist" at Kraljevo. In organization of the event, FME was supported by International Association of for Vehicle System Dynamics (IAVSD), international organization gathering elite researchers in fields of railway and road dynamics. The contact with IAVSD was established during realization of SeRViCe project, and represents one of the most important side effects of the project.
The workshop was attended by 44 participants representing:
- leading European researchers in field of railway engineering, members of IAVSD
- academic staff and researchers of universities of Balkan countries: Bulgaria (University of Transport "Todor Kableshkov" from Sofia), Turkey (University of Istanbul and Technical University of Istanbul) and Serbia (University of Belgrade, University of Niš and University of Kragujevac)
- engineers from Serbian agency for railways and industry
- students of higher levels of studies at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Kraljevo.
The concept of the workshop was to establish communication between researchers from prominent European institutions and researchers from Balkan countries. Invited lecturers from IAVSD were presenting state-of-the-art lectures on selected railway dynamics topics in morning sessions of the workshop, and during afternoon presentations researchers from Balkan countries were presenting their research results and plans. Contributing to the aim of better presentation of current state of rail vehicle industry and research, two technical visits were organized: to Wagon Factory Kraljevo, and to RVC of FME. As an additional content, the workshop was followed by presentations of software packages for railway vehicle dynamics "Gensys" (manufacturer Desolver, Sweden) and "Simpack" (manufacturer Simpack, Germany), as well as equipment for measurement of dynamic quantities relevant for experimental research of railway vehicle dynamics (representatives of German manufacturer HBM).

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
Workshop achieved all intended goals and exceeded many expectations. Moderated by experienced teacher and researcher, Prof Mats Berg from KTH, lectures raised interest which was further extended through series of questions and comments which are inspiring further research and collaboration. Introduction to modern problems and research certainly provided significant increase of knowledge and understanding of Balkan researchers, but numerous personal contacts and exchange of information were also significant contribution of the workshop. Additionally, workshop provided strong dissemination of the project results and created a good basis for sustaining further development of RVC of FME and this research area in Serbia.

ACTIVITY 2: WORKSHOP ON GENERAL FATIGUE OF MECHANICAL STRUCTURES
This activity considers extensive work which included the following actions: as first, permanent communication with international institutions and experts in the area of mechanical structure fatigue, then communication with domestic institutions and experts in this area, promoting prepared workshop in order to increase interest for event in preparation; as the second, search for suitable place and time for holding the event, determining event duration and other aspects of organization; third, solving of technical problems for event realization and event results analysis.
The workshop, with the title „State of art in fatigue research in mechanical engineering and application“ was held in Vrnjacka Banja near Kraljevo on May 18th and 19th 2009. The program was timely condensed in order to rationalize participant’s time. The workshop was attended by 75 participants, engineers from rail companies and industry, students, university and school staff and others interested in fatigue of mechanical structures. Workshop is carried out by university professors and the other experts from Germany, Italy, Bulgaria and Serbia. The Program of Workshop contains the set of various lectures which can be classified in the next groups: General considerations in material fatigue including fatigue damage prediction; Determination of fatigue limits and fatigue hypothesis; Numerical analysis and numerical simulation of fatigue; Fatigue testing procedures and fatigue data processing; and Testing data of fatigue application and various case analysis. The way of workshop moderation provided possibility for active inclusion of every participant. Questions, problems analysis and discussions made clarified certain problems beyond the scope presented by lecture.

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
Transfer of knowledge in the both directions (vertical and horizontal) is fulfilled successfully. Training of research staff in Serbia and other participants provided significant increase of knowledge and skills level. Numerous personal contacts and exchange of information are also significant contribution of workshop. Additionally, workshop provided strong dissemination of the project results and creates the good base for sustaining further development of RVC of FME and this research area in Serbia.

ACTIVITY 3: WORKSHOP ON RAILWAY VEHICLES AND COMPONENTS FATIGUE
This activity understand extensive work which including the next actions. Firstly, permanent communication with international institutions and experts in the area of mechanical structure fatigue, then communication with domestic institutions and experts in this area, advertising in this communication about workshop in preparation in order to increase interest for event in preparation. Secondly, search for suitable place and time for event holding, about event duration and about the way of event moderation etc. Thread is to solving the technical problems for event realization and event results analysis.
Workshop-II with the title „Strength, Fatigue and Reliability of Railway Structures“ is held in Vrnjacka Banja near Kraljevo in March 29th and 30th 2010. The program was timely condensed in order to rationalize participant’s time. The workshop is attended 70 participants, engineers from rail companies and industry, students, university and school staff and others interested in fatigue of railway structures. Workshop is carried out by university professors and the other experts from Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria and Serbia. The Program of Workshop contains the set of various lectures which can be classified in the next groups: Experimental research of railway vehicles fatigue; Fatigue research of railway vehicle components; Stress analysis of railway vehicle structures by Finite Elements Method Application. The way of workshop moderation provided possibility for active inclusion of every participant. Questions, certain problems analysis and discussions are made certain problematic more wide than presented by lecture.

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
Transfer of knowledge in the both directions (vertical and horizontal) is fulfilled successfully. Training of research staff in Serbia and other participants provided significant increase of knowledge and skills level. Numerous personal contacts and exchange of information are also significant contribution of workshop. Additionally, workshop is provided strong dissemination of the project results and creates the good base for sustaining farther development of Research centre in Kraljevo and this research area in Serbia.

WP4 – EQUIPMENT
The project is to support development and acquisition of advanced test track and measurement equipment that will enable RVC to perform state-of-the-art experimental investigations of quasistatic and dynamic properties of railway vehicles.

Objectives in accordance with Annex I of the Grant Agreement:
- Provision of equipment for measurement of forces in wheel-rail contact
- Construction of test track for investigation of quasi-static properties of railway vehicles
Within this work package, the following main S&T results / foregrounds are achieved:

