Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

FP7

SCOT Report Summary

Project ID: 319995
Funded under: FP7-REGIONS
Country: Belgium

Final Report Summary - SCOT (Smart CO2 Transformation)

Executive Summary:
Reducing CO2, protecting the environment and our resources but also reducing dependency on fossil raw materials are major societal challenges. In this context, the EU has adopted ambitious goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050. So far, most attention from policy makers and industry has been paid to Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) which intends to concentrate CO2 and store it into geological sites.
The current SCOT project have been focused on an emerging and insufficiently addressed area presenting strong research, market development and economic growth potential: the utilisation of CO2 through its transformation into valuable products via chemical or biological technologies.
This project has started in October 2013 and is ending in September 2016, three years in which the project team has been able to produce:
1. An assessment of the five regions involved in the project highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and aspirations for transformation and recovery of carbon dioxide;
2. A socio-economic analysis to get a first idea of the challenges in terms of market, technology and regulatory bottlenecks to be considered for the implementation of these technologies.

These two documents served as a basis for drafting three other strategic documents:
• A vision for Europe in the 2030-2050 horizon, which highlights the important role of recycling carbon dioxide in the development of circular economy to low carbon footprint;
• A medium-term strategic research agenda highlighting an inventory of technological and non-technological barriers to be considered for the implementation of those technologies;
• A joint action plan identifying short-term actions to be implemented now to overcome these obstacles and stimulate the development of this new industrial sector.

Those strategic documents have highlighted the need for a coordinated action in order to solve the technical and non-technical issues face by the CO2 community and accelerate the market deployment of CO2-based products.
To do so, three key actions will be implemented beyond the SCOT project:
1. The development of a European CO2 Utilisation association that will increase the level of advocacy for the CO2 utilisation community, voice the interest of its members, and continue to raise the profile of CO2 utilisation in aiding Europe to meet a number of its wider policy objectives as continuation of the momentum created by the SCOT project.
2. The creation of European Modular Pilot Plant and Verification Centres for CO2 Utilisation to bridge the gap from lab to pilot by sharing the organisational and financial burden of pilot scale facilities.
3. The creation of a new Public Private Partnership for CO2 Utilisation to accelerate the market development of CO2-based products and processes by developing flagship demonstrator projects.

Project Context and Objectives:
CO2 can be used as a resource and be transformed into a wide range of products. Currently, over 90% of organic chemicals are derived from fossil carbon, 5-10% of the global demand of crude oil is used in the manufacture of these products. In CO2 Utilisation, CO2 is used as a carbon source replacing the carbon sourced from fossil fuels. Through CO2 Utilisation processes, synthetic fuels can be produced and would directly replace liquid and gaseous fossil fuels. Additionally, CO2 can be used in accelerated mineralisation to create construction materials.

By 2050, Europe needs to have decoupled its economic growth from its emissions of carbon dioxide. This is a direct response to the compelling evidence from the increasing risks of climate change brought about by the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide in particular. Moving from energy systems that are primarily reliant on fossil fuels to those which use greater amounts of lower-carbon energy sources is a broadly accepted policy choice of member states, although the exact technology choices and the speed of the transition vary. In addition to its low-carbon energy transition, Europe requires new approaches to broaden its material base, away from fossil fuel sources. It needs to secure and create domestic jobs through economic growth by innovation in technologies and the markets that they serve. CO2 utilisation provides the potential to positively impact on these policy challenges.

Scientific and industrial progress has enabled us to imagine a future in which carbon dioxide becomes an increasingly important resource; a world in which we utilise CO2 to create products. By accelerating development in the area of CO2 utilisation, Europe can improve its industrial competitiveness whilst reducing its impact on the planet. However, for this to happen, there needs to be a clearer long-term strategy which itself depends on a stable long-term research and industrial policy framework. CO2 utilisation also provides a route for Europe to realise its ambition to move to a circular economy.

In short, CO2 utilisation has the potential to help Europe become less dependent on fossil fuels by becoming more resource efficient, which helps to safeguard the competiveness of its industries. It also provides Europe with a route to decouple economic growth from damaging environmental impacts, and aligns with its aims for a low-carbon circular economy.

CO2 Utilisation definition
CO2 utilisation is a broad term that covers a variety of established and innovative industrial processes that utilise CO2 as a source of carbon by transforming it into value added products such as chemical feedstocks, synthetic fuels or building materials. CO2 utilisation can therefore be viewed as a range of novel or enhanced technology pathways that utilise CO2. During the transformation, bonds between the carbon and oxygen atoms are broken and new bonds are formed with other reactants. Most reactions will also require an additional energy input, which must come from low-carbon energy sources to prevent the emission of further CO2. The transformation of CO2 occurs naturally e.g. photosynthesis and mineral carbonation, and much research has been devoted to studying and improving the speed, control, and efficiency of these processes.

Scope of the project
The project considers research and innovation needs on chemical transformations, covering the three primary areas: chemical building blocks, synthetic fuels, and mineralization which present some common research needs and address the same stakeholders in the value chain. As can be seen from the figure below, the SCOT project did not address CO2 capture as such. It is assumed that the CO2 will originate from a point source emitter and will be used as a post-production resource. This will typically come from an energy generator or from an industrial process where CO2 concentrations be higher. The project will, although to a lesser extent, focus on integrating low-carbon energy sources into the transformation process.

The SCOT project has been focused on CO2 transformation technologies and processes, and therefore other related technologies such as those for capturing and transporting CO2 for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are not elaborated in detail. Direct physical uses of CO2 without a transformative step are also outside the focus of the SCOT project e.g. enhanced oil recovery, using CO2 as a solvent, as a plant growth promoter in greenhouses, or in carbonated. The project will focus on chemical routes for transforming the CO2 molecule, while the biological transformation routes are left aside from the time being.

Objectives of the SCOT project
The SCOT (Smart CO2 Transformation) project has pursued a particular objective which has been to define a Vision, a Strategic European Research and Innovation Agenda for Europe and a Joint Action Plan in the field of CO2 utilisation. Thereby, bringing a more systematic and coherent approach in the market development of CO2-based products and processes.

To fulfil this key objective, the project has been divided into 7 Work Packages, each pursuing several specifics goals that will together enable to define these 3 key project deliverables.

WP1 – Regional Assessment
Objectives:
1. To get a clear picture of the current status of Carbon Capture & Utilisation (CCU) in the partner’s regions e.g. actors, environmental and innovation support policies, etc.;
2. To identify common strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) for the development of CO2 recycling at regional and at EU levels;
3. To identify synergies between the consortium partners, and development opportunities;
4. And, to foster regional “smart specialisation”.

