Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS


CO2EuroPipe Report Summary

Project ID: 226317
Funded under: FP7-ENERGY
Country: Netherlands

Final Report Summary - CO2EUROPIPE (Towards a transport infrastructure for large-scale CCS in Europe)

Executive Summary:
The aim of the project was to study the requirements for the development of a large-scale CO2 transport infrastructure in Europe, between 2020 and 2050. An analysis of the demand for CO2 transport was derived by linking the expected CO2 captured volumes in the period between 2020 and 2050 to the locations where CO2 can be stored in the subsurface. This resulted in a series of maps of plausible transport corridors, on the assumption that CO2 capture and storage (CCS) will play a significant role in the reduction of CO2 emission. The requirements for the development of this infrastructure were derived on such levels as technology, policy, regulations and organisation.

The most important conclusions from the project are the following.

1. Given the international character of CCS, it is concluded that strong co-operation is required between Member States, to provide clear signals at a pan-European Union level which will encourage developments to happen. In particular, the planning of CO2 transport infrastructure and the availability of CO2 storage sites to projects must be tackled in a manner consistent with the energy needs of Europe over the next few decades. A robust policy roadmap, or equivalent, is fundamentally important for private industry and the public sector alike to efficiently manage the financial and associated risks, and continued leadership at European level in providing this guiding framework will significantly reduce the uncertainties currently facing potential CCS developments. The key players, which include the North Sea countries and the countries heavily relying on fossil fuels, above are to demonstrate commitment in developing CCS.

2. Clear and internationally consistent Master Plans will help demonstrate Member State commitment. The qualification of storage capacity should be an integral part of the Master Plans; this will provide the necessary certainty of storage to industrial players.

3. The business model for CCS projects is likely to change as the projects grow and infrastructure coalesces. This process should be understood and supported. For this growth to happen, a stable, long-term regulatory playing field is required. Issues that need attention are cross-border transport and liability for transported and stored CO2 (especially in international networks). Cost-efficient development implies infrastructure sharing, hub development and future-proofing of infrastructure.

4. The financing of the CCS transport infrastructure must be tackled by implementing mechanisms in addition to the EU-ETS system.

5. Commercial opportunities for that can help develop CCS transport infrastructure should be utilised whenever possible. CO2-EOR can be one, when CO2 from early projects is concentrated towards the North Sea oil fields. This option is to be investigated in detail.

6. Technical issues that remain to be solved include the effect of impurities on the properties of CO2 and, hence, on the design of the transport systems. The development of materials (pipelines able to withstand rupturing), best practices (depressurisation of transport systems for inspection) and systems (offshore ship offloading) is to continue.

Project Context and Objectives:
Human induced climate change

It is broadly agreed upon that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) is to a large extent responsible for the increase in global surface temperatures over the past 100 years . Annual emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most important GHG, have grown by approximately 80% between 1970 and 2004. Anthropogenic interference with the climate system is understood, with varying levels of scientific confidence, to result in sea-level rise, increase in the frequency of extreme weather events, threatening ecosystems and decreasing ice sheet coverage (IPCC, 2007). In order to prevent dangerous man-induced climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that global CO2 emissions need to decrease by between 50% and 85% of their 2000 levels by 2050 (IPCC, 2007).

Energy demand is expected to double by 2050 as a result of population growth and economic development. Despite the increasing share of lower CO2 energy sources (such as renewables and nuclear power) in the energy mix, significant part of the energy demand will have to be met using fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas. CO2 emissions from electricity generation can be significantly reduced already now, by replacing old coal-fired power plants with natural gas-fired plants. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a method to reduce emissions from power plants and industrial processes even further. The costs for developing CCS are high and therefore governmental support or funding is required to develop (demonstration) projects. However, the cost of mitigating climate change without GHG abatement will be significantly higher (Stern, 2007).

Carbon capture and storage as a CO2 abatement option

Over the last decade, a number of reports have highlighted CCS as a technology with the potential to make deep emissions reductions (IEA, 2004; IPCC, 2005). Applications of CCS in the power sector, in particular coal-fired power plants, have been the target of the vast majority of research and development funding and policy initiatives aimed towards demonstrating and commercializing the technology. More recently, research has been conducted to assess the potential application of CCS to various industrial applications such as steel and cement production, and also to oil refining and natural gas processing installations (UNIDO, 2010).

Currently, most applications of CCS are not economically feasible. The additional equipment used to capture and compress CO2 also requires significant amounts of energy, which increases the fuel needs of a coal-fired power plant by between 25 and 40% and also drives up the costs (IPCC, 2005). However, it must be noted that although CCS applications will raise the costs of energy generation and industrial production, the IEA (2008) has calculated that an exclusion of CCS from the global mitigation portfolio will increase the cost of achieving climate stabilization by 70%. Based on this information, inclusion of CCS in the portfolio can be justified from a long-term economic efficiency standpoint.

The transportation of CO2

Once CO2 has been captured from a power generating or industrial installation, it must then be transported, either by pipeline or ship, to suitable storage areas. The transportation of CO2 is considered to be technically feasible, and therefore has received far less attention in terms of research and development compared to the capture and storage components of CCS. CO2 is most efficiently transported in dense phase (high density, liquid or otherwise). CO2 is likely to be transported at high pressures in pipelines made of carbon steel. CO2 has been transported through pipelines in the United States for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations since the 1970s, and approximately 3000 km of CO2 transportation pipeline has been installed. Only small-scale CO2 carrying vessels exist today and no large-scale CO2 transport vessels are currently in operation, however such vessels have similar designs to other gas transporting ships such as liquefied Petroleum Gas Carriers (LPG) and thus present no technical challenges for being built.

Although few technical barriers to the transportation of CO2 are foreseen, challenges exist in terms of health and safety standards, operational efficiency, public perception and communication, planning and permitting, CO2 quality standards and investment and organisation of potential CO2 transport networks.

Funding the demonstration of CCS in the EU

At present, major emitters of CO2 are not given sufficient incentives through market based economic instruments to invest in expensive abatement technology such as CCS. To support the development of CCS in Europe, the European Commission and certain EU Member State governments are providing funding for research and the implementation of demonstration projects. In 2009 the EU announced funding for six demonstration plants throughout Europe, with an aim of commercializing CCS by 2020. Of late, a budget of €1.05 billion has been earmarked, provided by the European Economic Recovery Programme (EERP) (European Commission, 2008). Selected CCS projects can also expect significant co-funding (up to 50%) through the allocation of 300 million emission allowances between in 2011 and 2015 (European Commission, 2009) to a fund for innovative renewable and CCS projects. Known as 'NER300' this financing instrument is managed jointly by the European Commission, the European Investment Bank and Member States.

Facilitating a European-wide CO2 transport infrastructure

During the demonstration phase of European CCS projects up until 2020, CO2 transport infrastructure will be restricted to local cost-effective point-to-point pipelines (Mckinsey & Company, 2008). Depending, on the success of these demonstration projects, post 2020 may see the first large-scale deployment of CCS in the power sector. Developments of clusters are expected to reduce costs, utilize limited space, broaden participation and deepen deployment of CCS (Chrysostomidis et al. 2009). In theory, building pipelines with sufficient capacity to transport CO2 from multiple sources will lead to lower transportation costs, as investors can take advantage of the economies of scale.

Furthermore, a number of European studies (including CO2Europipe and GeoCapacity) highlight that if CCS is to support EU CO2 abatement targets, the absence of sufficient and suitable storage sites in a large number of Member States will require the cross-border transportation of CO2. In addition, the possibility of conducting CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in certain parts of the North Sea may create sizeable demand for CO2 from multiple EU countries. Therefore cross-border transportation of CO2 requires multilateral agreements and calls for further EU coordination focusing on harmonizing regulatory frameworks.

The CO2Europipe project studied the road toward the long-term, large-scale CO2 transport infrastructure, drawing conclusions regarding required improvements on the levels of policy, regulations, financing, organisation, risk and technology. Recommendations for EU and national authorities' actions are formulated, which will promote the development of CO2 transport infrastructure. By doing this, the project aimed to laying out a roadmap towards a future, large-scale transport infrastructure for CO2. The conclusions and roadmap are based on the requirement for transport and storage, as formulated in an analysis of the development of capture efforts and the availability of storage capacity that is presented in section 3.

Project objectives

The project had the following objectives:

1. describe the infrastructure required for large-scale transport of CO2, including the injection facilities at the storage sites;

2. describe the options for re-use of existing infrastructure for the transport of natural gas, that is expected to be slowly phased out in the next few decades;

3. provide advice on how to remove any organizational, financial, legal, environmental and societal hurdles to the realization of large-scale CO2 infrastructure;

4. develop business case for a series of realistic scenarios, to study both initial CCS projects and their coalescence into larger-scale CCS infrastructure;

5. demonstrate, through the development of the aforementioned business cases, the need for international cooperation on CCS;

6. summarise all findings in terms of actions to be taken by EU and national governments to facilitate and optimize the development of large-scale, European CCS infrastructure.