ACTIVITY 1: PROVISION OF EQUIPMENT FOR MEASUREMENT OF FORCES IN WHEEL-RAIL CONTACT
Purpose of the activity is to procure modern measuring equipment that will help classify RVC among modern research institutions in the field of railway engineering. The goal of the activity is procurement of the equipment for measurement of forces in contact between the freight wagon wheel and the rail Y and Q, and their ratio Y/Q, as well as training of the existing RVC staff in operating the equipment. Procurement of modern equipment for measurement of wheel-rail contact forces was carried out entirely in accordance with the Public Procurement Law of the Repubic of Serbia (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, no. 116/08), which is now in force. Pursuant to Article 30 of the mentioned Public Procurement Law, tenders were invited for procurement of a set of measuring wheelsets for testing freight wagons from the aspect of quasistatic and dynamic behaviour and safety. The tender documentation contains all necessary provisions and instructions prescribed by the Law. After receiving the bids, the public procurement commission was established for public bid opening and selection of the most advantageous bidder. By the decision of the members of the commission, the bid of the company Opticki senzorski sistemi – Optical Sensor Systems (OSS) Belgrade, with the subcontracting company Tehnoliv Komerc (TLK) from Veliko Orasje was proclaimed as the most advantageous bid. Upon the expiration of all deadlines for possible complaints prescribed by the Law, the contract on realization of the measuring equipment for testing freight wagons from the aspect of quasistatic and dynamic behaviour and safety was signed with the company OSS Belgrade. The measuring equipment fully satisfies the requirements of valid international standards for this field, such as UIC 518 – quiet running and running safety, and UIC 530-2 – testing longitudinal forces and wagon behaviour in running on a test track (S-curve). The equipment enables measurement of forces Y and Q in contact between the freight wagon wheel and the rail, and their ratio Y/Q in quasistatic and dynamic operating modes. Besides, the procured measuring equipment allows mesurement of lateral (H) forces and lateral accelerations at the height of the wheel set bearings, measurement of acceleration of the wagon body, measurement of the height of wheel lifting, measurement of compressing forces at the automatic coupling, as well as calibration of the measuring wheelsets.
The measuring system for measurement of Y and Q forces in wheel-rail contact and their ratio: This measuring system is intended for continuous measurement of lateral Y and vertical Q forces occurring in wheel-rail contact, as well as their ratio Y/Q, and it is characterized by telemetric transmission of signals. The main components of the system are: two measuring wheelsets of the freight wagon, electronic computer unit for receiving and storing signals, and computer module for procession and presentation of measurement results.
The measuring system for measurement of lateral force and lateral acceleration: The measurement of lateral force H and lateral acceleration is performed by a special mechanical assembly – converter of H force, where it is possible to install strain gauges. The converter for measurement of lateral force and lateral acceleration operates on the principle of conversion of force into deformation of sensor elements installed on it. A special accelerometer for measurement of acceleration with the measurement range of 5g is also installed on it and it is used for measuring lateral acceleration.
The measuring system for measurement of the height of wheel lifting: The mechanical assembly for measurement of the height of wheel lifting converts the height of lifting into the angular displacement of the legs which keep the sliders on the rail, on the front and bottom sides of the wheel. During the wheel lifting, the converter body lifts and the angles of both legs of the rail slider get reduced in relation to the normal.
The measuring system for measurement of compressing forces at the automatic coupling: A specially instrumentalized set of couplings type SA-3, which are installed on the wagons in front and behind the tested wagon in the measuring trains, was procured.
The measuring system for measurement of acceleration of the wagon body: Measurement of acceleration of the wagon body in lateral and vertical directions is performed by means of the calibrated two-axis accelerometer SUMMIT INSTRUMENTS 23200CR010-B031-T004-C001, measurement range ±10g and the bandwith 31 Hz.
The test stand for calibration and testing of measuring wheelsets: The test stand is intended for calibration and testing of measuring wheelsets in quasistatic and dynamic modes. The main purpose of the test stand is calibration of measuring wheelsets which serve for determination of lateral Y and vertical Q forces acting in the,wheel-rail contact and their ratio Y/Q.

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
The complete measuring equipment was received by the supplier on 09/10/2009, when it was stated that it completely satisfies the conditions of the tender documentation and technical specifications. The procured measuring equipment classifies RVC among very rare research centres equipped for the measurement of forces in wheel-rail contact which is carried out with telemetric transmission of signals. As for the education of students at FME, this equipment allows further development and improvement of practical teaching methods in the field of railway engineering. The equipment also enables further development and strengthening of research potentials of staff employed at RVC in accordance with the leading world trends. The most important scientific contribution is seen in the possibility of using the equipment for scientific-research purposes, before all for development of new methods in treating the problems of measurement and identification of behaviour of freight wagons from the aspect of forces in the wheel-rail contact Y and Q, as well as their ratio Y/Q. The procured measuring equipment is operational and installed in the laboratory of RVC.

ACTIVITY 2: CONSTRUCTION OF TEST TRACK FOR INVESTIGATION OF QUASI-STATIC PROPERTIES OF RAILWAY VEHICLES

The activity was realized in two parts:
- Part A: Construction of the test track (S-curve)
- Part B: Procurement of the system for acquisition of parameters during the test of waggons on the test track (S-curve)

Part A: Construction of the test track

In order to complete the final report on realization of the construction of the test track (S-curve) within the FP7 project SeRViCe, it is necessary to mention several points that the leader of this activity Prof. Dr Arandjel Babic considers important, and which, from the very beginning, directed the course of completion of the entire job. They are listed in the introductory part, and more detailed explanations are given in further text:
- The location for the construction of the test track in the project application is different from the location of as-built status,
- The design solution was carried out according to EN 14363, and the project application was based on the UIC regulation 530-2,
- The preliminary design of the construction of the test track with the S-curve refers to two locations next to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
- Providing location and building permits for the construction of the test track,
- Elaboration of the main design and construction of the track.
Testing of railway vehicles according to the mentioned regulations is carried out according to the methodologies specified in these standards. Respecting the mentioned regulations, the scope of methodologies differs; however, here we particularly insist on adding “The parameters of wagons that are relevant for determination of running characteristics”, as an elaborated design solution, to planning and realization of the subproject WP4-02, construction of the test track.
Having this in mind, our wish is to mention the methods, list measurement values and converters for their registration as well as the system for acquisition and procession of registered values for both groups of tests:
- Parameters of waggons that are relevant for determination of running characteristics,
- Preliminary tests that are performed as preparatory for carrying out experiments on the track.
In this way, the parameters that are important for carrying out experimental identification of railway vehicles (both groups of tests) are grouped, and considering them as a whole should unify the equipment for acquisition and procession of data. It implies that the realization of the mentioned tests is based on the methodologies for measurement of forces, displacements, accelerations, deformations, geometrical parameters of the track, torques, that is the moments of inertia.
In this way, in the foreseeable future, a unique centre of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Kraljevo would be established for experimental verification of railway vehicles in dynamic conditions, according to the mentioned regulations, and it would cover tests that belong to the main groups in experimental identification of waggons:
1. testing and identification of parameters of waggons relevant for determination of running characteristics,
2. preliminary tests that represent a basis for making decisions on allowing experiments of running on the test track, and then, when the conditions are created
3. test of running of waggons, test of quiet running and running safety.