Work Package 1 consisted of making a Regional Assessment on the status of CO2 Utilisation in Europe. Together with the socio-economic analysis of the technology performed under Work Package 2, it has provided a solid basis for SCOT’s subsequent work. The assessment has highlighted some important policy challenges and opportunities that has been used as a foundation for the construction of the Strategic European Research and Innovation Agenda (SERIA) and the Joint Action Plan.

WP2 - Socio-economic analysis
Objectives:
WP2 aims to gather socio-economic elements which will be required (in addition to elements collected during WP1) to elaborate the Vision 2030 and Strategic European Research Agenda during WP3.

Work package 2 consisted of providing an analysis of the EU and global markets for a number of potential CCU products and demonstrate the market potential. Also, an analysis of supply and demand within the electricity markets of the five SCOT partner regions has been provided and an analysis of the emitters of CO2 in the partner regions has been done using data from the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register for 2012. Additionally, an identification of the existing regulatory measures and constraints within an EU context, which have or could have an impact on the development of CCU, has been made.

WP3 - European Research and Innovation Strategy
Objectives:
To define a shared strategic foundation to guide future coordinated action at EU level in this field by answering three key questions: why is CO2 recycling of strategic importance for the future of Europe, where do we want to be in 2030, and what needs to be done collectively to get there? In order to achieve this objective, two main tasks have to be done within this work package: (1) develop a vision document (2) develop a Strategic European Research and Innovation Agenda (SERIA).

By developing the Vision document, the SCOT project aimed to underline the need for Europe to consider CO2 Utilisation as an essential part of the solution to decarbonise the European economy and decouple economic growth from environmental impacts. The objective was to target where we want to go in terms of CO2 Utilisation (what is our dream), but also, by considering the research and innovation state of the arts, to make an assumption on where could we (European countries) in reality dream to be in 2050. Through the vision document, the SCOT project also wanted to prove the crucial role CO2 Utilisation could play for Europe to become resource efficient, innovative and competitive. Finally, the SERIA provides a long list of both technical and non-technical hurdles to develop the CCU sector.

WP4 - Joint Action Plan and preparation for implementation
Objectives:
1. To structure the cooperation between all EU regions, clusters and stakeholders interested to implement the
Strategic European Research Agenda defined in WP3
2. To stimulate the development of collaborative R&D projects between international stakeholders (from industry and research organisations)
3. To define a Joint Action Plan containing concrete measures which can be organised jointly between participating regions to support the development and the competitiveness of the CO2 recycling value chains
4. To start implementation of the Joint Action Plan with the support of regional authorities

The overall objectives of WP4 are to stimulate the development of collaborative R&D projects between international stakeholders (from industry and research organisations); to define a Joint Action Plan containing concrete measures which can be organised jointly between participating regions to support the development and the competitiveness of the CO2 recycling value chains; to start implementation of the Joint Action Plan with the support of regional authorities. Each of these actions should help to tackle an aspect of the non-technical and technical challenges that hamper the market development of CO2 utilisation identified throughout the SCOT project.

WP5 - Financial Engineering
Objectives:
How to finance the JAP? To answer that question, the following activities were undertaken:
1. Identify funding sources (public and private) available to support the implementation of the Strategic European Research Agenda;
2. Set-up a financial plan to enable the implementation of the actions foreseen in the Joint Action Plan;
3. Initiate an interregional call for R&D projects among participating regions;
4. Identify and mobilize financial means which can boost the development of innovative CO2 transformation technologies up to the proof of concept / pilot demonstration stage, after which their deployment will be funded by classical market mechanisms;
5. Raise awareness of public authorities (at regional, national and European levels) regarding the benefits and specific financing needs of the CO2 recycling area, and to ensure that it gets appropriate future attention when allocating financial means and/or defining new financial instruments.

On the one hand, the work performed in this WP has enable the SCOT team to identify available funding sources to finance the key actions included in the Joint Action Plan and develop a financial implementation plan. On the other hand, the online catalogue developed under this WP provides a support to the CO2 community in identifying the right financing tool to support their project and also stimulate collaborative research and innovation. Apart from that, WP5 also helped to increase awareness of public authorities on the financing needs to tackle some technical and non-technical issues and facilitate the development of the sector.

WP6 Mentoring and international cooperation
Objectives:
1. To extend the SCOT initiative to European regions which were not part of the initial consortium, in order to create a “SCOT EU Network”;
2. To promote the SCOT initiative internationally and initiate cooperation with clusters/regions outside Europe;
3. To prepare consortium clusters/regions for global competition and to unlock new business opportunities;
4. To enable the mentored to define its own action plan for initiating a research-driven cluster in the area of CO2 recycling;
5. To stimulate a mutual transfer of best practices and knowledge among consortium partners (clusters, networks and regional authorities), based on the complementary strengths of the various regions involved in the consortium.

Work package 6 consisted in enlarging the SCOT network with relevant stakeholder in order to ensure that key CCU actors are taking part of the project and to develop a shared international cooperation strategy. Through this WP, the SCOT team has been able to include in the SCOT network expert actors that brought value added to the project and has participated in the elaboration of the strategic documents produced and other specific actions with an international focus. Through WP6, the SCOT project has also been able to promote knowledge exchanges and share best practices and complementary experience across regions.

WP7 External communication, dissemination and impact assessment
Objectives:
1. To ensure external visibility of the project and broad dissemination of the results generated (Vision document, Strategic European Research Agenda documents, specific collaborative actions, etc.)
2. To attract new EU regions to join the SCOT Network (see WP6)
3. To raise general awareness of the CO2 recycling issue, its environmental benefits, and its strategic importance
4. To measure the impact of the SCOT project under the Region of Knowledge framework

The main goal of the work package 7 consisted in managing the communication of the project by developing communication tools such as website, flyers, poster, banners, etc. and to attract new stakeholders in the SCOT community.

Each work packages had to develop some specific deliverables

Project Results:
The creation of a CO2 community network

By creating a CO2 community network, SCOT has been able to identify the real needs and bottlenecks that should be tackled to enable the emergence of the sector. Indeed, the SCOT community has been consulted through conference and workshop and their opinion on each strategic documents produced has been collected. This network will also be the basis for further SCOT actions implementation beyond September.
All along the project, the SCOT team, federated within and beyond the 5 partnering regions of the project, has gathered a community of nearly 800 stakeholders and include within its SCOT Affiliate Network , 8 research centres and internationally renowned clusters. Thought its interaction with this community, a database of more than 400 international CO2 experts have been created .

The SCOT community has been consulted on a regular basis in order to ensure the consistence of the analysis made and ensure that SCOT achieves strong local anchorage, and truly responds to the needs and expectations of European businesses and key stakeholders.