Project Results:

The previous section presents the vision of a future, large-scale CCS transport and storage infrastructure. The conclusions and recommendations presented in this section were obtained by projecting this vision from today's environment, defined at various levels such as policy, regulations, organization, legal and financial and formulating the required changes to each of these levels in order to realize the vision.

A key element in this process is the identification of the critical phase in the development of CCS, which is when new CCS projects need to extend beyond existing projects, thereby creating a need for more complex transport and storage systems. This phase is likely to start after the demonstration phase, which ends around 2020. Enabling the extension of existing infrastructure by third parties also requires a favourable environment, at levels such as commercial and regulatory. Both European and Member State governments must take action as early as possible to create the environment that allows third parties to access existing CCS transport and storage systems. These actions, discussed in the following sections, address issues that are found at several levels: regulatory, financial, technical. Above all, however, is the need for political leadership.

3.1 Leadership in Europe - key players in CCS

The vision of the future, large-scale CCS transport and storage infrastructure presented above, and the analysis of the efforts involved in capturing, transporting and storing the CO2 clearly show that most of the effort is concentrated in a small number of Member States. These countries are 'key players' in the context of CCS. Their early and continued support of CCS is essential for its development into becoming a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emission reduction. The key players are not only located around the North Sea, which represents the area with a large fraction of the European storage capacity, but also include Member States that heavily rely on coal or lignite for their power supply.

It is essential for the deployment of a CCS infrastructure in Europe that the key players take the lead. They will not only provide the transport infrastructure for others, such as countries bordering the North Sea and serving as gateways to its vast storage capacity, but also incentivise other countries to follow. Early (and continued) CCS activities in these key countries are necessary to kick-start the overall European CCS infrastructure.


* The key players in Europe should demonstrate leadership in the development of CCS. Their initial and continued efforts in developing the infrastructure for CCS are essential and will catalyse developments in other Member States.

Actor: Key players for CCS, including North Sea countries (Germany, UK, The Netherlands,Norway), Poland etc.

Timeline: 2012 - 2050

3.2 Providing the vision: master plans

The development of more complex transport infrastructure projects, involving several suppliers and storage locations, will require support from the European and Member State governments, as is discussed below.

EU and MS master plans for CCS development

Storage operators , power companies and gas transport companies all have a role to play in the future CCS value chain (D2.3.1, D3.3.1). As far as such parties exist today, they currently have different business criteria, management processes and investment horizons. The organisational differences require an authority that effectively coordinates the business development of the CCS transport network. CO2Europipe estimates illustrate that large-scale transport investments over more than 2000 km could be achieved with return on capital of 8 % based on the following arguments:

- All ZEP industry partners have agreed on a WACC (weight averaged capital cost) of 8 % for a cost analysis of pipeline transport infrastructure

- A benchmarking analysis of several European gas- and power network transport companies reveals that these companies are able to attract sufficient capital for all their investments at a return on capital of less than 8 % (e.g. The Norwegian gas pipeline infrastructure has a regulated return on capital of 7 % before tax and has always been financed to a large extent by by private oil & gas companies)

Naturally, this assumes that the rest of the CCS chain can be made commercially feasible (ZEP, 2010; D4.1.1) This would require alignment in the business planning of the potential parties involved (e.g. energy utilities, transporters and storage providers).

To reach such an alignment, road maps for the development of CCS infrastructure should be constructed, both at a European and a Member State level. These road maps, or Master plans, describe the proposed transport and storage network, regionally, nationally and on a European scale and provide guidelines or forecasts regarding future supply of and storage options for CO2.

For the pan-European CO2 transport network a cumulative investment of 50 billion euro is estimated for onshore and offshore storage in the period of 2020 - 2050. If CO2 storage would be restricted to offshore only this would lead to longer and more expensive pipelines leading to a cumulative investment over the same period of 80 billion euro .

Several studies show that CO2 pipeline transport capacity exhibits a strong economy of scale (D3.3.1, D4.3.1, D4.3.2, and D4.1.1.). This is due to the fact that pipeline CAPEX increases almost linearly in price with pipeline diameter for long and large diameter offshore pipelines. However the potential throughput of liquid (or dense phase) CO2 at given pressure conditions increases strongly (non-linearly) with the pipeline diameter. Due to this economy of scale the annual costs at maximum capacity for small pipelines (diameter less than 10") is predominant capital costs while predominant operating costs (compression energy) for large diameter pipelines (30" and more). This implies that transport costs per ton CO2 decrease strongly with increasing pipeline diameter (assuming high capacity utilization) and also that the scale of CO2 transport has an impact for the optimum routing of pipelines.

This behaviour is the driving force, from a socioeconomic perspective for large infrastructure networks matching sources and sinks via industrial clusters (so-called CO2-hubs). Such a network is also more robust with respect to variations in throughput of different CO2 emitters.

In order to realize a network instead of point-to-point connections, strong coordination between the industrial clusters in different countries will be required. However, from an individual business point of view, a company might be inclined to design one pipeline to one storage location at a capacity that just matches the maximum captured CO2 emission. This would lead to a suboptimal network and shows the necessity of national and supranational coordination. It can be concluded that an overall master plan for the design of the network is required that deals properly with these issues and also storage location properties.


* A master plan, as part of energy infrastructure, should be developed for the proposed transport and storage network that includes storage qualification of storage reservoirs and that addresses the critical decisions points in time related to field abandonment, time for storage qualification, project development and permitting etc. This would serve the goals of acceptable return on capital for the industries involved and lower CCS costs for society.

Actor: European Commission (DG Energy), Member States, industry stakeholders

Timeline: 2012 - 2020

Storage capacity must be qualified

An important element of the master plans will be the qualification of storage capacity. In order to plan the storage infrastructure, a clear legal position and a solid early assessment of storage potential is necessary. The long-term legality of storage - whether or not onshore storage is allowed - is a pre-requisite. Pipeline networks potentially crossing several member States will be more common if the permitting of on-shore storage is delayed compared to off-shore storage (D2.2.1).

The opportunity time window for CO2 storage in depleted gas fields is different from that of CO2-EOR (D4.1.1) but both require investment decisions before 2020 to avoid lost revenue, high mothballing and decommissioning costs combined with limited opportunity for CO2 reductions (D3.1.1, D3.3.1).

Detailed knowledge of potential storage sites needs to be in place, confirming the minimum theoretical storage capacities that are available, and how this relates to the location of potential sources of CO2. An open database of storage locations, with underlying data, is likely to encourage the CCS industry to explore storage options. Assessing availability of local storage capacity at an early stage is necessary to be able to determine the level of intervention and coordination required to develop the optimum CO2 transport infrastructure for a region. Given the timeline of typically five to ten years for the characterization and testing of a single storage location, it is of the highest priority that Member States qualify their storage locations, to reduce the uncertainty in the location of future injection points. While a mature CCS industry could be relied upon to qualify storage capacity for future demand, during the first phases of the development of CCS there may be a need for governments to actively support storage capacity qualification for early projects.


* Member States should actively support the characterisation and qualification of domestic storage capacity, with a total volume sufficient for the planning and development of a transportation network during the early phases of CCS infrastructure development.

Actor: Member States

Timeline: 2012 - 2025

* An open database of theoretical storage options, containing as much as possible detailed underlying data, should be set up.

Actor: DG Energy, Member States

Timeline: 2012 - 2020

* Harmonisation and standardization of the method of storage qualification (e.g., CO2Qualstore) will help decrease the time needed for storage qualification. Existing information on depleting gas- and oil fields from different member states should be represented in a similar format and process to allow a good comparison.

Actor: Independent Standards Organisation, national resource holders

Timeline: Recommended Practices 2012-2015, Standards 2015-2030

3.3 Developing a business model for CO2 transport industry

The development of CCS clusters is foreseen to start in the period 2020 - 2030, when emission reduction targets will necessitate that most European countries to start large-scale capture of CO2. The clusters are likely to develop from the earlier demonstration projects that have resulted in mostly one-on-one projects. This, however, will require that the organisational models originally developed for point-to-point CCS are reconsidered. This should be understood early in the development of CCS, to enable a smooth transition from early (simple) to mature (complex) infrastructure types.

Business model for CCS transport industry

There are two simple models that can be envisioned to incentivise pipeline investments and that have a significant implication on the investment and financing approach that is proposed;

1) vertical integration of CCS in power company

2) standalone transport company using a common carrier model

In Case (1) the power company invests in capture, compression, pipelines, storage facilities and all other equipment to make CCS possible. The other alternative Case (2) is to set up a separate company that only transports CO2 as a service for emitters and storage parties. The vertical integration model is generally preferred in the beginning of CCS which is dominated by isolated demo projects. Later on, when a large scale network evolves, a common carrier model will be preferred.

