Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

H2020

JOSPEL Report Summary

Project ID: 653851
Funded under: H2020-EU.3.4.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - JOSPEL (Low energy passenger comfort systems based on the joule and peltier effects.)

Reporting period: 2015-05-01 to 2016-10-31

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

Nowadays, pollution is one of the main problems for our society. Governments, industry and the scientific community are looking for innovative solutions to solve this challenging problem. One of the solutions proposed is the increase of the electric vehicles so it could reduce the greenhouse emissions of traditional combustion cars. One of the main disadvantage of electric vehicles is the low distance range that the car can drive without stopping for charging the battery. JOSPEL project proposes two ways of increasing the distance range of EV:
• Improve the efficiency of the battery
• Improve the energy consumption
Most of the energy employed in the car is related to the passenger thermal comfort. In extreme conditions the energy consumed on heating or cooling the vehicle cabin can go up to 40% of the total energy consumed in the car.

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

Description of work according to the main improvements in JOSPEL project:

1. New cooling system
After investigating different approaches for materials for TE devices assembly, we have concluded that most appropriate ones are our bulk Bi2Te3-based materials. These, are the state of the art materials for high efficient thermoelectric modules. Our devices, built with a special alloy of Bi, Sb, Te and Se, present a ZT over the unity at room temperature, making this material the most appropriate for JOSPEL applications.
Using this material, CIDETE manufactured a TE device with the needed requirements for JOSPEL project (small size, high cooling performance, low electrical consumption, reliable and Pb-free).
Optimized use of TE modules offers the possibility to cool touchable surfaces in addition to controlling air temperature. The optimized use of the TE devices includes maximizing heat transfer, ensuring the heat pumping system efficacy by cooling the hot side of system and matching the cooling performance to the thermal resistance of the TE’s. JOSPEL already has a full design of cooling system based on custom-made TE devices. The system designed so far requires power below 1 kW, achieving a 20% consumption reduction by the finalization of P1.

2. Innovative heating system
JOSPEL heating systems are based on resistive heating. The key benefits of this system is the low energy consumption and the homogeneous heating of the surfaces in contact with the passenger. JOSPEL approach consist of heating the passenger and the surroundings instead of heating all the air in the cabin as usual combustion vehicles.
Two different systems are being developed:

1) Rigid multilayer sheets in a thermoplastic matrix:
▫ Recyclable
▫ Fast and cheap production process

2) Fabrics with a heating coating in a thermoset resin:
▫ Flexibility
▫ Higher heating capacity

Materials have been developed and the target properties have been achieved in terms of electrical performance. These materials have been transformed into electrically conductive sheet and the heating performance have fulfilled the applications requirement. Electrically conductive heating fabrics have been developed and the project requirements have been complied. Exhaust analysis and validation of the samples is being performed. All test satisfactory up to date for the heating fabric and panels.

3. Improved battery efficiency
In order to find the perfect battery cell within the numberless different ones available on the market a benefit analysis was conducted. It can be subdivided in the following way:
• Identification of important battery properties (= decision criteria)
• Database of 49 different battery cells (i.e. lifespan, energy density, maximum charge and discharge currents, geometry, …)
• Rating of the decision criteria
• Weighting by the two EV manufacturer (ALKE and DOK-ING)
Consequently a joint decision on the battery cell was made. After that test cells were ordered, they undergo extensive testing at the moment. First simulation models representing the electrical, thermal and aging behaviour were made. They are merged in simulations that are going to help to find the perfect design and operating strategy to accomplish the objectives. At the moment the first design variants are evaluated and different saving strategies are developed.

4. Eco-driving strategies
Currently the work developed covers the definition of the ICT architecture that enables the exchange of data among the devices and subsystems in the vehicle. Then the information generated in the vehicle is reported to the cloud for its further processing. Finally, different apps will support the energy efficiency policies, and they have been already fully described. A first demonstrator has been done using dummy data but validating the whole ICT infrastructure locally, moreover the first integration activities connecting the solution in the vehicle and the vehicle body computer from the manufacturers has been successfully achieved.
Proper activity has been carried out for the integration of ICT infrastructure and the commands that are generated within ICT part into the electronics that manages every single component of the vehicles. Specific monitoring devices have been developed to be used as platform for the energy consumption measurement.
To obtain the best thermal comfort with the lower consumption on an electric vehicle specific drivers in terms of technical, environmental and human factors have been defined looking to the overall target of deliver proper eco-driving strategies. Such strategies have been detailed and are looking to most critical elements about HVAC management taking in account also external elements like passenger presence, preconditioning, etc.
An application that simulates radiant devices in the interior of the car cabin has been made. This application takes into account the size and the composition of the heated fabric that will be installed in the car. PMV and PPD of this thermal environment is also calculated from air temperature and radiant temperature values.

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

JOSPEL developments can provide a huge advantage on the delivery of next generation lights electric vehicles able to provide higher performance thanks to the higher level of energy consumption saving and at same time better on board comfort for driver and passengers.

Energy flow optimization on light electric vehicles at present limited to few devices, within JOSPEL project has been enlarged to all critical on board devices especially looking to cabin comfort (heating and cooling) having an integrated approach to this issue, improving devices communications and preparing the ground for eco-driving strategies integration and implementation.
In our days, there is a competing demand for additional features for comfort that generates a rising interest in the climate control system. TE devices can offer several unique features by providing heating and cooling for various items on the vehicles, such as contact areas (seats or the steering wheel) or the whole cabin. TE units can be set to cool or heat directly using the power from the vehicle. In addition, all these TE systems offer the benefit of being small, relatively lightweight and silent in operation.

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