The affiliate members are:

FISCH (Belgium) - an innovation hub that identifies, stimulates and catalyses innovations for the transition towards sustainable chemistry in Flanders.
VITO (Belgium) - a leading European independent research/consultancy centre in the areas of clean tech and sustainable development, elaborating solutions for the grand societal challenges of tomorrow.
NEPIC (UK) - created by leaders from the Process Industry to provide the mechanism for intimate collaboration, business growth and attracting investment.
CIRCE (Spain) – a research centre created to produce and develop innovative solutions and scientific/technical knowledge and to transfer them to the business sector in the field of energy.
ICIQ (Spain) - a centre of excellence, an internationally recognised leading institution in the field of chemistry committed with performing research at the frontiers of knowledge.
ECC (EU) - The European Cluster on Catalysis, gathers together EU-founded projects in the field of catalysis, organizations and institutions as well as industrial and other relevant stakeholders in catalysis at EU level
DIFFER (Netherlands) - The Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research conducts leading fundamental research in the fields of fusion energy and solar fuels, in close partnership with academia and industry.
SYNGIP (Netherlands) - Syngip develops next generation carbon capture biotechnology. Syngip engineers carboxydotrophic bacteria to produce renewable biochemical and biofuels from syngas and carbon waste gases (gases containing CO2 and/or CO, H2).

A regional assessment of CO2 Utilisation potential in the SCOT regions

The assessment has highlighted some important policy challenges and opportunities that have been used as a foundation for the construction of the Strategic European Research and Innovation Agenda (SERIA) and the Joint Action Plan (JAP).
The mapping of Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) actors and projects showed that, while all the studied countries have financed research in the field, specific funding streams are rare and funding is dispersed among a large number of instruments. Within Europe, Germany is a clear leader in terms of funding devoted to CCU but both Germany and the EC are below the investment levels of the US. With the EU showing leadership on industrial innovation and climate measures it seems logic for SCOT to advocate for the creation of specific funding streams devoted to CCU (in those countries in which they do not exist already) and the clustering and enlargement of existing funding mechanisms for CCU at EU level to support the creation of a stronger research community around the subject.
Although an important number of actors have already been identified, there is not a single network for triple helix stakeholders (academia, industry and public sector) working on CO2 Utilisation in Europe even if some national networks for academia and industry already exist.

A SWOT analysis was performed per region and at European level. The main results of the European SWOT are summarized in the table 1. In general, stakeholders see CO2 Utilisation as a tool to improve industrial competitiveness or support the energy transition rather than a climate change mitigation tool (except mineralisation). It is also worth noting that while there are a number of technical challenges that CO2 Utilisation has to overcome in order to increase its scale, an important number of “weaknesses” and “opportunities” have to do with regulation and research policy, the area in which the SCOT project intends to have an impact.

Table 1 SWOT analysis performed under WP1
Strengths Weaknesses
• Existence of funding sources for CCU research
• Chemical industry presence and transport infrastructure (gas, fuels, etc.)
• Numerous CO2 sources of different scales available
• Transnational systems of industry and research
• Presence of actors along the whole value chain in Europe
• Existence of opportunities and short term development of new high value applications
• Low carbon policy vision • Lack of funding for large CCU demonstrators
• Slow EU R+D funding
• Lack of availability of cheap low-carbon electricity sources
• Lack of detailed information about composition of CO2 point sources due to confidentiality Lack of certainty regarding the economic viability of large volume applications
• Technical challenges to increase efficiency and lower costs
• Policy makers are aware of CCU but no proactive promotion of the technology (except in Germany)
• Lack of a clear communication about what can CCU deliver
• Perceived low climate impact (limited permanent sequestration)
• No Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) standard
Opportunities Threats
• Development of high value applications (ST)
• Concrete CCU regulatory incentives could be developed
• Potential connection with CCS development
• Potential for industrial synergies
• CO2 derived fuels could enable storage of excess of renewable (electrical) energy technologies and support the EU energy transition to a low carbon economy
• In line with long term trends: reducing emissions and reducing fossil fuel dependency
• Social acceptance: positive image
• Strengthen industry and research networks • Fossil fuel abundance and limited availability of “cheap energy
• No clear roadmap or framework available at EU level to foster CCU
• R+D in other regions. CCU is not high enough on the research agenda
• Deindustrialization and/or CCU jobs created outside EU
• No clear roadmap or framework available at EU level to foster CCU / Low TRL
• ETS is not working
• Social acceptance risks

A socio-economic analysis

The analysis has enabled to gather the socio-economic elements required for both the creation of a Vision document and a Strategic European Research and Innovation Agenda (SERIA) on Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU)

The analysis of the emitters of CO2 in the partner regions (see on figure 2) has highlighted that the relative size of the CO2 emissions from the Chemical production sector, at almost 20% of the total industrial emissions of CO2, within Belgium and the Netherlands demonstrates the importance of this sector to both economies. This suggests that the growing interest in CCU in these particular SCOT project partner countries is justified out of an interest for the future continued prosperity of their Chemical production sectors. However, in absolute terms, the CO2 emissions from the Chemical production sector are greater in Germany, and less in the UK, with France sitting between Belgium and the Netherlands. The aggregate total of CO2 emissions for the Chemical production sector from the five SCOT project partner countries is 66% of the total for this sector from all EU member states.

While struggling to perform a Life Cycle Analysis for Carbon Capture and Utilisation, the SCOT partners have been able to provide overview of the challenges encountered to do so. Although LCA along with input-output analysis have been used in other energy technologies and industry, the key challenges in applying LCA in CCU have been identified. Challenges range from data availability for emerging CCU operation through to system boundary definition and accurate accounting of CO2 as a resource. Some ways forward for LCA research in CCU environment have been recommended which highlighted that investment decision on energy technology should be based on solution that is more sustainable, but not those that are more energy intensive. Hence it is essential that supply chain LCA is embedded in strategic decision making and analysis of the environmental sustainability of various energy technology.

The analysis of supply and demand within the electricity markets of the five SCOT partner regions – Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands and UK, looking ahead to a 2030 horizon. The result suggests that there is no reason to believe that there will be sustained periods of cheap electricity in a particular market as in integrated markets, utilities will prefer to halt production or even mothball capacity rather than undercut themselves. Short-term surpluses can never be ruled out, but cannot be predicted or assumed. The analysis illustrates the difficulties of predicting such periods.