A standalone transport company might benefit from both economy of scale and one single permitting process by gathering all major CO2 flows into one pipeline trajectory. In order to attract project financing at acceptable cost for this transport company, a portfolio of long-term transport contracts is required from financially solid emitters. From a financial perspective a government entity is beneficial but not essential as a shareholder as long as there are government guarantees to protect the loans against political risk. This covered contractual agreement gives the certainty to the emitter that the transport operator will not fail financially. In the proposed business model (just like in the current gas and power business) transport contracts are completely separated from commodity contracts.

The proposed business model, as explained in D4.1.1 and D2.3.1, assumes a guaranteed fixed return for the infrastructure network owner based on transport fees (from emitters) that are independent of CO2 value and EUA prices. This business model could enable attraction of sufficient capital for financing the network as CO2 price risk is removed. Consequently, faster growth with higher CO2 volume transport is also enabled.

The remaining risks are: i) project risk, ii) operational risks, iii) technical risks, iv) regulatory risk, and v) commercial risk (low capacity utilization). It is assumed that (i) to (iii) have been dealt with in the demonstration projects from 2015 until 2020 as most experts on capture as well as storage agree that 3 - 5 years of operations is sufficient to design confidently for larger units although it is too early to create rules on these experiences. The commercial risk (v) of low utilization (less contracted capacity than actual capacity) could be circumvented by an EU wide expert authority that is tasked with synchronising all investment decisions for CO2 transport infrastructure as described in D4.1.1.

The largest effort in the construction of pipelines is expected between 2020 and 2030. The rate of construction may be as high as 1200 - 1500 km/yr in some regions (D2.2.1, D3.1.1). In the context of the overall EU infrastructure investments, CO2 transport construction only represents a small percentage. However, infrastructure development needs to be considered integrally, onshore pipeline construction is very disruptive and dependent on stakeholder, public and environmental protection acceptance.


* Set up an expert authority that coordinates cross-border transport and storage infrastructure investment plans and their associated investment decisions to ensure high infrastructure capacity utilization.

Actor: North Sea member states (NSBTF)

Timeline: 2015 - 2020

The political risk (such as if governments do no longer commit to CO2 reduction and CCS) can be removed by government guarantees, e.g. reserved capital that will be transferred to the infrastructure owners in case the political commitment disappears.

Using the above business model a weighted average capital cost (WACC) of 7 % -- as is typically for gas- and oil pipelines in the Norwegian offshore area -- seems feasible. The recent ZEP report used a WACC of 8 % (assuming a very long depreciation period of 40 years) that was the result of consensus between many industrial parties. This equals a WACC of 7 % using a shorter depreciation period of 26 years in terms of equal yearly payments on interest and depreciation when including annuity loans.

Gas- and power transport are to a large extent regulated businesses and the EU tends to enforce EU-wide regulation (e.g. unbundling) and it is possible that CO2 transport will be treated in a similar manner. Cross-border transport project consortia for power (Britned) and gas (BBL) demonstrate that commercial management is feasible and that certain exemptions from regulated returns have been approved . These examples show that also regulated businesses in gas and power transport can set up commercial ventures and this too might act as an example of an investment approach for CO2 transportation.

It can be concluded that using the above business model, sufficient capital could be attracted for financing at reasonable costs. It can also be concluded that large industrial clusters in The Netherlands (Rotterdam), Germany (NRW) and offshore Norway favour standalone transport companies/consortia while CO2 transport in Poland and Czech Republic favour business models based on vertical integration. The reason for this is that in the latter regions there is less clustering in CO2 capture and the power companies are large and integrated.

3.4 Shaping the regulatory environment

The development of CCS clusters has a great potential for cost-sharing and for provision of access to CO2 infrastructure to both energy and industrial stakeholders. This is demonstrated in D4.1.1, where the economic analysis concludes that large volumes from different sources lead to lower costs per ton of CO2 and higher stability of the transport system, due to smaller throughput variation. Large-scale cross-border CCS in Europe requires amongst others, offshore CO2 transport and storage in the North Sea with CO2 from Rotterdam, Groningen Eemshaven and North German harbours.

Development of clusters requires regulatory support such as open access to existing infrastructure, monopoly and liability management and cross-border cooperation. These considerations have led to the conclusions and recommendations discussed below.

Ratification of the London Protocol

An amendment in 2007 to the 1996 London Protocol allows for the sub-sea storage of CO2 and its cross-border transportation. This will provide the conditions for developing the vast storage capacity in the North Sea. However, the amendment remains to be ratified by most of the Contracting Parties and will not come into force for some time. An interim solution to this problem must be clarified by Europe with some urgency. Ratification of the London Protocol amendment for CO2 will enable the development of large-scale, multi-national transport and storage activities in the North Sea. At present, the North Sea rim is the preferred location of several of the EU Demonstration Projects. In addition, any delay in the permitting of onshore storage in several of the nations bordering the North Sea suggests that the second wave of CCS projects are most likely to also evolve around the North Sea Basin storage capacity, thereby adding, but not extending the early transport infrastructure.


* Member States should ratify the amendment to the London Protocol for cross-border transport and subsea storage of CO2. This will enable large-scale, offshore CCS transport and storage activities, especially in North Sea Basin.

Actor: European Commission and Member States

Timeline: 2015-2020

Creating a stable, long-term regulatory environment

Development of a commercial CO2 transportation infrastructure will require producers of CO2 undertaking a payment commitment (e.g. a take or pay or minimum volume contract) sufficient to make a financial recovery of the investment at a reasonable rate of return (D3.3.1). If such a payment obligation is secured, the organisation of the ownership and operation could follow the model of an upstream petroleum or gas pipeline (D2.3.1, D3.1.1, D3.3.1, D4.1.1, D4.3.1) with the only difference that governments need to cover the political risks in the case of CO2 transport and need to ensure that the whole CCS chain is economically viable. A joint venture of owners (with or without state participation) could be formed, and an independent operator could be appointed. (D2.3.1, D3.3.1, D4.1.1, D4.2.1).

Costs and financing aspects of the development of a large-scale CO2 transport network need to be resolved before larger scale CCS will be able to develop.

* Investments in large-scale CO2 transport infrastructure and strong tax incentives (e.g. EU-ETS) need overall European public planning, as investments are not likely to be carried out by industrial partners alone (D3.3.1, D4.1.1, D4.2.1, D4.3.1, D4.4.1).

* Also, cost differences may arise between earlier and later CCS projects, due to (necessary) picking of 'lower hanging fruit' in the early stages, so mechanisms need to be in place to prevent undue cost escalation (D2.2.1, D2.3.1, D3.3.1).

* To prevent costs for redesigning and rebuilding to connect non-compatible infrastructure among countries, it is important to harmonise the technical solutions used across the EU as early as possible (D2.1.1, D2.2.1, D3.1.1).


* In order to build a sizable and commonly usable infrastructure to meet the demand of industry as more CO2 will be captured, the master plan is essential in combination with a stable regulatory environment that is effective in signalling the future requirement and demand for CCS before private investors will consider building infrastructure to anticipate this forward demand (D 3.3.1).

Actor: European Commission and Member States

Timeline: 2015-2020

Harmonisation of Member States CCS regimes

Harmonisation of CO2 transport and storage access regimes is essential for project developers and investors considering a CCS project that requires the cross-border movement of CO2¬. Likewise, with the uptake of CCS, harmonized rules for CO2 infrastructure charging will create the required level playing field between different CO2 emitting industries.


* Implement third-party access regimes on a European scale, based on unbundling of CO2 transport and infrastructure construction and using regulations, experience, protocols, business models and standards from the gas- and power sector. This may also be resolved on a bi- or multilateral level between the states involved.

Actor: European Commission in association with independent review body

Timeline: 2015-2020

* Support the development of economically attractive financial, business and risk mitigation models for multi-user CO2 infrastructures, by enabling agreements between Member State governments for potential regulation of tariffs and taxation for all users.

Actor: Member State Governments

Timeline: 2015-2020

Onshore storage

The current tendency towards delaying the permitting of onshore CO2 storage would, if continued, create transport infrastructure biased towards offshore storage locations and hinder countries not bordering the North Sea Basin. The result would be that required onshore pipeline capacity will increase dramatically, with an associated higher cost (increasing from 50 billion euro to 80 billion euro) and risk. Allowing onshore storage would therefore result in significantly lower overall costs due to shorter transportation distances.


* Member States should consider permitting onshore storage of CO2. This would result in significant cost savings, compared to only offshore storage and would result in significantly lower demand for onshore pipelines.