In this way, the Centre for Railway Vehicles at the FME Kraljevo would have conditions for unique and complete realization of the experiment.
Selection of the location for construction of the test track was based on the activities of analysis of experiences in the already constructed test tracks as well as on consideration of the most favourable solution for construction of the test track within the project SeRViCe. This activity primarily refers to finding a new location for the construction of the test track because the location proposed in the project application was not approved by the Waggon Factory Kraljevo as the owner of land. The owners of the privatized Waggon Factory Kraljevo, Ukrainian company Azovimpex refused this type of cooperation between a private company and a state-owned institution. The request of the FME of August 2008 obtained a negative answer in September 2009: “common construction of the test track within the Waggon Factory Kraljevo is not accepted”. Anyway, the location for construction of the test track within the Waggon Factory Kraljevo proposed in the project application has several weaknesses, two of them being:
- Difficulty in connecting the test track to the network of tracks of the Serbian Railways due to the worn-out state of the network of tracks in the factory, i.e. the non-existence of possibilities of transit passage of waggons, and
- The utterly false statement that the scope of preliminary tests according to ?N 14363 can be performed with the existing equipment in the Waggon Factory Kraljevo.
The mentioned consideration of problems of the construction of the test track resulted in a proposal that a new location should be looked for and that the conditions for carrying out complete preliminary tests should be created. The proposal of the leader of subproject WP4-02, Prof. Dr Arandjel Babic,
that the construction should be carried out on the faculty lots or some other owners’ lots which are next to the FME yard was the subject of a dispute for months until the owners of the Waggon Factory Kraljevo finally refused the proposal for construction of the test track within the area of the factory.
Creation of conditions for quality execution of the group of activities WP4-02 foresaw the analysis of cadastral plans and elaboration of projects of parceling out according to urban planning conditions. Thus, the preconditions for quality definition of functional requirements set in the selection of site for construction of the test track as well as for its connection to the nearest existing track of the Serbian Railways were created.
The main goal of the activity on selection of the location for construction of the test track was creation of conditions for design of the conceptual design for construction of the test track, i.e. the quality preliminary design should serve for announcing the public invitation for bids for the main design with real values of parameters of specification of material and works in the construction.
The criterion of successful achievement of the goal in the new location was seen in the reduction of costs of construction with simultaneous fulfilment of numerous functional requirements in comparison with the ones specified in the project application.
Elaboration of the proposal with the explanation of other possible solutions for construction of the test track in relation to the solution proposed in the project application (Waggon Factory Kraljevo) contains:
- Analysis of the possibility of construction of the test track on the cadastral lot owned by FME, in the location previously foreseen for the construction of faculty laboratories. The proposed solutions covered connection to the track of “Kopaonik”, at two points, through an in/out switch. The analysis contained five preliminary sketches. The technical solutions fulfilled the requirements prescribed by UIC 530-2.
The advantage of this solution is the construction of the test track on the lots owned by the Faculty on one hand and very feasible construction (easy access) on the other.
The faculty management did not give its consent for the construction of the test track in this location but it still opted for a new location.
- Examination of the possibility of construction of the test track in the location on the other side of the main building, the west wing of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. In this case, it was necessary to join/purchase two cadastral lots (CL 4242/23 Serbian Railways, CL 4292/1 Kopaonik AD Belgrade and CL5297/23, CL 5297/51 City of Kraljevo). This location has a far larger number of restrictions than the previous one (power transformer station close to the faculty). On the day of 9.12.2008, the first contact with the Bureau for Urban Planning of the City of Kraljevo was made with the request for elaboration of a project of parcelling out on the area foreseen for extension of higher education.
The project of parcelling out provided information about the final establishing of lots necessary for integration with the complex of land owned by FME. The conceptual design of the test track on the area adjacent to the west wing of FME. Nine variants of construction of the test track were analysed, including two service tracks. The selected conceptual design (conceptual design for construction of the test track and other accompanying equipment) represents the base for elaboration of the main project. The procedure of making necessary preparations for work on the project covered taking over copies of plans of the cadastral lots, examination of the site for the purpose of complex definition of the area. The facts indicated that it was better to construct the test track in the location next to the Faculty. The unfavourable point in this proposal was finalization of the procedure for transferring the ownership over the necessary lots from the other owners to the Faculty. However, the mentioned lots were by urban plans intended for extension of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, so that it was much better to start work immediately and not wait for later extension of the mentioned space.
In the realization of construction of the test track on the lots to the west of the main building, a big problem was joining the lots that were not owned by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering so that they could be used for the construction of the track for experimental testing.
The City of Kraljevo (local self-government) had a great merit of joining the lots. The City exchanged the lots with the former owner, and then, under very favourable conditions, sold/transferred them to the Faculty. On this way, the FME became the owner of the lots for construction of the test track.
Here we would like to particularly emphasize that the city departments for planning and urban planning had a lot of understanding during preparation of adequate permits for construction. Before the construction design was made, the location permit had been issued, and the building permit was issued after the design was finished. Both permits represent the legal basis that makes the FME eligible to construct the test track for the purpose of carrying out experimental tests.
The drawing of the track taken from the project elaborated by the design and contracting company N-ing d.o.o. from Belgrade is presented in Figure 4.
The construction of the test track was fully executed according to the project. The supervisory body was responsible for monitoring the performance of works that had to be carried out as foreseen by the project. Confirmation of the quality of construction was registered in the construction log book kept by the supervisory body, Radovan Terzic, graduate civil engineer.
The construction of the test track was realized with good quality leaving the possibility of further extension of activities on experimental research. And finally, it is indisputable that the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Kraljevo, with the construction of the experimental test track next to the main building of the faculty and direct connection to the network of tracks of the Serbian Railways, has connected its test facility with Europe and the world. In this way, the communication that does not depend on go-betweens and their interests has been realized.
Based on this consideration of construction of the test track, it can be concluded:
- that the European Union funds planned and invested within the subproject WP04-02 of the project SeRViCe were used in the best way,
- the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Kraljevo obtained the experimental test track with the S-curve for carrying out tests according to EN and UIC resgulations,
- methodologies of preliminary tests have been elaborated in an engineering (designer) manner as a precondition for testing the pushing of waggons through the test track.