The analysis of the EU and global markets for a number of potential CCU products demonstrates that the potential market for products stemming from CCU processes both within the EU and globally, is substantial. It is concluded that Methanol and Urea offer significant opportunities for the EU in the short to medium term. CO2 to Methanol conversion represents the most commercially mature CO2 High value Chemical conversion process at present. Although significant scale-up challenges, such as the availability of low cost hydrogen from renewable sources, must be addressed, forecast growth of application in the energy sector mean the process could offer significant commercial opportunities. Commercialisation of CO2 to Methanol conversion could also play a significant role in meeting EU ambitions to move towards a sustainable chemical economy by 2050. Similarly, analysis suggests that Urea synthesis, through the reaction of NH3 with CO2, offers substantial opportunities for the EU. Urea synthesis represents the largest industrial utilisation of CO2 to value added product. Whilst 89% of Urea demand is driven by fertilizer production, research suggests, that industrial application will represent the most significant growth area in the short to medium term. European companies already have the strongest industrial application of Urea globally and are in a leading position to continue to take advantage of growth in this area.

Here after are the state-of-the-art of CO2 Utilisation technologies (figure 7) in Europe which illustrates a multiple value-creation paths with more than 20 individual value chains already identified. The SCOT project has identified the technical and non-technical issues faced by the industry to reach higher TRL levels. Beyond the project, the ambition is to solve those issues and accelerate the time-to-market of those different CO2-based products.

The analysis of existing regulatory measures and constraints, within an EU context, which have or could have an impact on the development of CCU concludes that the cost of CO2 capture, transport and storage technologies remains the most significant barrier to the wider uptake of both CCS and CCU. In order to overcome this barrier, structural incentives are needed to promote both R&D and wider spread application of carbon capture technologies. To date, most analysis has centred on the role of climate change mechanisms and regulation in promoting CCU for its carbon abatement potential. Although this report considers that (if CCU can be included in its scope) the EU ETS represents a viable long-term solution to encouraging economic investment in CCU, the low value and fluctuating price of carbon trading acts as a significant barrier lowering investor confidence. As such, there is a need for short-medium term funding mechanisms. The report also concludes that there is significant opportunity to stimulate CCU development from other legislative and regulatory perspectives. To this end, consideration is given to the potential role of EU waste legislation in promoting CCU. It is concluded that this area of regulation and policy could offer substantial opportunities to accelerate CCU development and contribute to the EU’s overall waste management ambitions. However, at present, the role of CCU in EU waste legislation requires clarification.

The creation of a SCOT online database

The mapping of CO2 Utilisation projects and the identification of available funding mechanism to finance projects in this area has enabled SCOT to have a better understanding of the needs of the community for accelerating the market development of CO2-based products. Indeed, it has been pointed out that there is a need for enhanced coordination of the research and a coherent European funding strategy for CO2 utilisation. In the absence of such a strategy, countries fund individual projects and create their own networks of actors.
The SCOT team has been able to realise a mapping of the CO2 networks and actors as well as the CCU projects undergoing worldwide. Additionally, with the aim to help the CO2 Utilisation community to identify the best suited financing programme for their project proposal related to CO2 Utilisation and find the right partner, the online database provide a more detailed overview on the criteria of each European funding mechanisms and give the opportunity to upload a partner sheet with profile description and specific research needs. With its online database SCOT ambition to stimulate the research and innovation in CO2 Utilisation and support the CO2 community in the realisation of their project.
The production of three strategic documents to support policy-making decisions

It is intended that these documents will feed in to both the national and European debate around CCU and that the data and analysis undertaken will help to inform future policy making in this area. Additionally, these documents have enabled the CO2 community (academics, industrials and researchers) to voice their interests about the future research and innovation needs of the sector

The SCOT project has produced three strategic documents that provide Europe with the key required element to accelerate the growth of the CCU sector. Those three documents are:

ϖ A vision for Europe in the 2030-2050 horizon, which highlights the important role of recycling carbon dioxide in the development of a circular, low carbon economy;
ϖ A medium-term strategic research agenda which sets out a number of technical and non-technical bottlenecks to be considered to facilitate the implementation of CO2 Utilisation technologies;
ϖ A joint action plan identifying short-term actions to set up in order to overcome the identified hurdles and stimulate the development of this new sector into the industry.

This Vision document and the subsequent SERIA (Strategic European Research and Innovation Agenda) and JAP (Joint Action Plan) are the product of extensive research and mapping of CO2 utilisation throughout Europe aimed at understanding the current state of CO2 utilisation. During this research process the following have been conducted:

• Over 300 interviews with experts (industry, academia, policy makers) in CO2 utilisation
• Over 10 workshops at (inter)regional level to synthesise and discuss preliminary results
• A comprehensive regional assessment to map CO2 utilisation actors, the existing funds allocated to CO2 recycling projects and to produce regional SWOT/SOAR analysis
• A comprehensive socio-economic analysis to map major CO2 emitters, energy infrastructures, and assess existing policy and regulations
• An elaborate desk research on three CO2 transformation routes, mineralisation, power to fuels and chemical building blocks
• Extensive review of intermediate results by an international and renowned panel of experts and Public Consultation

Highlights from the SCOT Vision

By developing the Vision document, the SCOT project has underlined the need for Europe to consider CO2 Utilisation as an essential part of the solution to decarbonise the European economy and decouple economic growth from environmental impacts. It has been proven that CO2 Utilisation plays a central role for European industrial actors in becoming more resource-efficient, innovative and competitive.
CO2 utilisation will create new opportunities for economic growth, greater innovation and boost Europe’s competitiveness, whilst supporting its transition to a circular, low-carbon economy. CO2 utilisation can also help to support Europe’s decarbonisation and resource efficiency agendas, and provide a route to become less dependent on imports of fossil fuels. By 2030 the SCOT Vision is that CO2 utilisation technologies will enable addressing a triple challenge, Grow – Energy - Climate:

Highlights from the SCOT SERIA

The SCOT SERIA presents specific research and innovation challenges facing CO2 utilisation. The SERIA is written in three parts, each focusing on different aspects of CO2 utilisation:
1. The non-technical challenges relating to feasibility, policy frameworks, and societal uptake. Specifically, it highlights the needs for more pilot and demonstration facilities and funding, research into the inclusion of CCU in legislation such as the EU ETS and Renewable Energy Directive, increased life cycle analysis (LCA) research and research into socio-political acceptance.
The three pillars to accelerate the market deployment of CO2 Utilisation and the dependent variables are highlighted on the figure below.
Figure 7: Three non-technical pillars for CO2 Utilisation sector emergence and their dependent variables

Highlights from the SCOT JAP

The SCOT Joint Action Plan recommends collaborative and concrete actions which should be started within the next five years to accelerate the development of CO2-derived products and processes within Europe. Each of these actions aims to tackle an aspect of the non-technical and technical challenges that hamper the market development of CO2 utilisation identified throughout the SCOT project. The following sets of actions are proposed:

UNDERPINNING ACTIONS
1. The establishment and sustainment of a European CO2 Utilisation Association to provide an increased level of advocacy for the CO2 utilisation community.
2. The creation of a number of European Modular Pilot Plant and Verification Centres for CO2 utilisation to enable industry and academia to test out, compare and validate various processes and technologies.

