Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

H2020

HDGAS Report Summary

Project ID: 653391
Funded under: H2020-EU.3.4.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - HDGAS (Heavy Duty Gas Engines integrated into Vehicles)

Reporting period: 2015-05-01 to 2016-10-31

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

The overall objective of the HDGAS project is to develop, demonstrate and optimize advanced powertrain concepts for dual-fuel and for pure natural gas operation engines, perform integration thereof into heavy duty vehicles and confirm achievement of Euro VI emissions standards, in-use compliance under real-world driving conditions and CO2 or greenhouse gas targets currently under definition.

To realize the full potential of NG powered vehicles, the following technical objectives will be addressed:
To specify technical requirements and international/European standards of LNG fueling interfaces and fueling process for heavy duty vehicles (trucks and buses) ; To develop an advanced LNG fuel tank system ; To develop and demonstrate new generations of exhaust aftertreatment systems and low emission technologies for dual fuel and gas engines allowing real driving emissions below Euro VI limits for heavy duty vehicles ; To develop and demonstrate advanced ≥ 10% more fuel-efficient direct Positive Ignition natural gas engines and powertrains suited for heavy duty vehicles and integrate the engine and a new fuel system on a vehicle

HDGAS will develop all key technologies (LNG fuel system including High Pressure tank design, compact and insulation in tank, cryogenic pump, aftertreatment systems), and three engines as well as new fuel systems will be integrated into three demonstration vehicles.

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

WP2: The development of a working document regarding the technical requirements for standardization has been established. A presentation of six different concepts has taken place. A common receptacle design was agreed. The final alignment regarding HDGas prototypes is ongoing. A 3D model and hardware (new receptacle and nozzle) will be delivered in 2017. The 1D and 3D simulation of the refueling process and the inner tank behavior is ongoing. An consultation of the ISO working group regarding LNG Low pressure refueling connector (ISO NP 21104) has been initiated.
The tank system requirements have been collected.
WP3: Catalyst samples have been specified and delivered to universities for investigation on CH4 and NOx conversion in reactors. Catalyst oxidation testing (CH4 conversion) has been performed and an assessment is ongoing. Sulphur removal strategies have been investigated for MOCs.
Test runs have been performed on SCR samples for NOx conversion investigation, assessment is ongoing. Aged SCR have been analyzed. Initial characterisation of TWC (Three way catalysts) upstream of MOC (Methane oxidation catalysts) has been completed. SCR catalyst characterisation has been completed.
Catalyst system specification and the performance specification of the lean burn and stoichiometric engine aftertreatment systems has started. Simulations have been performed to show the potential of catalyst heating on meeting emission legislation for CH4.
WP4: CFD Simulations of Gas flows, injection and Combustion development as well as single cylinder test bench setup for the stoichiometric combustion concept test procedures have been developed. A 1D thermodynamic model has been setup and calibrated for the target engine (C13 NG). 3D CFD simulations for the cylinder head port flow have been performed and the port design has been frozen. Running a design of experiment to look at the effects of intake and exhaust VVT on fuel economy and efficiency has been performed. Knock and NOx simulations have been carried out. Results from simulations show that thermal management will be necessary to secure sufficient methane conversion in the MOC.
A preliminary design concept for the combustion system has been chosen and a review of the combustion system dedicated to the lean burn combustion concept has been done.
WP5: The 1D and 3D models have been finalized with good correlation to the tested engine. 3D Model for the mixing process in the intake path as well as in the catalyst have been finalized. Preparatory work like developing strategies, mapping and modelling have been finished. The engine is running with the new control unit in DualFuel mode. Engine calibration with complete new ECU Hardware & Aftertreatment management is ongoing (steady state finished, transient ongoing).
The layout of the truck, the design of the tank brackets and the package investigations of the LNG system has been finalized as well as the calculation regarding ECER110. The layout of the electrical integration of the fuel quality sensor and low pressure pump is ongoing. All necessary hardware for the single cylinder engine has been designed and procured. The SCE has been assembled and installed in a test cell. The infrastructure for the natural gas supply has been upgraded to a pressure capability of 500bar.
WP6: The development of a 3D CFD model of the combustion chamber and the injector nozzle has been finalized. 3D simulations have been performed for combustion development and in order to select nozzle variants for the test bed testing. 4 different variants of nozzles have been selected and procured. Further CFD simulation will be performed in order to adapt the optimum nozzle variant to 300bar injection pressure. A novel dual fuel injector capable of 500bar pressure has been developed. One separate variant with gas only as a derivative of the dual fuel injector has been developed.
The SCE has been assembled and installed in a test cell and connected to the media system as well as to the high pressure fuel supply system. The testing has been performed and the optimum nozzle variant for the multi cylinder testing has been selected. A basic version of fuel system design has been completed. The engine control system and the simulation model are under development, first results have been obtained. The evaluation of 5 different fuel system architectures have been completed.
The demonstrator is Volvo FH 4x2 tractor.
WP7: The test procedure (cycles and test method) for generating the measurement data, the procedure to generate and calculate the total GHG emissions and the procedure for demonstrating EU VI compliance has been defined.

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

The European market for Natural Gas and Dual Fuel Vehicles is modest in absolute vehicle numbers. The fraction of medium and heavy duty NGVs and DFVs is well below 1% of the total number of vehicles sold in these categories in 2013. However, major opportunity exists to expand the deployment of heavy-duty natural gas (NGVs) and dual fuel vehicles (DFVs). A major advantage of natural gas as a heavy-duty transportation fuel is its relatively low price compared to diesel fuel on an energy-equivalent basis. Data from the Natural and bio Gas Vehicle Association (NGVA Europe17) shows that the EU average price for natural gas was € 0.85 per diesel liter equivalent and € 1,38 for diesel in 2013. Moreover, a large “fuel cost differential” between natural gas and diesel has been forecast over the next two decades. This means heavy-duty fleets should continue to have strong motivation to switch to natural gas.
However, due to the continuing low oil price, the Natural Gas and Dual Fuel Vehicles market is showing slow growth for a while.

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