Part B: System for acquisition of parameters during testing of wagons through the test track

Procurement of the system for acquisition of parameters in testing of waggons through the test track was carried out in accordance with the Public Procurement Law ("The Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia" number 116/08). Upon the expiration of all deadlines for possible complaints prescribed by law, the contract on procurement of the system for acquisition of parameters in testing waggons through the test track was signed with the company Optical Sensor Systems from Belgrade.
The mentioned measurement equipment is based on telemetric transmission of signals and satisfies the requirements of the valid international standard for this field UIC 530?2 OR (of May 2006, appendix G.1.3.1), which refers to testing longitudinal forces and behaviour of waggons pushed through the test track. The procured measurement equipment allows the following measurements:
- Measurement of lateral displacements dyp1 and dyp2 between the buffers of the waggon being tested and the accompanying waggons, while pushing through the test track,
- Recording pushing by the markers placed on the test track according to Figure 1 from UIC standard 530?2 Appendix G.1.2.,
- Measurement of the path covered while pushing through the test track.
The complete measurement equipment was delivered by the supplier and it was stated that it fully satisfied the conditions from the tender documentation and technical specifications. Realization of the mentioned activities has classified the Centre for Railway Vehicles of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Kraljevo among very rare research centres that are equipped with the test track as well as with the equipment for acquisition of parameters on testing waggons through the test track. It is important to mention that the procured measurement systems belong to the most modern world accomplishments in the field of given measurements, where their operation is based on wireless transmission of signals.
The procured mesurement equipment enables further development and promotion of practical teaching methods in the field of railway engineering aimed at education of students of basic, master and doctoral studies at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Kraljevo. The equipment also enables further development and strengthening of scientific-research potentials of the staff employed at the Centre for Railway Vehicles in accordance with the leading world trends. Its huge contribution is seen in the possibility of using the test track for scientific-research purposes, before all for development of new methods in consideration of problems of torsional stiffness of waggons as well as in identification of their behaviour from the aspect of pushing through the curves of extreme radii. One of the most important contributions is seen in the possibility of using the test track for the needs of railway vehicle industry, both from Serbia and from the surrounding countries. It enables the Centre for Railway Vehicles of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Kraljevo to execute its role of promoter and mover of modern scientific-technical accomplishments in the local community and the region.

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
The reasons for certain delay of construction of test track could not be influenced because they were caused by vis major, before all by the consequences of the earthquake that struck Kraljevo and its surroundings on 03/11/2010 as well as by the turbulent local political situation reflected in several changes of the local authorities in Kraljevo. Those were the main reasons for the postponement and delay in solving legal and property issues connected with the land foreseen for the construction of the test track. With great efforts of the members of the project team and the RVC, as well as those of the FME, and with the significant help of the local community regarding the selection of the adequate location for construction and settlement of legal and property relationships, the test track was constructed and is now close to the FME building, as it can be seen in the above photos. It is important to emphasize that the delay in the construction of the test track did not, in any way, affect the fulfillment of the other objectives and accomplishment of the planned final results of the project.
It is indisputable that the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Kraljevo, with the construction of the experimental test track next to the main building of the faculty and direct connection to the network of tracks of the Serbian Railways, has connected its test facility with Europe and the world. In this way, the communication that does not depend on go-betweens and their interests has been realized.
Finally it can be also concluded:
- that the European Union funds planned and invested within the subproject WP04-02 of the project SeRViCe were used in the best way,
- the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Kraljevo obtained the experimental test track with the S-curve for carrying out tests according to EN and UIC resgulations,
- methodologies of preliminary tests have been elaborated in an engineering (designer) manner as a precondition for testing the pushing of waggons through the test track.

WP5 – PARTNERSHIPS
Essentially the ultimate goal of the project, development of strategic partnerships with prominent research institutions is not only to provide sustainability to project results, but also to provide their maximum impact in practice by integrating research efforts within unified ERA. Two common research programs are planned to be developed, one considering mechanical structures and components fatigue, and the other considering railway vehicles dynamic research.

Objectives in accordance with Annex I of the Grant Agreement:
- Common research program in field of railway vehicles dynamics
- Common research program in field of mechanical structures and components fatigue

Within this work package, the following activities were performed:

ACTIVITY 1: COMMON RESEARCH PROGRAM IN FIELD OF RAILWAY VEHICLES DYNAMICS
The common research program in field of rail vehicle dynamics was developed by researchers that took part in secondment activities between FME and KTH within work package WP1 "Knowledge". The program is result of cooperation that started during SeRViCe project. The program presents the interests of FME and KTH in field of rail vehicle dynamics, the scope of their future common actions, defines resources to be committed to future collaboration and means to achieve promoted goals. The document is signed by Dean of FME, Prof. Dr Novak Nedic, and Director of KTH Railway Group, Prof. Dr Sebastian Stichel, on April 15th 2011 in Kraljevo, Serbia (Reference: "Program for common research in the field of rail vehicle dynamics in the period 2011-2015", document signed by FME and Division of Rail Vehicles, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology on April 15th, 2011 and registered by FME as document No. 360/2011 on April 15th, 2011).

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
Definition of common research programs with KTH is not only provided sustainability of project SeRViCe results, but also provided their maximum impact in practice by integrating research efforts in order to reduce multiple investigations of basic research topics without influence on competitiveness of research centers or manufacturers (it especially holds for railway safety topics).
The researchers, students of PhD and MSc studies from the FME will have the possibility to significantly improve their knowledge in the prestigious institution such as KTH. In addition, the starting base for future common research projects with this institution is created. It can be concluded that the strategic cooperation with KTH significantly improving the level of scientific researches potentials of RVC on the global European level.

ACTIVITY 2: COMMON RESEARCH PROGRAM IN FIELD OF MECHANICAL STRUCTURES AND COMPONENTS FATIGUE
The common research program in field of mechanical structures and components fatigue was developed by researchers that took part in secondment activities between FME and DIEM within work package WP1 "Knowledge". The program is result of cooperation that started before SeRViCe project, but was profoundly enhanced with the project. The program presents the interests of FME and DIEM in field of mechanical structures fatigue, the scope of their future common actions, defines resources to be committed to future collaboration and means to achieve promoted goals. The document is signed by Dean of FME, Prof. Dr Novak Nedic, and Director of DIEM department of University of Bologna, Prof. Gianni Caligiana, on July 14th 2010 in Bologna (References: "Program for common research in the field of mechanical fatigue in the period 2011-2015", document signed by FME and DIEM department of University of Bologna on July 14th, 2010 and registered by FME as document No. 640/2010 on July 28th, 2010).

Conclusion on activity results / foregrounds
Definition of common research programs with DIEM is not only provided sustainability of project SeRViCe results, but also provided their maximum impact in practice by integrating research efforts in order to reduce multiple investigations of basic research topics without influence on competitiveness of research centers or manufacturers (it especially holds for railway safety topics).
The researchers, students of PhD and MSc studies from the FME will have the possibility to significantly improve their knowledge in the prestigious institution such as DIEM. In addition, the starting base for future common research projects with this institution is created. It can be concluded that the strategic cooperation with DIEM significantly improving the level of scientific researches potentials of RVC on the global European level.

WP6 – DISSEMINATION AND PROMOTION ACTIVITIES

Dissemination and promotion activities are aimed at informing experts in area on project results, but also at raising awareness of general and expert public about FP7 projects concepts and goals.