CONSOLIDATION ACTIONS
3. Continued and preferably increased funding for fundamental CO2 utilisation research (TRLs 1-4) to develop new CO2 utilisation routes/technologies.
4. Establishing a support programme for the demonstration of the most promising CO2 utilisation technologies to accelerate CO2 utilisation market deployment.
5. Capacity building and raising awareness of the CO2 utilisation sector to increase understanding and appreciation of the opportunities that CO2 utilisation offers.
6. Greater clarity of the impacts of wider European policies on the CO2 utilisation sector to make sure the opportunities afforded by CO2 utilisation are supported by forthcoming European Commission proposals.
7. Increased transparency and harmonisation in Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Validating and proofing sustainability, and technoeconomic capability to answer questions surrounding the various technologies within the CO2 utilisation sector.

WIDENING ACTIONS
8. Building a strong European CO2 utilisation sector (possibly a Joint Technology Initiative) with industry, innovative SMEs, governments and research initiatives, to pursue common ambitious research objectives for and implementation of CO2 utilisation.

Potential Impact:
The potential impact

Some key-words:
Increased visibility – Knowledge exchanges – Smart specialisation – Industrial symbiosis – faster market uptake – Increased awareness / understanding – Research funding availability – Skilled workforce availability – Alignment of national and regional legislations - transition to a more resource efficient, circular economy – Industrial renaissance / modernisation

The recycling of CO2 is of strategic importance for the future, as it offers a broad range of opportunities that will help transition to a more resource efficient, sustainable and resilient future. In a future with greater emphasis placed on the resource efficiency and the environmental impact of supply chains by a combination of regulation and consumer preferences, there will be an increasing market pull for CO2-based products. Given this market pull, and given a more resource efficient Europe overall, it seems logical to suggest that CO2-based products will compose an ever increasing share of the chemical products and synthetic fuels markets; this will provide opportunities for those companies wishing to take them up.

The SCOT team envision a world where CO2 will be used as a resource to create valuable products and consider that CO2 Utilisation is able to completely displace crude-oil based product.

Hereafter are the potential impact the SCOT actions should have:

Bridging the gap and accelerating the time-to-market
Having a number of shared facilities that have undertaken the complex and lengthy tasks of connecting to process gas streams will help accelerate CO2 utilisation development by driving the cost of the research down. A shared facility also allows the funding risk to be broadened between public and private funders, and allows technology developers to concentrate on innovating technologies rather than on the burden of accessing various types of process gas streams. Therefore, through the creation of those modular Pilot Plant and Verification Centres, the SCOT project will enable to bridge the gap and overcome the so called valley of the death by involving significant reductions in costs and effort to take a process from lab scale through to pilot plant scale due to shared investment. Moreover, the reduced risks and costs undertaken by companies will allow an increase in the number and type of processes that can be trialled at pilot scale.

Afterword, the ensuing creation of Public and Private partnership, presently called JTI or JU, will enable the industry to decrease the time taken from lab scale discoveries to demonstration scale investments. Thereby, accelerating the deployment of CO2 utilisation technologies to demonstrator and then commercial scale.
Increasing the knowledge and the number of CO2 Utilisation research projects
By capitalizing on the SCOT’s heritage, an impressive network of more than 800 stakeholders and a SCOT online database identifying CO2 Utilisation project worldwide and available funding mechanisms, SCOT will ease the process of setting up consortia for call submissions and the access to knowhow and expertise within and outside Europe, thus leading to smarter working and increased collaboration. The stakeholders will therefore access an increased knowledge of European developments in the CO2 utilisation sector and identify more easily the partner they need to pursue their project.

Ensuring research funding availability
Throughout the project, the SCOT team have been able to identify the need for further fundamental research for some CO2-based technologies that are stagnating at low TRL level. SCOT, through the CO2 Utilisation association that will be created, will ensure that continued or enhanced National and Regional research funding for fundamental CO2 utilisation are made available to enable the technological advancement needed for those technologies to reach the market faster. Thereby, the increased levels of fundamental scientific knowledge acquired will lead to technological breakthroughs for the CO2 utilisation sector.

Inclusion of CO2 Utilisation in the European strategy and increased market potential
SCOT has brought visibility to the sector in EU commission and the Member states through its actions during the project (more than 50 dissemination activities have been made across the world). The understanding of policy-makers on the field has already increased but SCOT will continue to advocate on policy and increase awareness of national and European policy makers about the opportunities CO2 utilisation can provide as well as produce a smarter screening of viable process routes to ensure environmental credentials . In consequence, after having convinced policy-makers of the benefits CO2 Utilisation can bring and having provided more clarity to investors on the impacts of CO2 utilisation on economy and environment, there will be an increased consideration of the CO2 utilisation sector in the future European innovation strategy and an increased market potential for CO2-derived products.

Industrial symbiosis and Structuration of the CO2 value chain
By stimulating cross sectorial collaborations, the SCOT team has been able to set-up a connection between sectors along the CO2 value chain and enhance the collaboration with other initiatives such as bio-based economy and energy storage. In consequence, SCOT has been able to completely structure the European CO2 value chain and has created links between industrial actors that were unconnected before. Thereby, the CO2 emitted by one industry will be used as a feedstock for another industry, thus enabling industrial symbiosis and a more circular economy.

Smart specialisation
The work performed during the project and specifically under the regional assessment (WP1) provide a first overview of the regional capacities and their competitive advantage when it comes to CO2 Utilisation. The results of this analysis have been integrated on the Strategic Research Agenda and the ensuing Join Action Plan to give a concrete strategy to be followed to ensure the smart growth of the sector.

Beyond the SCOT project, the role of the regions is to endorse those two strategic documents and create their own specific roadmaps based on the identified regional need for research and innovation. The role of the future European CO2 association will be to understand the potential of CO2 Utilisation in Europe and the need for further regional improvement and guide the regions in developing their own roadmaps to ensure that actions are implemented in a smart way.
Development of new skills and competences
Through the creation of a European master class and one day trainings on CO2 Utilisation that should take place in each SCOT regions, SCOT is giving an impulse to the sector by building capacities and ensuring an increased in skilled workforce for CO2 utilisation.

Improved society awareness and engagement
During the project, an increase in the societal awareness of the CO2 Utilisation sector has been perceived. Beyond the project and through the actions that will be implemented, SCOT will continue to engage society and ensure wider public acceptance of CO2 based products by providing an increased understanding of the benefits and risks of CO2 utilisation for Europe and analysing the way CO2 utilisation is perceived by various stakeholder groups in order to communicate clearly and in a strategic manner.