Actor: Member States

Timeline: 2015-2020

CO¬2 hub functions need to be further elaborated

Rotterdam and German harbours are in an unique position to i) demonstrate the CO2 hub concept, ii) promote the advantages of cross-border planning, iii) demonstrate the advantages of combined shipping and pipeline transportation, iv) develop both the concept of storage only and storage/reuse of CO2 for EOR and other means, and v) provide a growth path from phase one projects to large scale infrastructure.

As seen in both the Rotterdam (D4.1.1.) and the Ruhr-Rhine-Hamburg case study (D4.2.2), liquid CO2 shipping should be part of the transport infrastructure as its flexibility in routing can be an enabler for demonstration projects and early injection in large mature oilfields to assess CO2-EOR suitability.


* In the selection and management of CCS project funding, the value of important integrated business elements such as CO2 hubs should also be considered to ensure timely maturity of integrated elements to support the necessary rapid development of CCS infrastructures from 2020.

Actor: EU, Member States

Timeline: 2015-2020

Composition of the CO2 stream

Another area of regulation that needs further evaluation before development of a CO2 transportation networks is a uniform specification for the composition of the CO2 stream. Different types of capture technologies will produce CO2 streams with varying compositions, and the synergistic effects of multiple CO2 streams are not well documented. The CCS Directive also loosely defines the required stream composition that can be legally transported. Article 12(1) states in part:

'A CO2 stream shall consist overwhelmingly of carbon dioxide. To this end, no waste or other matter may be added for the purpose of disposing of that waste or other matter.'

Although clearly prohibiting the co-disposal of waste gases in a CO2 stream, the Directive does not set absolute quantitative restrictions on the substances that compose the CO2 stream.


* Provide additional guidelines on minimum standards for the design and construction, including CO2 quality, of new CO2 network infrastructure (based primarily on CCS demonstration project learning), to ensure network reliability when used to convey CO2 from a variety of capture technologies. These guidelines should be based on an understanding of the impact of impurities and quality on the behaviour of the CO2 stream, and taking account of a techno-economic optimisation for the total CCS system following experience from the early CCS demonstration projects. The guidelines should help facilitate and not impede the development of a CCS infrastructure.

Actor: European Commission and International Standards Organisations

Timeline: 2015 - 2020

* Create agreements and standards for technical and regulatory/commercial interoperability. A successful transport and storage network will depend on the agreed standards and requirements being implemented and adhered to under the auspices of a competent and confident authority. In addition, it is important to learn from previous issues experienced when integrating the EU countries' individual gas transmission networks.

Actor: International Standards Organisations, Member States

Timeline: Recommended practices by 2015 - 2020, standards & firm regulations by 2020 - 2030

Liability for transported and stored CO2

A key issue that should be regulated before more complex CCS networks arise is the liability for transported, as well as for stored CO2. The EU Storage Directive stipulates that the storage operator will be liable for leakage over a significant period after injection. In addition, the liability is against future emission allowance prices, rendering the risk unknown and potentially large. In a one-on-one network, the financial backing for such a risk might be available. In a more complex network, with multiple suppliers and more than one storage provider, as well as in international networks, the liability issue poses a threat to their development and will need to be resolved beforehand.


* The liability for stored CO2 must be regulated within (for national CO2 storage projects) and among Member States (for international projects).

Actor: Member State governments

Timeline: 2015 - 2020

Ship transport

There is currently no dedicated EU legislation that covers the transportation of CO2 (UCL, 2010). Transportation of CO2 is covered to a certain extent in the recent EU Directive on the Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide (hereafter referred to as the CCS Directive). With relevance to CO2 transportation, the primary regulatory alteration brought about by the CCS Directive, is the declassification of CO2 (captured for the purpose of geological storage) as a waste under the EU Waste Framework Directive . The CCS Directive also includes concrete requirements for Member States to extend their environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation to cover CO2 pipelines, and also touches on aspects of third-party access and transboundary issues.

In June 2010, the European Commission released an amendment to the EU ETS Monitoring and Reporting Guidelines (MRGs) for the EU ETS released in 2007. The amendment, in addition to providing further guidance on the determination of emissions or amount of emissions transferred using continuous measurement systems (CEMS), also contains 'Activity-specific guidelines' for the determination of emissions from the transport of CO2 through pipelines to geological storage sites , permitted under the CCS Directive.

Shipping is an alternative transport modality for CO2 transportation that has been described in D4.2.2, D4.1.1, D4.3.1 and D4.3.2. Transport of liquefied CO2 via ships is more cost-effective than transport via pipeline for low throughputs (< 4 million ton CO2/year) and large distances between sources and sinks (more than a few hundred km). Another advantage of shipping is its flexibility of routing which enables injection and storage of CO2 in different fields serviced with one ship. This flexibility is especially important for CO2-EOR where huge investments (order of magnitude 1 billion euro per field) may be needed to establish all facilities for CO2 conditioning, CO2 injection, CO2-oil separation and CO2 recompression. Large scale trials in fields with CO2-EOR using CO2 shipped to the injection location will show whether large scale CO2-EOR (requiring subsequent future large scale CO2 transport per pipeline) is performing as expected. Shipping in this case can lower investment risks and can thus be seen as an enabler of CO2-EOR and as a catalyst for building the larger transportation network.

Shipping capacity grows more or less linearly in steps with CAPEX by contrast to pipelines as a higher throughput requires more ships. The risk profile of the investment is also different as the residual value of a ship is higher than offshore pipelines because it can start a second life in the LPG trade after having serviced several storage locations. Ideally, the timing for such alternative use of ships should coincide with a phased transition to higher throughput pipelines for the large-scale network.

In spite of the regulatory provisions for the transportation of CO2 and the development of CO2 transportation infrastructure touched upon in the above legislation, there remains a number of regulatory gaps which need to be resolved in order to develop the European-wide network. There are for example no activity-specific guidelines for transporting CO2 via shipping, although this activity could be opted into the EU-ETS pursuant to Article 24 of the EU Emissions Trading Directive. The details of this, including corresponding monitoring and reporting obligations would be specified in the opt-in Decision .


* Clarify how the activity of shipping and subsequent account (monitoring and reporting) of the transported CO2 will be taken into account in the whole chain.

Actor: European Commission

Timeline: 2015 - 2020

3.5 Shaping the financial environment

CO2 transport over larger distances, often crossing country borders, will contribute in meeting CO2 reduction goals by enabling CCS. Conclusions and recommendations regarding the financing of a pan-European network that could also ensure these goals in a cost effective manner in the post-CCS demonstration phase (e.g. 2020 - 2050) are presented below.

Long-term, stable regulatory framework for CCS financing mechanism

CCS is a low-carbon energy technology that is entirely climate change driven, which means development and deployment will not happen without policy intervention. Apart from regulations supporting the early demonstration projects, the mechanism that is currently foreseen to facilitate the deployment of a CCS industry is the European emission trading scheme for CO2 (EU-ETS). However this framework is also currently a barrier to the development of large-scale projects beyond 2020.

The market price for CO2 emissions, generated by the EU ETS, is supposed to finance CCS. However, these European emission allowance (EUA) prices will need to rise significantly to promote CCS deployment in the future. Besides the price of EUAs, there are also doubts whether the EU-ETS is the most appropriate mechanism to incentivize CCS (Mulder, 2011).

From interviews with finance specialists and potential users of CO2 transport pipelines in the Netherlands, it can be said with confidence that without financial support from the public sector, significant oversizing of pipelines, compression units and/or intermediary storage facilities (in the case of shipping CO2) will not occur. Public finances are often used in large infrastructure projects that are considered to be in the interest of society as a whole. And it could be argued that public intervention through the co-financing in CO2 transport infrastructure is justified on the basis that taking advantage of economies of scale can reduce the overall cost to society of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through CCS.


* Given expectations that the EUA price will not rise to the required level for CCS projects to be financed commercially in the medium term, EU and Member State government support in the form of additional funding should be announced in time for additional projects to be operating by 2020.

Actor: European Commission

Timeline: 2015-2020

* Beyond 2020, it is necessary to develop a stable, long-term regulatory and economic framework for CCS in the context of energy infrastructures. A robust policy roadmap is essential for industry and society as a whole to give clarity on vision, burden sharing, regulations and business model to enable industry and financers to achieve the desired goals.

Actor: European Commission and Member States

Timeline: 2015-2025

Financial benchmarking gas and power transport companies

To attract capital for financing pipeline investments one should also have benchmarks for comparison on capital returns in similar business sectors. High-pressure gas pipeline transport and high-voltage power transport offer two good analogies to CO2 pipeline transportation in terms of EPC (engineering, procurement and construction), technology, permitting, contractual structures and project partners (typically large energy and industrial companies). Except for CO2-EOR there is no commercial driver for large scale CCS based upon the current and expected low EU-ETS prices. This implies that investments in CO2 transportation are associated with a higher political risk that is absent from the gas and power sectors.