Objectives in accordance with Annex I of the Grant Agreement:
- Project website active
- Media conferences
- TV broadcasts
- Info days

Promotional activities are to be carried through whole project duration. The following activities should be carried out:
- 4 media conferences to inform general public in Serbia will be held (one at the project start, and one at the end of each project year)
- 2 TV broadcasts made by local station and offered to national stations
- 3 Info days for professional public in Balkan region will be held (one after each project year)
- project website should be developed to widely present project results
- promotional materials should be developed (brochures and memorabilia)
- project results should be presented at international scientific conferences
Within this work package, the following activities were performed:

ACTIVITY 1: PROJECT WEBSITE ACTIVE
The goal of this activity was presentation and promotion of the SeRViCe project aiming at strengthening the RVC at the FME and presentation of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission. The main goal of the activity is development of the Internet presentation which should show the concept and activities of the project to the broadest audience in Serbia and abroad. The project plan foresees a website that contains all relevant information about the project which should be systematically grouped in accordance with the concept and activities of the project.
Activation of the website is one of the first planned results of the project. Several members of the project team were engaged in its design and creation and at the head of them were Prof. Dr Zlatan Soskic and M.Sc. Nebojsa Bogojevic, who made maximum efforts in order to adjust the appearance and content of the website to modern trends. The criteria for successful accomplishment of the determined goal were to develop the presentation in the English language, to enable easy navigation, to make it simple for maintenance, to allow clear and precise presentation of the concept of the project as well as clear and precise presentation of the project activities and results. The website was developed by the application of open source Website Baker content management tool. The whole content of the website is in the English language, and the technical solution itself allows very easy moving through the contents of the website. The presentation is designed in such a way that it possesses all relevant administrative and technical information about the project, key events in the project as well as key results achieved. References: http://www.mfkv.kg.ac.rs/service/

ACTIVITY 2: MEDIA CONFERENCES
Within this activity the 4 media conferences to inform general public in Serbia were held (one at the project start, and one at the end of each project year).
- The first media conference: The first media conference was held on 28/01/2009 at the FME in Kraljevo. The conference was visited by the representatives of all local media and those national media who have correspondents in Kraljevo. The project "SeRViCe" was presented to the media by the then project coordinator, Prof. Dr Ranko Rakanovic and the Dean of the FME, Prof. Dr Novak Nedic. The director of the Wagon Factory Kraljevo, Mr Bosko Slavkovic, was also present at the conference. The conference was visited by the correspondents of the local (TV stations "TV Kraljevo" and "TV Melos", radio station "Radio Kraljevo", newspapers "Kraljevacke novine") and national (the largest national newspaper "Politika") media, and the reports were sent to the popular national media houses ("Vecernje novosti", "Blic", "Press", national TV station RTS). A television programme was several times broadcast on TV Kraljevo and TV Melos, and several articles were published in newspapers. Thanks to the very good media coverage of the conference, it can be said that this activity fulfilled its main goal, i.e. promotion and popularization of the SeRViCe project and informing a broader public about its results.
- The second media conference: The second media conference was held on 29/03/2010 at the hotel “Vila Aleksandar“ in Vrnjacka Banja near Kraljevo. The conference was attended by the representatives of the local television stations. The "SeRViCe" project as well as its key results were presented by the new project coordinator, Prof. Dr Dragan Petrovic, the Dean of the FME, Prof. Dr Novak Nedic, and the members of the project team Prof. Dr Arandjel Babic, Dr Zlatan Soskic and Dr Snezana Ciric-Kostic. The reporters from the local prestigious television station “KA TV“ were present, and their reports were broadcast twice in their television programme. Thanks to that, it can be concluded that this media conference fulfilled its main goal, i.e. promotion and popularization of the SeRViCe project and informing a broader public about its results.
- The third media conference: The third media conference was held on 03/12/2010 at the FME in Kraljevo, at the same time as anniversary day of FME. The conference was attended by the representatives of the local television station KA-TV. The importance, concept and the achieved results of the SeRViCe project was presented by the project coordinator Prof. Dr Dragan Petrovic and Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Kraljevo, Prof. Dr Novak Nedic. One of the aims of the conference was that the wider public meet about the importance of results of the project SeRViCe for further development of the FME and the local community. The reports were broadcast twice in television programme of KA-TV in prime time. Based on that, it can be concluded that this media conference fulfilled its main goal, i.e. promotion and popularization of the SeRViCe project and informing a broader public about its results.
- The fourth media conference: The fourth media conference was held on 12/04/2011 at the hotel “Turist“ in Kraljevo. The conference was visited by the representatives of all local media and those national media who have correspondents in Kraljevo. The importance, concept and the final achieved results of the SeRViCe project was presented by the project coordinator Prof. Dr Dragan Petrovic and Dean of the FME, Prof. Dr Novak Nedic. The conference was attended by journalists from local television stations ''KA-TV'' and ''TV MELOS'' and the correspondents of newspapers ''Kraljevacke novosti'' and ''Vecernje novosti''. The reports were broadcast twice in television programme of KA-TV and TV MELOS in prime time, and several articles were published in newspapers. Based on that, it can be concluded that this media conference fulfilled its main goal, i.e. promotion and popularization of the SeRViCe project and informing a broader public about its final results. The activity was carried out shortly before the deadline because of its connection with the performance of workshop entitled "Workshop on Rail Vehicle Dynamics", which belongs to the work package WP-3. Bearing in mind the presence of numerous media representatives it can be concluded that the activity was completed successfully.

ACTIVITY 3: TV BROADCASTS
The purpose of the activity "TV broadcasts" is the presentation and promotion of the SeRViCe project aiming at strengthening the RVC of the FME and presentation of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission. The project plan foresees two TV broadcasts with the aim to introduce a broader Serbian public with the concept of the project and its most important results. The goal of the TV broadcasts is also to introduce the broader Serbian public with the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission and its contribution to the development of science in Serbia.
- The first TV broadcast: The first TV broadcast lasting 1.5 hours was broadcast on 13/02/2009 at 20.00 hours on the local television station "TV Kraljevo". It presented the concept of the SeRViCe project, with all activities and key expected results. The broadcast also showed the excerpts from the kick-off meeting held on 4/9/2008 and recordings in the period 5/9/2008-5/10/2008. While designing the content of the TV broadcast, the tendency was to present the project to a broader public as clearly as possible, with the appropriate level of information. For that purpose and for the needs of realization of this activity, the consultant for media promotion, Mr. Dragan Blagojevic, was engaged.
- The second TV broadcast: The second TV broadcast was on 30/03/2010 on the local television station "KA TV". The broadcast presented the concept of the SeRViCe project, with all activities and key results achieved until then. The broadcast showed excerpts from the media conference, Info day and workshop held on 29/03/2010 at the hotel "Vila Aleksandar" in Vrnja?ka Banja near Kraljevo. While designing the content of the TV broadcast, the tendency was to present the project and all the results achieved until then to a broader public as clearly as possible, with the appropriate level of information. For that purpose and for the needs of realization of this activity, the consultant for media promotion, Mr. Dragan Blagojevic, was also engaged.