CO2 Utilisation supports the transition towards a low carbon, circular economy
By stimulating the growth of the sector, enabling the replacement of crude-oil based products and connecting the industries along the CO2 value chain, SCOT will improve the competitiveness of the EU economy through re-industrialisation and sustainable growth and support the transition towards a low carbon, circular economy.
Main dissemination activities

The SCOT project has been able to deliver close to 90 dissemination activities addressing countries from all over the world and gathering a wide audience with diverging background such as policy-makers, scientific community, industrials and other type of stakeholders involved in the field directly or indirectly. The dissemination activities have mainly been undertaken within the five SCOT regions but SCOT has been able to widen its impact by participating to renewed conferences around CO2 Utilisation in countries outside of Europe such as Brazil and Singapore.
Through the oral presentations given, the conferences, matchmaking, networking events and workshop organised, the SCOT project has been able to strengthen the capacity of the European regions and stimulate knowledge exchanges, networking and business around CO2 Utilisation.
Undeniably, SCOT has made some noises across the world about this emerging field and has improved the society awareness. Indeed, press articles were published in international press , posters where exposed during high level conferences, flyers were distributed and other communications tools have allowed SCOT to reach an audience of more than 40 thousand people worldwide and informing society about CO2 Utilisation technologies benefits and utilities.
Lastly, the SCOT final conference has highlighted the great improvement on the sector the project has been able to provide during those three years of work. A large audience coming from diverging industries such as chemistry, construction, energy, automobile, etc. has been put together and the way cross-sectoral actions could be deployed through CO2 Utilisation has been demonstrated. For the first time, a discussion between the bio-based industry, the Carbon Capture and Storage and the CO2 Utilisation to emphasise on the economic perspective has been brought on the table. On the other hand, the engagement of regional authorities and key industrials has been promoted with the active participation of key policy-makers and renewed worldwide CO2 experts . Through its final conference SCOT has been able to identify key recommendations on:
• How to overcome the main technical hurdles to make a success of CCU in Europe?
• The economics of CCU: How to make a profitable business case from CCU?
• How to move from smart policy to industrial reality?
• How an appropriate EU regulatory framework will facilitate the development of CCU?

Exploitation of the results

SCOT wants to support the ambition of the European Sustainable Chemicals Support Service (ESCSS) to set-up an Important Project of Common European interest (IPCEI), which engages major players from several Member States and companies from various industry sectors to speed up the transformation of CO2 into value for a rejuvenated European economy and to gain global technology leadership in clean technologies .
Indeed, the three years of work performed by the SCOT team should be used as a basis to develop this initiative as it has already enabled to:
- Bring awareness to policy makers on the use of CO2 for the chemical industry by organising policy study trips and developing briefing paper on the policies that have an impact on the sector and that should consider this emerging technologies.
- Gather international and renowned industrial experts around the subject and structure the new value chains by leveraging the synergies between sectors and thereby supporting industrial symbiosis and the circular economy.
- Identify key regional competences for the five SCOT regions (Wallonia, France, Germany, Netherlands, England) in order to implement European initiative through a smart specialisation strategy. Certainly, the modular pilot plants and demonstrators are planed to be developed where it makes more sense to do so according to regional assets, competitive advantage and the potential for excellence.
- Study the way to generate a successful business case from CO2 Utilisation by realising socio-economic analysis, stimulating debate animated by experts, analysing real study cases and identifying the economic bottlenecks that hinder the market development of CO2-based products.
- Develop a strategic roadmap by realising a Strategic European Research and Innovation Agenda and a Join Action Plan that illustrate the technical and non-technical issues to be tackled and the solution to overcome them and enable the growth of the sector.
To continue the work of the international network developed by the project, it is proposed to create a European association for stakeholders with an interest in CO2 utilisation. The SCOT project has concluded that the development of CO2 Utilisation can bring highly significant benefits for Europe and its industrial sectors. It also demonstrated that coordinated collective action is absolutely essential to accelerate its market development. Indeed, the CO2 value chains, which encompass a large number of industrial sectors, will benefit from increased cooperation and interaction. In addition, the nature of many of the technological and economic challenges calls for pooling of expertise from industrial players and research institutions. Importantly, there is a wider benefit when stakeholders join forces in order to raise visibility and acceptance for CO2 Utilisation and to advocate for the development of supportive regulatory framework conditions, without which most technological solutions will struggle to be brought to market.

In addition to individual companies, universities and research centres, a significant number of collective organisations present in Europe are already involved in activities related, in some way, to CO2 Utilisation. These include sector / industry associations, European Technology Platforms (ETPs), Knowledge & Innovation Communities (KICs), Joint Technology Initiatives (JTIs) and other types of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). However, none of these organizations has CO2 Utilisation as its key focus area. As a result of the absence of coordination between these disparate organisations, gaps, overlaps and dispersion of resources are frequent. It is felt that this is a contributory factor in CO2 Utilisation does not having the advocacy and necessary focus that it should. For this reason, the creation of a European association dedicated to CO2 Utilisation was included as one of the underpinning recommended actions of the SCOT project’s Joint Action Plan. At a meeting organised in Lyon (France) on 21 September 2016, fourteen key industrial stakeholders across the CO2 value chain, as well as two leading research institutions unanimously confirmed that the creation of such an Association, the first in-kind worldwide, was the best way forward after the closing of the SCOT project on 30th of September 2016. This can be viewed as one of the major achievements of the project, which will ultimately contribute to the global reach of the SCOT partners’ regions. The Association will be created using a phased approach. The first phase to be started in December 2016, consists in setting-up a founding consortium with a critical mass of industrial actors. This is the KPI we measured in the framework of this report. It is an important KPI as it measures the extent to which the SCOT Joint Action Plan is endorsed by EU industry. It also influences the success of the second phase, which consists of the creation of the longer-term SCOT Association, so that the CO2 Utilisation community can have a stronger voice to give reliable and relevant e.g. regarding the focus of call topics of H2020 work programmes for 2018-2020 and regional funds post-2020.
Use and dissemination of foreground

The SCOT team worked to increase the awareness of the role that CO2 utilisation could play in Europe through participation in 52 international conferences, the preparation of press releases and giving journal interviews (altogether 12). The team has also published 12 policy papers. Altogether, more than 100 activities of dissemination through these avenues were undertaken. This active communication plan has significantly contributed to the visibility of CO2 utilisation in Europe, and to raise interest in the portfolio of CO2 utilisation technologies.