Five-year averages of financial parameters like ROI (return on investment), ROE (return on equity), net profit margin and dividend yield of European gas- and power transport companies have been analysed (D4.2.2). These data show a high ROE, as well as a high net profit margin with good dividend payments to shareholders. The ROI is defined as the yearly return (net cashflow) divided by the capital investment. The ROE is defined as the yearly return divided by the equity investment (which is usually lower than the total capital investment). Consequently, ROE is higher than ROI. A potential CO2 transport company with these financial data could potentially attract sufficient capital from shareholders and lenders in order to invest in its infrastructure projects, given the attractive returns that can be reached (above 15 % ROE and net profit margins between 20 and 30 %). Note however that during the 5 year period some listed companies were not yet unbundled and they were not all treated equally during this period in terms of regulation of return on capital.

The business model (section 3.3) does not require that CO2 transport is regulated or unregulated. In practice regulated transport businesses for gas and power are, until now, able to attract sufficient capital for their investments. Consortia like Britned (power transport between the UK and The Netherlands) and BBL (natural gas transport between the UK and The Netherlands) have been able to acquire certain exemptions from regulated tariffs. The prime criterion should be whether the business model and proposition is able to attract sufficient capital while charging acceptable tariffs to the transport system users.

The ROE suggests that with low risk these investments could successfully compete with many other energy related projects. However a potential concern is the low ROI (return on investment); this shows that a high leverage (debt to equity ratio) is essential to reach the higher ROE. It can be concluded that these transport companies are only able to realize a higher return on equity by financing a larger part of their investment needs with low interest loans. Banks and lenders specialised in financing infrastructure, e.g. the European Investment Bank (EIB), will only provide such loans to a potential CO2 transport company if the political risk is covered by government guarantees as previously mentioned. In addition, the collateral for the loans need to be of high quality; thus long-term contracts with companies that have a high credit rating. The latter will usually be the case for energy companies. It can be concluded that the gas- and power infrastructure development in European gas-and power transport companies could be a suitable template for a potential CO2 pipeline transport company that would be tasked with transporting large volumes of CO2 from the main industrial clusters in Europe to regions with suitable onshore and/or offshore storage locations. These CO2 transportation company could have a similar structure as consortia for cross-border transport of high pressure gas (BBL) or high voltage power (Britned). However, a crucial difference is the political risk that is associated with CO2 transport and that warrants government guarantees in order to attract capital.


* Develop guidelines into an EU-directive that allows EU coverage of financial guarantees by member states for CO2 transport infrastructure investments. EIB should be tasked with lending for such projects complemented by commercial banks. It should be investigated that such guidelines are compatible with rules on state subsidisation and competition.

Actor: DG-Energy

Timeline: 2012 - 2015

Alignment of commercial planning in overall CO2 development

The organisational issue of separate entities within the overall CCS chain, whose planning is not aligned is obviously also a key commercial problem. A coordination task of the EU DG Energy in the organisational development of CCS also requires a detailed implementation in its commercial aspects. The CCS chain requires organization (D2.3.1, D3.3.1). Contracts and related investment conditions for capture, transport and storage need to be coupled back-to-back (D3.3.1, D4.1.1). Investment planning for transport, storage, CO2-EOR and capture plants needs to be harmonized in time (D2.2.1, D2.3.1, D3.3.1).

Potential incremental tax revenues from EOR may need to be earmarked for government guarantees in transport infrastructure that is needed to supply the CO2 to the oil fields. (D3.3.1) Early investment and optimal dimensioning of large-capacity pipeline networks potentially reduces total investments considerably (D3.1.1, D4.1.1). Opportunities to optimise pipeline size to allow for greater future CO2 transport demand on a regional basis could, firstly, minimize the overall costs to electricity customers, and secondly, reduce the risk to industrial users who emit CO2 and who in the future, as the cost of carbon increases, consider CCS to be the most viable alternative to reduce CO2 emissions (D2.3.1, D3.3.1, D4.1.1). Sizing pipelines appropriately, where the development of clusters is likely, offers an opportunity to deliver a more cost-effective CCS infrastructure (D3.1.1, D4.1.1, D4.2.1).

However, currently financers are not able to invest in future capacity without financial government support (D3.3.1, D4.1.1, D4.2.1, D4.3.1, D4.4.1). Clear political commitment and regulations with respect to the business model is required. Over-dimensioning of pipelines for the intention of sharing capacity between different parties will require commitments by users or governments for utilisation of such overcapacity in the future (D3.3.1). Therefore mechanisms for promoting early investment needs to be investigated in more detail, also taking into account rapidly growing costs of infrastructure construction (labour and materials), the integral aspects of infrastructure (re)design and the indirect costs of economic disruption due to large-scale infrastructure works (D3.1.1, D3.2.1, D3.3.1).

Offshore EOR requires high investments by oil field operators that necessitate timely design and construction of a larger CO2 trunk lines from large-scale onshore hubs and out to the oilfields (D2.1.1, D3.1.1, D4.1.1, D4.3.1, NERA, 2009).


* Governments must work with the private sector to develop a finance model that will initially enable pipelines to be built with overcapacity in regions with the potential for extensive CCS deployment and in anticipation of the phased construction of capture plants.

Actor: DG-Energy

Timeline: 2012- 2015

3.6 Commercial options for CCS: CO2-EOR

Financial value of CO2 transport and CCS

In Nord-Rhein Westphalia (NRW, Germany) various energy plants need to be renewed or replaced in the coming 10 years. German legislation prescribes that these energy plants have to be "capture ready" when there is a reasonable expectation that a CO2 transport infrastructure will be available in the coming 10 years. The amount of CO2 that could be captured from these plants in NRW would exceed 20 Mt/yr already between 2020 and 2025. Required CO2 amounts for EOR in the southern Norwegian field cluster grow to 25 Mt/yr already before 2025, continuing approximately for 25 years. D4.1.1 cost estimates show that pipeline transport and compression for these emissions, between NRW and the Norwegian fields, would result in costs per ton CO2 significantly lower than current ETS tariffs. But business planning cycles of the electricity companies and the oil companies are not aligned. Currently, NRW-based energy companies claim that no transport infrastructure can be expected. Oil companies claim they cannot start EOR because of insufficient available CO2. As a result, a attractive business opportunity could well be neglected. An early infrastructure as described would mean a giant step in the build-up of the CCS infrastructure for the whole of NW Europe, enabling commercial tariffs for other emission clusters in Belgium and the Netherlands as well.

Most studies that analyse CCS financially address the costs. There are, however, also benefits and potential revenues associated with CO2 transport that can be categorised in 3 topic areas:

1) The value of CCS as a method to realize cost-effective CO2 reduction (IEA Blue map scenario);

2) The value of CO2 transport as an enabler for commercial CO2 applications, such as EOR;

3) The value of CCS as an enabler for the revenues from the fossil value chain (important but not quantified in this report).

The second topic has been addressed in D4.1.1 in cooperation with the European project ECCO. The drivers for CCS (society/political interest to reach CO2 reduction goals in the EU) and CO2-EOR (oil company interest to increase oil production) are different. There is however alignment of interest in two areas:

* Using a common infrastructure leads to more customers and hence cost sharing and lower risks

* Increasing oil production from existing fields in the North Sea is in line with EU goals on energy security

The ECCO assessment of CO2 demand for commercial CO2-EOR purposes in the North Sea for a period from 2019 till 2042 is estimated to be more than 60 million tonnes CO2/year. This is significantly greater than the scenario for CO2 throughput based on transport from Rotterdam (30 million ton CO2/year including import from Belgium and Germany). Hence the potential EOR ambitions can only be realized if additional major ports around the North Sea capture, compress and transport CO2 to the chosen oil fields.


* CO2 based EOR know-how and field data for the North Sea oil fields needs to be updated and aggregated and aligned with CCS goals and EU energy policy and the foreseen CO2 transport network (D4.1.1), with current and potential stakeholders as power industry, governments and EP operators

Actor: North Sea Basin Task Force

Timeline: 2015-2020

* Develop a policy in to an EU-directive that stimulates the coordinated development of CCS and CO2-EOR in Europe specifically in The North Sea and in line with the planning of infrastructure.