ACTIVITY 4: INFO DAYS
The activities provided the sustainability of project results primarily by dissemination of information about the project results at the end of the first, second and third years of project duration thus increasing the degree of applicability of the project results. This activity is connected with all work packages from WP1 to WP7 because the Info day presents all results of all activities in all seven work packages of the project. The main goal of this activity was gathering as many experts in the field of railway engineering as possible for the purpose of introducing them with the project results upon the completion of each year of project duration and with the goals achieved in accordance with the planned activities for each year of project duration by work packages. The goal of these activities was also to gather the representatives of the media, local radio and television stations from Vrnjacka Banja and Kraljevo, as well as collaborators of the national media from Kraljevo. The project schedule foresees three Info days which should be realized at the end of each year of project duration, i.e. in the 12. month, 24. month, and 36. month of project duration.
- The first Info day: The first Info day was held on 19/05/2009 at the hotel "Vila Aleksandar" in Vrnjacka Banja near Kraljevo. It was attended by about 75 participants in the field of railway engineering from Serbia and abroad, such as the representatives of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Belgrade, the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nis, the Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering Belgrade, the Faculty of Technical Sciences Novi Sad, the Institute "Kirilo Savic", the national operator – Serbian Railways, the Wagon Factory Kraljevo, the Wagon Factory "Bratstvo" Subotica, the thermal power plant "TENT" Obrenovac and the media – television and newspapers for the purpose of informing the public about the project results at the end of the first project year. The project results at the end of the first year of project duration as well as the goals achieved in accordance with the planned activities were presented. Besides the participants, the event was attended by the representatives of the local television station TV Kraljevo and the local weekly "Kraljevacke novosti", who expressed their very positive impressions about the event. The participants were industrial engineers, teaching staff from vocational schools and faculties, managers of industrial enterprises in the field of railway and experts from the railway institute. They were given handouts of all presentations and they made contacts among themselves. The number of participants, their activity, participation in discussions, etc. indicates that the objectives of the first Info day were entirely accomplished.
- The second Info day: The second Info day was held on 29/03/2010 also at the hotel "Vila Aleksandar" in Vrnjacka Banja near Kraljevo. It was attended by about 60 participants in the field of railway engineering from Serbia and abroad, such as the representatives of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Belgrade, the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nis, the Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering Belgrade, the Institute "Kirilo Savic", the national operator – Serbian Railways, the Wagon Factory Kraljevo, the thermal power plant "TENT" Obrenovac and the media – television and newspapers for the purpose of informing the public about the project results at the end of the second project year. The project results at the end of the second year of project duration as well as the goals achieved in accordance with the planned activities were presented. Besides the participants, the event was attended by the representatives of the local television station KA TV, who expressed their very positive impressions about the event. Industrial engineers, teaching staff from the vocational schools and faculties, managers of industrial enterprises in the field of railway, experts from the railway institute as well as students from the FME actively participated in the second Info day. The participants were given handouts of all presentations and it should be emphasized that they made a lot of contacts among themselves. The number of participants, their activity, active participation in discussions, etc. indicates that the objectives of the second Info day were entirely accomplished.
- The third Info day: The third Info day was held on 15/04/2011 at the hotel "Turist" in Kraljevo. Info day was attended by about 60 participants from Serbia and abroad, in the field of railway engineering. It is important to highlight that the Info day was attended by almost all participants of workshop "Workshop on Rail Vehicle Dynamics", held in Kraljevo 12-14/04/2011. Among them were representatives of the renowned International Association for Vehicle Dynamics (IAVSD) from various European countries, Sweden, Russia, England, Poland, Turkey, and Bulgaria. Beside them Info day was attended by representatives of the Directorate of Railways, Serbian Railways and the rolling stock industry of Serbia, as well as domestic and foreign manufacturers of measuring equipment and software for dynamics of railway vehicles. Info day is also attended by representatives of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Nis, and the public media – television and the press to inform the public about the final results at the end of the project. The results of the project were presented by the work packages leaders and by the project coordinator, as well as achieved objectives in line with planned activities. The event was also attended by representatives of local television stations ''KA-TV'' and ''TV MELOS'' who had expressed a very positive impression after the event. It is important to highlight that the Info day was attended by a large number of students of FME. The number of participants, their activity, active participation in discussions, etc. indicates that the objectives of the third Info day were entirely accomplished. The activity was carried out shortly before the deadline because of its connection with the performance of workshop entitled "Workshop on Rail Vehicle Dynamics", which belongs to the work package WP3, thus achieved better popularization of achieved results, particularly among foreign researchers.

PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS AND NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES
The results of ‘’SeRViCe’’ project and RVC research results were presented, between the others, on the following conferences:
- Conference “Safety in Administration and Business in the context of the Risk of the World Economic Crisis”, 14-16th of May, 2009 in Jurata – Poland, the article ’Vehicle design in function of safety and security of goods in railway transport’’ was presented by authors Dr Zlatan Soskic and MSc Nebojsa Bogojevic, members of the project SeRViCe team. Dr Zlatan Soskic was also member of Program Committee of the Conference, honoring results of RVC and FME.
- Symposium ‘’21st International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks - IAVSD ’09’’, 17-21th of Avgust, 2009 in Stockholm – Sweden, the article "Torsional stiffness of three-axled wagons" was presented by authors Dr Zlatan Soskic and MSc Nebojsa Bogojevic, members of the project SeRViCe team. IAVSD is one of the most important International associations gathering researchers and engineers who deal in railway vehicle dynamics. Presence on this Symposium is of utmost importance for RVC. Dr Soskic and MSc Bogojevic made important contacts with leading researchers in this field.
- Conference ‘’Numerical Analysis of Weldability‘’, 28-30th September, 2009 in Graz – Austria, the article ’’Simulation model of initial period of spot welding’’ was presented by Prof. Dr Miomir Vukicevic and MSc Miso Bijelic, two of the four authors of the paper. During the Conference established important contacts with international researchers in this filed.
- Conference “Transport 2009”, 6–7th of November, 2009 in Sofia – Bulgaria, the most important annual regional conference, where the following articles were presented:
o Rakanovic Ranko, Brasic Vesna, "Further Tendencies in Development of the Railway Vehicles Center of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Kraljevo"
o Bogojevi? Nebojsa, Fragassa Cristiano, Pavlovic Ana, Soskic Zlatan, "Torsional Stiffness of Multiple-Units Railway Vehicle with Linear and Symmetric Action of Suspension System"
o Pavlovi? Ana, Ciric Kostic Snezana, "Design and Optimization of Mechanical Solutions for High Speed Components in Packaging Machines"
o Fragassa Cristiano, "Practical Overview of Tools and Methods for Reliability Improvements in Transport Industry"
- Conference ‘’WIRE 2010 – Weak of the Innovative Regions in Europe’’, 15-17th March, 2010 in Granada – Spain, the poster ’’Support to Reinforcement of Railway Research Potential of Serbia’’ was presented by members of the project SeRViCe team Milan Bizic, Dr Cristiano Fragassa, Ana Pavlovic, and MSc Natasa Pavlovic. On this conference they presented current results of the project SeRViCe and their impact on enhance research potential and development of Serbian economy.
- Conference ‘’ZELKON / RAILCON 10’’, 07 – 08 October, 2010 in Nis – Serbia, the paper ’’Measuring equipment for dynamic and quasistatic railway vehicles testing’’ was presented by members of the project SeRViCe team Dragan Petrovic, Arandjel Babic, Milan Bizic, and Mirko Djelosevic. This paper presents results of the project SeRViCe related to the acquisition of contemporary measurement equipment.
- Conference ‘’CETRA 2010’’, 17 – 18 May, 2010 in Opatija – Croatia, the paper ’’Analysis of wagon impact’’ was presented by members of the project SeRViCe team Dragan Petrovic, Arandjel Babic, Milan Bizic, and Marina Pljakic.
- The 7th international conference research and development of mechanical elements and systems ‘’IRMES 2011’’, 27 – 28 April, 2011 in Zlatibor – Serbia, the paper ’’Test stand for calibration of measurement railway wheelsets’’ was presented by members of the project SeRViCe team Milan Bizic and Dragan Petrovic. This paper presents results of the project SeRViCe related to the acquisition of contemporary measurement equipment.
- The 7th international conference research and development of mechanical elements and systems ‘’IRMES 2011’’, 27 – 28 April, 2011 in Zlatibor – Serbia, the paper ’’Analysis of an automatic wrapping machine: numerical models and experimental results’’ was presented by members of the project SeRViCe team Zlatan Soskic, Snezana Ciric Kostic, and Cristiano Fragassa. This paper presents results of the project SeRViCe achieved during the secondments with the University of Bologna.
- The 7th international conference research and development of mechanical elements and systems ‘’IRMES 2011’’, 27 – 28 April, 2011 in Zlatibor – Serbia, the papers ’’Artificial intelligence in cam modeling of assembly operations of tank wagons’’ and ‘’Inteligent cad design and assembly plan of milling heads’’ were presented by members of the project SeRViCe team Anandjel Babic, Marina Pljakic, and Nemanja Ilic. These papers present results of the project SeRViCe achieved during the recruitment of young researchers.
In many of these previous conferences promotional materials such as brochures and posters about project were displayed and distributed.

CONCLUSION ON WP6 RESULTS AND FOREGROUNDS
The activities contributed to the visibility of results achieved by the RVC of the FME during the SeRViCe project, and thus to the ultimate project goal of rebuilding of the RVC as a modern research institution and part of integrated ERA. The activities also contributed to raising of public awareness about the results achieved by the RVC of the FME during the project. The main results are presentation and promotion of the SeRViCe project aiming at strengthening the RVC of the FME and presentation of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission. Performed activities such as media conferences, TV broadcasts, Info days, project website, promotional materials and international scientific conferences introduced a broader Serbian public with the concept of the SeRViCe project and its most important results. They also introduce the broader Serbian public with the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission and its contribution to the development of science in Serbia.

WP7 – MANAGMENET

Project management was separated into permanent, periodic and reporting activities. Permanent activities were task-oriented, and mainly contained quality supervision monitoring, like weekly activity team meetings.
Periodic activities were well-timed and mainly project-oriented. They consisted of team leader meetings and team meetings. Team leader meetings are held usually once a month, and team meetings, including presence of all team members from FME, relevant consultants, and sometimes representatives were held four times, in connection with important events at project (kick-off meeting, TV broadcast, info day and report for the first year).
Reporting activities are organized according internal rules of the FME, and according procedures prescribed in grant agreement. Each activity is reported by activity leader, presenting activity description, timelines, budget, achieved goals and, if applicable, lessons learned. Inexperienced researchers are included in preparation of reports, gaining experience on project management.

At the top of management structure was project Coordinator, Head of Railway Vehicles Center. He was autonomous in his work regarding allocation of project resources and organization of project activities. However, he was responsible to the Dean of the Faculty regarding successfulness of project results.
Project Board is advisory body that was providing Coordinator with analysis and suggestions regarding project progress. Project Board consisted of Coordinator and two members, each of them with specific area of expertise:
- Activities concerned with development of railway vehicles dynamics research
- Activities concerned with development of mechanical structures and components fatigue research.

Meetings of Project Boards are called by Coordinator according needs, but Coordinator may call meetings with individual members. For each task within project, Coordinator appointed Activity Leader, and in coordination with Activity Leader, members of Activity Team. Coordinator provided Activity Leader human and financial resources and activity timelines expressed through milestones. Although Activity Leader was autonomous in organization of work on specific activity, she/he did not have financial autonomy, but all costs were to be approved by Coordinator. Activity Leader provided Coordinator with oral reports regarding activity progress each week, and each month provided short written reports on activity progress and expenditures. At the end of activity, Activity Leader provided Coordinator written Activity Report on work, results and costs of specific activity.

CONCLUSION ON WP7 RESULTS AND FOREGROUNDS
By the deadline for the project completion almost all planned activities were successfully realized. The only delay occurred in the realization of the activity related to the construction of the test track for testing railway vehicles. The reasons for delay could not be influenced because they were caused by vis major, before all by the consequences of the earthquake that struck Kraljevo and its surroundings on 03/11/2010 as well as by the turbulent local political situation reflected in several changes of the local authorities in Kraljevo. Those were the main reasons for the postponement and delay in solving legal and property issues connected with the land foreseen for the construction of the test track.
With great efforts of the project management and members of the project team and the RVC, as well as those of the FME, and with the significant help of the local community regarding the selection of the adequate location for construction and settlement of legal and property relationships, the test track was constructed according to the project plan and is now close to the FME building. It is important to emphasize that the delay in the construction of the test track did not, in any way, affect the fulfillment of the other objectives and accomplishment of the planned final results of the project.

All the planned results of the project were successfully realized within the foreseen budget which was a very important indicator of the organization and operation of project management.