Type of activity Title Date Event Type of audience Size
1 Oral presentation to a scientific event Smart CO2 Transformation (SCOT): An EU funded project aimed at Defining Europe s Research Agenda for CO2 Utilization 26/11/2014 ECRA Chair Event, University of Mons (Belgium) Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 100
2 Oral presentation to a wider public The Smart CO2 Transformation (SCOT) Project 18/11/2014 School of Engeering network ADISIF, Nanine - Belgium Scientific community (higher education, Research) 20
3 Oral presentation to a scientific event SCOT project: Defining Europe's Research Agenda for CO2 Utilisation 18/11/2014 Duesseldorf, Germany Scientific community (higher education, Research) 40
4 Organisation of Conference SCOT project: Defining Europe's Research Agenda for CO2 Utilisation 3/12/2014 Pollutec, Lyon (France) Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers 31
5 Web sites/Applications Smart CO2 Transformation project(SCOT) - Website: www.scotproject.org 18/12/2014 Rotterdam, Netherlands Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias
6 Organisation of Workshops Carbon Dioxide Utilisation in 2030 1/07/2014 University of Sheffield Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 20
7 Oral presentation to a wider public Internal presentation 21/11/2013 Gosselies Industry 10
8 Oral presentation to a wider public Workshop 26/11/2013 EC Brussels Scientific community (higher education, Research) 30
9 Oral presentation to a wider public CA GreenWin 24/12/2013 Gosselies Industry 30
10 Oral presentation to a wider public Think tank LLN 24/02/2014 Louvain-La-Neuve Industry 4
11 Oral presentation to a wider public GT Agreen 13/03/2014 Gembloux Scientific community (higher education, Research) 12
12 Oral presentation to a wider public PCH Conference 26/03/2014 Lyon Industry 10
13 Organisation of Conference Ceops workshop 26/05/2014 Lilles Scientific community (higher education, Research) 15
14 Organisation of Conference ECRN project meeting 9/07/2014 Munich Scientific community (higher education, Research) 30
15 Organisation of Workshops Recycling CO2 into products: A research and innovation agenda for Europe 13/02/2015 Committee of The regions in Brussels Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 40
16 Articles published in the popular press CO2 recycling: coordinating research and policy efforts across Europe. 7/01/2015 Carbon Capture Journal, issue 43, pp12-13. Jan-Feb 2015 Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias
17 Oral presentation to a scientific event 3rd Conference on Carbon Dioxide as Feedstock for Chemistry and Polymers 2/12/2014 Essen, Germany Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 140
18 Organisation of Workshops Next Steps in CCS 17/10/2014 Sheffield, UK Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 50
19 Posters CO2Forum Lyon, WP2 Poster Presenation 25/09/2014 Lyon, France Scientific community (higher education, Research) 150
20 Oral presentation to a wider public 3rd ECRN Project Council Meeting 25/02/2015 Liaison agency Flanders-Europe (VLEVA) in Brussel Policy makers 42
21 Posters Smart Recycling of CO2 emission into value-added products: A Research and Innovation Agenda for Europe 14/04/2015 Roskilde, Denmark Scientific community (higher education, Research) 100
22 Flyers Innov'Eco: CO2 et Méthane 10/12/2015 Paris Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers - Medias 50
23 Articles published in the popular press Call for partner regions 29/11/2013 International Press: El Pais, La Stampa, Tribune de Géneve, New Carbon Marerials, Carbon Journal Civil society 1000
24 Oral presentation to a scientific event Manufacturing Green Fuels from Renewable Energy 15/04/2015 Roskilde, Denmark Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 72
25 Oral presentation to a wider public 5th BMBF Status Conference on CO2 Utilisation 21/04/2015 Berlin, Germany Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 200
26 Organisation of Workshops SCOT Network Meeting 2/04/2015 Schiedam, The Netherlands Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers 40
27 Oral presentation to a scientific event Presenting SCOT 29/04/2015 Rio de Janeiro Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 150
28 Oral presentation to a scientific event EC scoping workshop : transforming CO2 into value for a rejuvenated European Economy. 26/03/2015 Covent Garden, 16 Place Rogier, Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, Brussels, BE Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 60
29 Web sites/Applications Search for funding agencies to launch a joint ERA-Net like call on CO2 recycling 26/03/2014 mailing and emails exchanges Policy makers 136
30 Web sites/Applications Call for funding agencies to launch a joint ERA-Net like call on CO2 recycling 11/05/2015 mailing and emails exchanges Policy makers 235
31 Organisation of Workshops PtX: a new paradigm for gas and electricity networks? 18/06/2015 Frankfurt Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 80
32 Organisation of Workshops SCOT Associated Roadmapping Workshop at CO2 Forum 2014: : What are the policy bottlenecks for CO2 recycling? 26/09/2014 Lyon Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 100
33 Organisation of Workshops SOAR WP1 Workshop: A vision for CO2 recycling in 2030 24/06/2014 Lyon Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 12
34 Oral presentation to a scientific event CEOPS Workshop 2015 at E-MRS 11/05/2015 Lille Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 40
35 Oral presentation to a wider public " Atelier Club CO2 : « Comment développer une filière de valorisation du CO2 en France » 4/05/2015 Le Havre Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers 40
36 Oral presentation to a wider public " Colloque international CSCV : Dernières avancées, verrous et perspectives de la filière 5/05/2015 Le Havre Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 80
37 Oral presentation to a wider public SCOT Project : The smart CO2 transformation for a revival of the european economy. 29/05/2015 Metamorphose event, Liège (Belgium) Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 85
38 Oral presentation to a wider public What's the Future for Waste? 14/10/2014 Leeds, UK Industry 30
39 Web sites/Applications Update of YCF website 14/10/2014 Huddersfield, UK Industry 100
40 Flyers YCF Annual Directory 30/10/2014 Yorkshire, UK Industry 200
41 Oral presentation to a scientific event SEVESO III - Keep Calm and Be Prepared 30/04/2014 Leeds, UK Industry 160
42 Press releases SCOT chapter in the SPW Activity report 2013 - research progrogrammes department 27/03/2014 Wallonia Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 10000
43 Press releases SCOT chapter in the SPW Activity report 2014 - research progrogrammes department 30/04/2015 Wallonia Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 10000
44 Organisation of Workshops Brokerage event on CO2 recycling 28/09/2015 Essen Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry
45 Oral presentation to a scientific event High Temperature Electrochemistry for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Meeting 16/07/2015 The University of Sheffield Scientific community (higher education, Research) 30
46 Oral presentation to a scientific event ICCDU 2015 5/07/2015 Singapore Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 500
47 Oral presentation to a scientific event ICCDU 2015 5/07/2015 Singapore Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 500
48 Oral presentation to a scientific event CO2 Workshop 17/11/2016 Brussels Industry 50
49 Organisation of Conference PtX: A new paradigm for energy and gas networks? (ACHEMA) 18/06/2015 Frankfurt, Germany Industry - Policy makers 40
50 Press releases Projet européen SCOT : la renaissance industrielle de l Europe par la transformation intelligente du CO2 et de l'économie circulaire 30/06/2016 France Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias
51 Oral presentation to a wider public The Value Chain of Smart CO2 Transformation 19/10/2015 Bruxelles Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers 200
52 Oral presentation to a scientific event SCOT - Carbon Dioxide Utilisation in Europe 13/10/2015 Bruxelles Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers 200