Actor: European Commission/DG-Energy with NSBTF stakeholders

Timeline: 2012-2015

Tax and revenue burden sharing in CO2-EOR projects

Commercial CO2 prices for CO2-EOR have historically ranged from 10 euro up to 20 euro/ton CO2 in West Texas. Using these prices for the North Sea will create an additional revenue stream that facilitates financing of transport but is yet insufficient to pay for all CCS costs. However, offshore taxation applied to oil revenues generates additional income for the countries that host the oil fields that benefit from EOR. The financing of a large transport infrastructure that is also able to supply enough CO2 for the EOR could therefore be enabled if the government guarantees were also linked to the increased tax revenues. A recent study estimated the potential for CO2 demand for CO2-EOR in The North Sea to be around 7.3 billion barrels of oil (Tzimas et al., 2005). It can be concluded that the resulting tax revenues based on CO2-EOR enabled oil production is more than enough as guarantee to cover the capital investments in transportation infrastructure. Therefore the financial synergy between CCS and CO2-EOR in the North Sea should be utilized. The situation for onshore CO2-EOR might be very different. The investment costs for onshore CO2-EOR will be much lower than for offshore CO2-EOR and this will have a decreasing effect on the CO2 price an EP operator is willing to pay to the emitter.


* Develop a consistent tax treaty enabling revenue and burden sharing agreements for enable all CCS-CO2-EOR related investments by EP operators, power companies and transport companies into the North Sea Basin.

Actor: North Sea member states (NSBTF)

Timeline: 2012-2015

3.7 Safety and risk management

Transportation of CO2 - like with any other gas - potentially poses additional health and safety risks. Under certain conditions, leakage or rupture of a pipeline can result in the release of CO2 with the potential to affect humans and the environment. A significant part of the trunk lines will be located onshore, traversing densely populated areas. It is noted that this is quite different from the situation in the US, where the pipelines traverse remote areas. In addition, as shown in above sections, the total length of trunk lines, expected by 2050, is much larger (>20.000 km) than in the US (about 5800 km).. A number of issues were found that require action for a timely development of the onshore part of the transport infrastructure.

Harmonisation of risk assessment methods

The methodologies and methods to assess the safety (or broader: Health, Safety and Environmental, HSE) risks of CO2 transport are well established by use of such methods in other industrial activities (e.g. as used in oil, gas, chemical and nuclear industry) or pipeline infrastructures (e.g. transport of natural gas). However an analysis of the methods used across Europe revealed differences between Member States. The harmonisation of risk assessment methods over Europe will therefore support the development of cross-border projects.


* CO2Europipe recommends the use of formal Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) methods, as used for instance in the natural gas transportation industry, to determine the HSE risks of CO2 pipeline transport. This probabilistic approach can adequately deal with uncertainties associated with risks.

Actor: European Commission and Member States

Timeline: 2011-2015

Knowledge gaps

A number of areas were found where additional knowledge needs to be developed in order to fully understand the behaviour of CO2.

a. Physical outflow of CO2 in case of a leak or rupture in a pipeline.

Due to the specific physical nature of CO2 the physical outflow behaviour in case of a leak or rupture in a pipeline is not fully understood. The numerical models predicting the behaviour of the escaping gas are not yet fully validated with full-scale experiments; model predictions may therefore not lead to adequate estimates of the external safety of CO2 pipelines.

b. Limited experience on pipeline failure frequencies.

Compared to natural gas pipelines, there is only limited experience on CO2 pipeline failure frequencies. The current experience is mainly related to CO2 transport used for Enhanced Oil Recovery in the U.S. Once CCS projects and pipeline infrastructures start to develop, the experience base will grow and can be taken into account in adjusting the failure frequencies.

c. Dose-effect relationships.

Available Environmental Impact Assessments indicate the use of different dose-effect relationships to determine the fatality risk as a result of too high a concentration of CO2. Until now there is no official generally accepted relationship across Europe. For example, TNO, Tebodin and the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) use different relationships leading to different estimates of fatality. This will result in different perception regarding calculated risks.

Safety risk policies showing compliance with quantitative risk criteria differ in the various EU Member States. Current external risk and industrial safety policies in the various EU Member States and Norway differ. Some Member States require a quantitative (probabilistic) risk analysis to be conducted. The risks calculated have to be compared to clearly defined risk criteria.


* CO2Europipe recommends a harmonization and eventual standardization (of best practices) to enable the development of a pan-European CO2 pipeline infrastructure. Recommended standards and practices include those developed by DNV (DNV, 2010) and ISO3100 on Risk Management.

Actor: European Commission and Member States

Timeline: 2020 - 2050 (ongoing process)

* Validation of numerical simulation tools for the behaviour of gas flowing out of transport pipelines.

Actor: CCS demonstration projects, R&D institutes

Timeline: 2012 - 2015

* Establishment of a CO2 database to record failure frequencies and experiences, e.g. a database set up in line with IGU report, A Guideline, "Using or creating Incident Databases for Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines."

Actor: European Commission, Member States and Industries

Timeline: 2012 - 2015

The results of other ongoing projects can help in validating the risk assessment models and to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessment. Projects to be mentioned are: CO2PipeHaz , CO2PipeTrans (a Joint Industry Project), and the EU CCS Network, which has already reported its first year's lessons (CCS Network EU, 2011). Also national CCS research programmes (like CATO-2 in the Netherlands) will provide additional insights. More specifically, the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) now in preparation to support the first large demonstration CCS projects will add to the knowledge base and may provide information that reduces the uncertainties.

The various stakeholders in CO2 infrastructure should incorporate new lessons from other ongoing research and demonstration projects. These lessons can confirm the findings of the CO2Europipe risk work and, more importantly, knowledge gaps identified here can be narrowed down. Once detailed design for the CCS demos and resulting QRAs have been completed, the levels of safety risk estimated from QRAs can be used to judge whether these risks comply with national rules and regulations.

HSE risks are a key factor in public acceptance of CO2 transport (and storage). Therefore, risk assessment, risk management and proper risk communication are key activities that can aid in public awareness and acceptance. If not properly communicated, the HSE risks as perceived by the public may be a barrier to the development of CCS. Other projects than CO2Europipe provide more lessons to deal with the issue of public acceptance of CCS, and timely public engagement. One relevant and nearly completed FP7 project in this respect is NearCO2 .

3.8 Technical issues

Both pipeline and ship transport is technically feasible methods for large-scale CO2 transportation from sources to sinks. For example the petroleum industry has developed a mature industry for transportation systems, e.g. for natural gas, which, to a large extent can also be the basis for designing CO2 transportation systems. All transportation systems, transporting CO2, natural gas or petroleum products, need similar technical requirements to ensure a high degree of integrity of the system, i.e. need to withstand operating conditions (typically defined as pressure, temperature and flow conditions), both during normal operation and during unforeseen situations. Laws, regulations, standards and codes need to be honoured to secure safe and reliable operation.

Transport of CO2 through onshore pipelines has taken place for more than 35 years in the US, and since 2007 an offshore pipeline for transport of CO2 over a length of more than 140 km has been operated by Statoil in the northern part of Norway. The latter transports CO2 captured from natural gas at the LNG plant at Melkøya to an offshore geological formation. Ship transport of food grade CO2 from port to port has been performed for almost 20 years and although at a smaller scale compared to the anticipated volumes handled in the CO2EuroPipe study, the technology for such transport is to a large degree well known.

Some technological areas do need further development, of which none are expected to jeopardize the technical feasibility of constructing CO2 transportation systems based on current knowledge (D3.1.1). Further development and increased knowledge will result in more optimised design and lower unit costs.

Pipeline transport

The CO2EuroPipe work concludes that most of the capacity for transportation of CO2 from source to sink will be based on new installations in addition to some possible re-use of existing pipelines currently deployed for transport of natural gas or other petroleum products (D2.1.1). To the extent that existing gas or oil pipelines become redundant for its original purpose, a requalification to CO2 transport is assumed feasible. Both cases are discussed in the CO2EuroPipe study (D2.1.1).

Presence of impurities in the CO2 stream

If free water is present in the CO2 stream, serious corrosion may occur in carbon steel equipment and pipeline systems. Using corrosion resistant steel material is not regarded economically feasible for long pipeline systems. Hence, the CO2 fluid must be dehydrated and thus non-corrosive. Effects and cross-effects of impurities still need to be more fully understood for dense phase CO2 transport. Too stringent quality requirements may result in significant cost increases, because of investments (in cleaning facilities), operational costs and increased downtime. Inadequate quality requirements, however, may impact operations, maintenance and, most important, safety of the pipeline system and the public.


* R&D activity needs to be performed to understand the behaviour of impurities in the CO2 stream (with a strong focus on water), and, if required for future interoperability between CO2 transport systems, to set acceptable levels of such impurities. Results from the R&D activities are ideally available as input to the CCS demonstration phase, and should be validated as part of such work. Several relevant R&D projects have been initiated to accomplish this, among which are CATO2 (in The Netherlands) and CO2Pipetrans; new EU-funded research is being defined.