Potential Impact:
THE POTENTIAL IMPACT (INCLUDING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT AND THE WIDER SOCIETAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE PROJECT SO FAR) AND THE MAIN DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES AND EXPLOITATION OF RESULTS

STRATEGIC IMPACT

Upgrading the RTD capacity
The project was to have profound impact on strengthening RVC RTD capacities for carrying out investigations in two research fields that are recently become needed by re-vitalizing industry of railway vehicles in its surroundings: investigations of railway vehicles dynamics and investigations of railway vehicles structures and components fatigue. It was achieved through strengthening of all of its potentials:

Human resources
During the project course, number of researchers employed in RVC was doubled: RVC was gain two experienced researchers and five young researchers. Four of young researchers are PhD students on the FME’s on the doctoral studies. They will be significant reinforcement of RVC’s research capacities in future research activities.
Moreover, the project was contributed to mobilization of present resources within the FME by specializations of present researchers. This is enabled RVC to develop separate groups for specific research tasks.
Present research staff was meet examples of contemporary experimental research in study visits, and at least four researchers had opportunity to learn about advanced methodologies during secondments in partner institutions – University of Bologna and KTH Royal Institute from Stockholm. Secondments of partner's staff in RVC gave present RVC staff opportunity to see application of most advanced approaches to problem in their practice. At last, workshops were offer possibilities to complete RVC staff to learn from top researchers in field about selected topics, to exercise new techniques and to discuss about their own ideas with top experts.

Scientific equipment
Scientific equipment that is provided to RVC during project course was complement present equipment and enable RVC staff to use it up to its full performances. RVC already had contemporary electronic measurement systems capable of high-frequency recordings of measurement signals, but did not have measurement system for direct measurement of components of wheel rail interaction, which is required by international standard UIC 518 for estimation of railway vehicles derailment safety.
Similar to that, being that RVC already had test stand for investigation of torsion stiffness of railway wagons, construction of the test track is complement RVC equipment so as to enable it to test developed concepts and solutions under contemporary requests posted by international standard UIC 530-2.

Quality of research
The project is contributed to quality of research in two different manners:
- by enabling RVC to develop, calculate and test technical solutions in manner that is much higher compared to present state
- by development of partnership with prominent European institutions, which not only have higher level of competence and experience, but also have more challenging tasks to handle; contribution to this kind of research will increase quality of future research carried out in RVC.

SPREADING EXCELLENCE, EXPLOITING RESULTS, DISSEMINATING KNOWLEDGE
Running behavior and safety tests are necessary part of new vehicles design, as well as an important tool for fixing problems discovered in exploitation conditions. Therefore, the project results will contribute to development of new types of railway vehicles and improvement of present products of Serbian large railway vehicles factories at:
- Kraljevo (freight wagons),
- Smederevska Palanka (passenger wagons),
and smaller wagon factories at
- Subotica,
- Zrenjanin.

Results of those types of investigations are vital research material for RVC’s research activities but also for other Serbian research institutions in field of railway vehicles such as
- Department for Railway Vehicles of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of University of Belgrade,
- Railway Institute “Kirilo Savic” in Belgrade.

As it has been already pointed out, being that RVC was also partner in FP6 RRTC project, the results gained in investigations performed by RVC will be available to all RRTC members and will hence contribute to their research activities. For example, researchers at University of Transport ‘’Todor Kableshkov’’ in Sofia (Bulgaria) working on track fatigue problems showing interest for such data. Similar to that, railway vehicles factory from Burgas (Bulgaria) also showing interest for running behavior and safety tests according UIC 518 procedures.
At last, it is not of least importance that researchers at RVC are in the same time teachers at Department for Railway Machinery at FME. Improvement of their research knowledge and research experience will certainly have positive influence to education process and knowledge of future engineers and researchers.

Contribution to policy developments
Integration in European Research Area
After years of political isolation, RVC had difficulties with re-integration in international cooperation. Research connections to European research institutions were lost due to the fact that researchers who cooperated with RVC in the past are mainly retired, and some institutions in East Europe countries changed status (like VUKV in Czech Republic). More than decade without exchange of know how with international institutions had negative influence on middle-aged researchers (with 10 20 years of experience). Being that they are still to be main force of RVC during next decade, they needed to establish contacts to fellow researchers in prominent European institutions.
Development of strategic partnerships with leading research institutions such as University of Bologna and KTH Royal Institute from Stockholm was bring RVC to close cooperation to EU, and being that RVC already taken part in integration of Balkan research institutions through FP 6 RRTC project, the project will not only to contribute to inclusion of RVC into ERA, but will also to contribute to future widening of ERA in Balkan region.
Taking into consideration that development of sustainable surface transport, and especially railway transport, are one of research priorities in FP 7, it is to be expected that permanent improvements of railway vehicles safety, modifications due to harmonization requests and adjustments of railway vehicles structures due to needs of intermodal transport will be topics of prime practical interest in future. Railway vehicles dynamics research and research of railway vehicles structures and components fatigue are basis for such investigation. Therefore, improved RVC, with strengthening of these research areas should have its place within FP7 projects.

Regional aspect
Region of Balkan have several railway vehicles factories in almost all countries, producing all kind of railway vehicles. Before project implementation, RVC has unique experimental research basis, and after change of status of Railway Research Institute "Ilianci" in Bulgaria remain institution providing the most capabilities for experimental investigation of railway vehicles. Strengthening of RVC through project realization opened possibilities to all of those factories to use RVC services for their own improvements and development.
It is also worthwhile to notice that in last decade one of the major priorities of development of Balkan countries is building and improvement of European Corridors (four of them are passing over Balkan Peninsula). It stresses importance that transport development institutions are going to play in future development of whole region, and underpins potential impact of strengthening of research institutions like RVC is.
It is also important to notice that RVC was carrying out a few research projects financed by Ministry of Science of Republic of Serbia, and taken part in large number of experimental investigations of railway wagons developed in Wagon Factory Kraljevo and wagon factory "Sinvoz" Zrenjanin. Strengthening of RVC within these projects and research activities was also contributed to quality of research in ongoing and future national and international projects that RVC will carry out.
At last, the project also had its political impact, being that strengthening of RVC, which is located at Kraljevo in central Serbia, also contributes to current policy of decentralization of Serbia, proclaimed by Serbian government.
List of Websites:
http://www.mfkv.kg.ac.rs/service/
University of Kragujevac (http://www.kg.ac.rs/)
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Kraljevo (http://www.mfkv.kg.ac.rs/)
Railway Vehicles Center
Dositejeva 19, 36000 Kraljevo, Serbia
Tel. +38136383377
Fax. +38136383269
E-mail: office@mfkv.kg.ac.rs

Contact

Zoran Leševic, (Head of Accounting Department)
Tel.: +381 36 383 377
Fax: +381 36 383 380
E-mail

Subjects

Policies
Record Number: 196159 / Last updated on: 2017-03-23