53 Oral presentation to a scientific event A Vision for Smart CO2 Transformation in Europe 21/10/2015 Dresden Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers 120
54 Oral presentation to a wider public Renewable Energy Jobs and Skills on the context of the CO2-based economy 11/04/2016 Bruxelles Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers 60
55 Oral presentation to a wider public L'utilisation intelligente du CO2, une clef de la renaissance de la Wallonie 26/02/2016 Liège Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers 50
56 Oral presentation to a scientific event CO2 CHEMISTRY TO ENABLE RESOURCE-EFFICIENCY, SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPETITIVENESS OF INDUSTRIES 12/05/2016 Gembloux Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers 120
57 Articles published in the popular press Le CO2 comme ressource, pas comme déchet 31/10/2015 COP21 Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias
58 Articles published in the popular press A Smart Carbon Dioxide Transformation as a strong catalyst for the European Industrial Renaissance 30/11/2015 The Parliament Magazine Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias
59 Interviews Y a-t-il un avenir après le nucléaire? 21/05/2015 La Libre Belgique Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias
60 Press releases SCOT final conference - This is not the end 20/07/2016 France Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias
61 Posters Faraday Discussion on Carbon Capture and Storage 17/07/2016 Sheffield Scientific community (higher education, Research) 80
62 Articles published in the popular press Tesla batteries might power your home but stored fuels will still run the country - http://bit.ly/1JyYWw4 2/07/2015 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Civil society 5326
63 Articles published in the popular press We can turn CO2 in the air into new materials but don t expect that to stop climate change - http://bit.ly/1Icjq6Z 25/08/2015 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Civil society 5512
64 Articles published in the popular press Six energy records Britain broke last year - http://bit.ly/1NgbsMM 18/01/2016 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Civil society 3066
65 Oral presentation to a scientific event Faraday Discussions on Carbon Capture and Storage 17/07/2016 Sheffield, UK Scientific community (higher education, Research) 80
66 Oral presentation to a scientific event Low Carbon Energy System with Hydrogen and CCS (Scottish Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association) 9/03/2016 Edinburgh Scientific community (higher education, Research) 50
67 Oral presentation to a wider public SCOT presentation on CATO conference 19/06/2014 Amsterdam, Netherlands Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 80
68 Oral presentation to a wider public Voltachem Conference 17/03/2016 Groningen, Netherlands Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 50
69 Organisation of Workshops Expert discussion at IEA 10/06/2016 Paris, France Policy makers 5
70 Organisation of Workshops Expert discussion at Universite de Paris 18/06/2016 Paris, France Scientific community (higher education, Research) 8
71 Web sites/Applications Construction and launch of website with CCU databases 15/06/2016 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 225
72 Organisation of Conference Announcement / Invitations to SCOT conference 17/05/2016 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 403
73 Organisation of Conference Announcement / Invitations to SCOT conference 8/03/2016 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 426
74 Organisation of Conference Announcement / Invitations to SCOT conference 14/12/2015 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 538
75 Organisation of Conference Announcement / Invitations to SCOT conference 2/09/2015 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 426
76 Organisation of Conference Announcement / Invitations to SCOT conference 10/07/2015 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 432
77 Organisation of Conference SCOT Mid-term Conference 28/09/2015 Essen, Germany Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 80
78 Flyers Handout flyers about SCOT 28/09/2015 Essen, Germany Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 80
79 Flyers Handout flyers about SCOT 29/06/2016 Brussels, Belgium Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers - Medias 144
80 Web sites/Applications Newsletter SCOT Community 24/04/2015 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 61
81 Web sites/Applications Newsletter SCOT Community 8/05/2015 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 64
82 Web sites/Applications Newsletter SCOT Community 27/05/2015 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 64
83 Web sites/Applications Newsletter SCOT Community 20/08/2015 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 78
84 Web sites/Applications Newsletter SCOT Community 30/10/2015 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 131
85 Web sites/Applications Newsletter SCOT Community 6/01/2016 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 148
86 Web sites/Applications Newsletter SCOT Community 15/03/2016 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 176
87 Web sites/Applications Newsletter SCOT Community 22/06/2016 Online Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Civil society - Policy makers - Medias 220
88 Interviews Le CO2 pourra devenir une ressource exploitable 1/08/2016 Actu Environnement, France Medias
89 Oral presentation to a scientific event Presentation to ICCDU2016 conference 14/09/2016 Sheffield Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 100
90 Organisation of Workshops Matchmaking event at ICCDU2016 conference 12/09/2016 Sheffield Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 50
91 Interviews IChemE Low-carbon summit 9/09/2016 London Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 100
92 Interviews Visit to University of Greenwich, Medway 8/09/2016 Medway Scientific community (higher education, Research) 5
93 Interviews Leeds Citygate event 11/07/2016 London Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 100
94 Oral presentation to a scientific event 4th Conference on Carbon Dioxide as Feedstock for Fuels, Chemistry and Polymers 29/09/2015 Essen, Germany Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers - Medias 100
95 Organisation of Conference Rethinking CO2: how can we put it to use? 7/06/2016 London, UK Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers - Medias 100
96 Oral presentation to a scientific event Carbon Dioxide Catalysis 19/04/2016 Algarve, Portugal Scientific community (higher education, Research) 150
97 Organisation of Conference Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: Faraday Discussion 183 7/09/2015 Sheffield, UK Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Medias 150
98 Oral presentation to a scientific event Brussels Sustainable Business Development Summit 19/10/2015 Brussels Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Policy makers - Medias 250
99 Organisation of Conference White Rose Energy Symposium 27/10/2015 Sheffield Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Policy makers 150
100 Oral presentation to a scientific event Grand Challenge Meeting 15/10/2015 Birmingham Scientific community (higher education, Research) 50
101 Interviews Innovation Opportunities from Waste 14/01/2016 Manchester Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 100
102 Oral presentation to a scientific event SCOT Project: Future-looking strategies 12/09/2016 Sheffield, UK Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 250
103 Oral presentation to a wider public SCOT findings 19/10/2016 Antwerpen, Belgium Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry - Policy makers 300
104 Oral presentation to a scientific event CCU: changing game 20/10/2016 Lyon, France Scientific community (higher education, Research) - Industry 100

List of Websites:
www.scotproject.org

Contact

Véronique Graff, (Managing Director)
Tel.: +32495163800
E-mail
Record Number: 197021 / Last updated on: 2017-04-07