Actor: Existing CCS research consortia, research companies, universities

Timeline: 2012-2015

Development of accurate simulation tools

Simulation tools have been developed to analyse both the behaviour of the CO2 in the pipeline, as well as dispersion of CO2 from a planned and unplanned release. There are, however, limited data available from operations and testing which can be used to calibrate these simulation tools. Although the results from such tools currently are considered sufficiently suitable for their purpose, availability of data from actual practice would add further comfort to the results obtained by analyses performed during design and operation of CO2 systems. Until such data are available, a conservative approach is used to establish safety requirements and capacities.

Simulation tools are also used to develop leak detection models. For large transport systems, leakages that may cause significant risk to health or the environment may be small compared to the total volume inside the pipeline system. More accurate leak detection models may be required for early detection of problems.


* Experimental data, both from laboratory conditions and from full-scale testing, should be collected in time to validate existing simulation tools for the behaviour of CO2 within a pipeline, as well as improve dispersion modelling.

Actor: CCS demonstration projects, research companies, universities

Timeline: 2015-2020

Soft materials

Under pressurised conditions, CO2 may be absorbed by elastomers and other soft materials that are regularly deployed as seals and gaskets. During rapid decompression, the expanding CO2 may not be escape quickly enough from these materials, causing blisters and other damage to the material. Usually, soft materials used in existing CO2 systems have been tested on a case by case basis for each purpose, material and system. Hence, no general standards have been developed for such materials for pressurised CO2 service. This probably does not represent a major challenge for pipeline based CO2 transport, but particular attention should be given to testing materials and providing general specifications that cover operating conditions for typical projects.


* Standards for qualification of soft materials suitable for use in CO2 transport systems should be developed in order to gain experience with a wide range of possible materials

Actor: Suppliers, R&D organisations

Timeline: 2012 - 2015

Noise during depressurisation

If there is a need for depressurizing the pipeline, e.g. as a result of an accident or incident causing a threat to the pipeline system or health/environment, a vent stack needs to be installed. Release of high pressure dense phase CO2 into the atmosphere will result in high noise levels, typically higher than the noise from a full size jet engine at full throttle. A 200 km offshore pipeline system transporting 3 Mt CO2 per year would need 1-2 weeks to depressurize. This would imply either the need for an extensive safety zone around the vent stack, or construction of a "silencer" around the nozzle of the vent stack. If such a "silencer" is to be installed, the design needs to ensure that sufficient dispersion of the CO2 cloud is still possible, i.e. so that the design does not interfere with the flow pattern of the release in an unacceptable way. Initial design of such a "silencer" at the Kårstø full scale CO2 project in Norway showed that a 60 meter wide concrete construction with a height of 20 meters would reduce the noise to acceptable levels. It is, however, assumed that further testing of design alternatives for such a "silencer" could significantly reduce the significant costs for such a structure.

While the above applies to all CO2 pipelines, the case for onshore pipelines is different in the sense that onshore pipelines are sectionalised at a predetermined spacing. This greatly limits the volumes released when depressurising.


* Methodologies for depressurisation of CO2 transport systems should be evaluated. This should include concepts for high pressure, high velocity release, as well as concepts for low pressure release (pressure is reduced in a closed system before entering the atmosphere). Such methods should be physically tested (either in full or reduced scale) prior to a CCS demonstration phase, and validated as part of the demonstration phase.

Actor: Existing CCS research consortia, demonstration project operators, research companies, universities

Timeline: 2012 - 2015

Propagating longitudinal fractures

Preventing the propagation of longitudinal fractures is achieved through good design, choice of material properties and also, when required, inclusion of crack arrestors. For CO2 pipelines this may represent a challenge compared to gas pipelines where the phenomenon is well documented. If a longitudinal fracture is induced, the length of the crack is determined by the strength in the pipeline material over the relevant section, as well as the relationship between pressure release on the CO2 medium in the zone around the tip of the propagating crack. If the tip of the crack moves faster than the pressure reduction in the CO2 medium, the crack may theoretically develop along the entire length of the pipeline section. To prevent this crack arrestors (small sections of pipeline having higher material strength than the pipeline in general) have been installed at regular intervals (typically every half-mile). The mechanism of propagation needs to be better understood by extended R&D including physical testing. Until such knowledge is available, a conservative approach should be used in calculations of the pipeline's ability to withstand such cracks, as well as evaluating fracture mitigation techniques such as material specification and installation of fracture arrestors along the pipeline.

It is noted that this issue plays an important role when considering re-use of existing pipelines. The properties of CO2 being quite different from that of natural gas, existing lines must be evaluated in detail regarding the above issue.


* Physical testing needs to be performed in order to validate existing assumptions related to fracture mechanisms. This should be performed prior to designing pipelines planned for the CCS demonstration phase. Testing is currently underway as part of the CO2Pipetrans Joint Industry Project.

Actor: Existing CCS research consortia (CO2Pipetrans), research companies, universities

Timeline: 2012-2015

Internal inspection of pipelines

Internal inspections of natural gas pipeline systems are performed regularly (typically each 4 to 10 years, depending on characteristics of the pipeline and/or relevant regulations), using specialised internal inspection tools. The tools (termed 'pigs') are cylindrically shaped structures, containing technology for inspecting the condition of the pipeline material, following the internal stream of the pipeline, in this case the CO2 stream. Although such inspection (termed 'pigging') has been performed for sections of existing CO2 pipeline systems, tools needs to be qualified and tested for future long pipeline systems that may have a length extending even to 500 km. Physical wear and abrasion, as well as the effect on soft materials mounted as parts of the inspection tool need to be evaluated.


* Technology qualification programs should be performed by vendors of pipeline inspection tools to demonstrate that qualified tools are available prior to starting the CCS demonstration phase.

Actor: Vendors of pipeline inspection tools

Timeline: 2012-2015

Re-use of existing infrastructure

Although it is expected that many future CO2 pipeline systems will need to be new-build, re-use of existing pipelines (typically for oil and gas) may become appropriate in certain cases. Steel materials used in such pipelines will be as relevant as for CO2 pipelines, so in general, it will be the original design premises that will determine whether an existing pipeline is suitable for CO2 transport or not. For example, many onshore gas pipelines are designed for a maximum operating pressure of approximately 80 bar. CO2 is transported in dense/liquid phase, but will, if the pressure is reduced or the temperature increased sufficiently, start to evaporate, entering gas phase. At 20 ºC, the bubbling pressure is just below 60 bar, implying that the liquid CO2 will start to boil if the pressure is reduced. Requiring an operational safety margin could indicate that a minimum operating pressure is set around ~70 bar. Then, keeping the pressure along a pipeline route between the narrow pressure span of 70 to 80 bar would require many compressor stations and would not be feasible in practice. Alternatively, pipelines with limited operating pressures can be used to transport CO2 in the gaseous phase, e.g. as proposed for the CO2 transport infrastructure concept presented by National Grid Carbon as part of the Longannet CCS demonstration project.

Offshore pipelines are normally designed for a much higher operating pressure - up to typically 250 bar. The maximum temperature in subsea environments is also much lower, implying that the operational pressure span for such pipelines could be between 60 and 250 bar. Then, it could be sufficient to compress the CO2 at the inlet, avoiding the need for compressor stations along the pipeline route.

For any pipeline that should be re-used for a different purpose than its original use, an evaluation of the integrity of the pipeline needs to be performed. In particular two issues needs to be emphasised if the new purpose of the pipeline is CO2 transport.

- first, if the pipeline is coated internally (often done to reduce internal friction and/or to reduce risk of corrosion during/after installation) the coating material needs to be evaluated to ensure that it is not dissolved by the CO2 fluids, and that the blistering effect described above does not occur.

- second, the risk of propagating longitudinal fractures needs to be carefully examined.

DNV's recommended Practice document for, "Design and Operation of CO2 Pipelines provides a proposal for requalification of existing pipelines for CO2 use.

Ship transport

Current regulations (IGCC, IMO, industry and class regulations) allow for the safe and regulated transportation of (food grade) CO2. No major hurdles on the regulatory track to allow for large scale CO2 transportation are expected. Port to port ship transport has been performed for almost 20 years, and the technology related to ship design and relevant onshore handling systems is well understood.

Offshore injection from ship

Injection of CO2 directly from a ship to offshore underground storage is one of the concepts that are relevant for future CCS transport chains. Systems for such injection have not yet been installed, but alternative designs have been evaluated in early phase projects, and it is expected that robust solutions can be achieved. A key concern in this respect is injection directly from the ship into a depleted gas field. The combination of the high rates necessary, the temperature of the CO2 and the pressure in the (depleted) gas field may require heating. An alternative approach could be to install local, temporary storage. There is significant economic cost associated with this design solution, but the technical aspects are well understood.


* Technology qualification programs for offshore offloading systems from ship should be performed to demonstrate even further the technical (and economical) feasibility of such systems, prior to a CCS demonstration phase.

Actor: Existing CCS research consortia, demonstration project operators, research companies, universities

Timeline: 2011-2015

Re-use of existing vessels may also be feasible. In this context, existing LPG/ethylene ships may be used for CO2 transport, with minor modifications in the event that port to port transportation will occur and adequate tank design pressure exists. If the vessel is to operate on a stand alone basis offshore for injection, re-use of existing LPG vessel is highly unlikely due to necessary CO2 conditioning and dynamic positioning equipment that will need to be installed.

3.9 References

CCS Network EU, 2011. Risk Management: Lessons learned in 2010 - A report from the European CCS Demonstration Project Network, May 2011

Chrysostomidis, I., Zakkour, P., Bohm, M., Beynon, E., de Filippo, R. and Lee, A., 2009. Assessing issues of financing a CO2 transportation pipeline infrastructure. Energy Procedia, 1.

D2.1.1, 2011. Existing infrastructure for the transport of CO2, CO2Europipe consortium.

D2.2.1, 2011. Development of a large-scale CO2 transport infrastructure in Europe: matching captured volumes and storage availability, CO2Europipe consortium.

D2.3.1, 2011. Development of a large-scale CO2 transport infrastructure in Europe: a stakeholders' view, CO2Europipe consortium.

D3.1.1, 2011. Transport network design and CO2 management, CO2Europipe consortium.

D3.1.2, 2011. Standards for CO2, CO2Europipe consortium.

D3.2.1, 2011. CO2 transport through pipelines: risk characterisation and management, CO2Europipe consortium.

D3.3.1, 2011. Legal, financial and organizational aspects of CO2 pipeline infrastructures, CO2Europipe consortium.

D4.1.1, 2011. Development of CCS in Rotterdam, CO2Europipe consortium.

D4.2.1. 2011. Report on the existing pipeline infrastructure in the WP4.2-area and on the reuse of existing pipelines for CO2 transport, CO2Europipe consortium.

D4.2.2, 2011. Making CO2 transport feasible: the German case - Rhine/Ruhr area (D) - Hamburg (D) - North Sea (D, DK, NL), CO2Europipe consortium.

D4.3.1, 2011. Kårstø Case, CO2Europipe consortium.

D4.3.2, 2011. Kårstø CO2 Pipeline Project: Extension to a European Case, CO2Europipe consortium.

D4.4.1, 2011. Environmental impact and risks of CO2 storage facilities in Poland, CO2Europipe consortium.

D4.4.2, 2011. Belchatow power plant - test case, CO2Europipe consortium.

D4.4.3, 2011. CEZ CO2 transport case, CO2Europipe consortium.

DNV, 2010. Recommended practive DNV-RP-J202, Design and operation of CO2 pipelines.

European Commission, 2008. A European Economic Recovery Plan. Communication from the Commission to the European Council, Brussels.

European Commission, 2009. Modalities for co-financing of CCS and innovative renewables demonstration projects under Article 10a paragraph 8 of Directive 2003/87/EC (Emissions Trading Directive) ("NER 300"). Commission non-paper. Brussels.

IEA, 2004. Prospects for CO2 capture and storage. International Energy Agency Publications. Paris, France.

IEA, 2008. Energy technology perspectives 2008 - scenarios and strategies to 2050. IEA/OECD, Paris.

IEA, 2009. Technology roadmap - carbon capture and storage, Paris (available at

IPCC, 2005. Special report on carbon dioxide capture and storage. Metz, B., O. Davidson, H.C. de Coninck, M. Loos, and L.A. Meyer (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 442 pp.

IPCC, 2007. Summary for Policymakers. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Mckinsey & Company, 2008. Carbon capture and storage: Assessing the economics. Retrieved (23/02/2010):

Mulder, A.J., Stochastic EUA price forecasting, University of Groningen, MSc thesis.

Stern, N., 2007. The economics of climate change, Stern Review, Cabinet office - HM Treasury, ISBN:9780521700801.

Tzimas, E., Georgakaki, A., Garcia Cortes, C. and S.D. Peteves, 2005. Enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide in the European energy system, JRC


UCL, 2010. CO2 transportation for storage University College London, Carbon capture legal programme.

Retrieved 21/08/2010:

UNIDO, 2010. Carbon capture and storage in industrial applications: Technology synthesis report - working paper. November 2010.

ZEP, 2010. Recommendations for research to support the deployment of CCS in Europe beyond 2020 (report available at

Potential Impact:
Potential impact.

The impact of the project can be expected in the following areas / on the following levels.

1. Make Member States aware of international character of CCS.

The report highlights the need for early and close international cooperation between Member States. At the present moment (end of 2011), the tendency of MS to cooperate in the area of CCS is largely absent. Our results, and perhaps especially the Summary Report (deliverable D1.1.1) can help clarify the need for cross-border alignment of Master Plans, of cross-border cooperation on a technical level, of cross-border aligning of regulations.

To this end, all partners in the project have a continued interaction with their national representatives in the area of CCS and have made those contacts aware of our results.

2. Sketch a roadmap of policy, regulations between today and 2020.

Our results can support the development of an internationally consistent regulatory system. The project has identified the actions of EU and MS governments and emphasizes the need for political leadership and early actions.

Our reports will be useful in starting the development of EU and national Master Plans.

3. Identify the most urgently required actions from EU and MS governments

Our project concludes the action from EU and MS governments is required now, to be able to develop the (transport) infrastructure for CCS in time. With the results from the IEA showing that a delay in developing large-scale CCS means higher cost later on, and the infrastructure maps showing largest efforts needed in the period 2020 - 2030, preparations to organize roadmaps and regulations, to convince MS of the international nature of CCS are to start today.

Our reports can help explain the urgency.

4. Clarify the need for support of technical developments or research

Our analyses defined the areas where research is required. Although the emphasis should now be put on solving operational issues, i.e., demonstrate the feasibility of CCS by starting and operating the demo projects in the frameworks of the EEPR and NER300 programs, some areas remain where effort is needed that can not be asked from the demo projects. An example of this is the effect of impurities in the CO2 stream on the design parameters of transport infrastructure. This is an important area that must be investigated, in order to know the relation between CO2 quality and interoperability of capture plants or transport systems which operate with different CO2 quality.

5. Initiate and/or support a discussion among Member States on cooperation in CCS.

Once again, our results can be used to explain the need for international cooperation in CCS. Uneven distribution of CO2 emissions, of capture requirements, of storage capacity and, finally, of transport needs, all lead to inevitable cross-border transport of CO2. Regulations must be in place to make that possible, developments in transport infrastructure must be aligned in time, place and technological solutions used.

6. Support the development of EU and Member State Master Plans for CCS.

The project results underline the necessity of cross-boundary consistency of planning of CCS infrastructure, both on the technical side (interoperability), and on the side of aligning construction efforts. As cross-border transport will be reality in a large-scale CCS infrastructure in Europe, cooperation between MS is required, and this must be made clear in national Master Plans.

7. Socio-economic impact of the results.

While the project has not considered public awareness as a separate issue, this plays a key role in the development of CCS projects. Our results demonstrate some relations and lead to a number of conclusions that may be used in the public debate.

- The relation between onshore storage and the effort needed to develop a transport and storage infrastructure. If onshore storage is delayed, or completely banned, the cost of CCS will increase significantly.

- The storage capacity available in Europe is probably sufficient, assuming a gradual phasing out of CCS after alternative energy sources have been developed.

- The effort in developing CCS, as far as transport and storage are concerned, is large, but within the capabilities of the Member States.

- International cooperation is essential and, more strongly stated, a key element of CCS. Some countries do not have national storage capacity and must rely on neighbouring countries for transport and storage. Once CCS is developed, storage of CO2 from neighbouring countries will be daily practice.

Dissemination activities, exploitation of results.

The target audience of the project is made up of policy makers, at the Member State and EU levels. While exploitation of the results, in commercial terms, is not expected, the results will be exploited at a political level. The main conclusions of the project were presented to an audience of policy makers, industry stakeholders and international bodies in September, during a seminar organised by the project. Since then, industry stakeholders have been aware of our project, using our results as input for defining the focus of their efforts in the coming years.

Contacts with EU government and Member State government will be maintained after the project, using our results to emphasise the need for early, concerted actions to create the proper environment for the development of CCS.

The project results have already been publicized in recent conferences, where national representatives and policy makers were present. A recent publication in European Energy Review has already reached a wide community.

There is ongoing contact between consortium members and the ZEP. ZEP has been using the project's summary report as input in its process of re-orientation.

List of Websites:
The website is located at

Contact details of the Coordinator:

Dr F.P. Neele


Princetonlaan 6

P.O.Box 80015

3508 TA Utrecht

T +31 88 866 4859


Related information


Filip Neele, (Scientist)
Tel.: +31 30 256 4859
Fax: +31 30 256 4605
Record Number: 196542 / Last updated on: 2017-03-28
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