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FP7

IRRESISTIBLE Report Summary

Project ID: 612367
Funded under: FP7-SIS
Country: Netherlands

Final Report Summary - IRRESISTIBLE (Including Responsible Research and innovation in cutting Edge Science and Inquiry-based Science education to improve Teacher's Ability of Bridging Learning Environments)

Executive Summary:
Irresistible Project objectives,
In this project 14 partners worked together to raise awareness to Responsible Research and Innovation through Inquiry Based Science Education. In order to do this, Universities worked together with Science Centers and Schools. Within the Universities the departments of (chemical or science) education were involved as well as research institutes that do science research.
Methodology
In the 10 countries participating in this project ‘Community of Learners’(CoL) were formed in which researchers, teachers, educational specialists and specialists in informal learning from science centers worked together. If possible specialists from industry were added to the CoL. In this first round the aim was to have at least five schools represented in the CoL.
Products
Within each country a central theme was chosen, as the theme for the educational material to be developed by the CoL. The CoL’s developed modules that can be used in schools in the age range from 10 to 18 The material produced in each CoL was tested with at least one group of students in each school represented in the CoL. This way each CoL will reach at least 5 teachers and 125 students during the first year
The modules
The educational material uses a methodology based on Inquiry Based Science Education as a guideline in the development of the material.
In this case the so-called 5 E method, developed by Robert Bybee, was adapted to include a sixth E: Exchange. In the first three steps (Engage, Explore and Explain) the scientific knowledge is discussed. In the second part (Elaborate and Exchange) focus is on Responsible Research and Innovation aspects. Students are asked to develop an exhibit that demonstrates these aspects to the public. These exhibits are displayed in an exhibition at the science centre. In the Evaluation phase the material is reviewed and students are tested on their scientific knowledge.
Second round of CoL
Each country has used material from its partners. In the second round of CoL’s each teacher was a coach for at least 5 other teachers in using one of the modules developed in the first round. That way each country will have reached at least 25 teachers and 5 coaches with around 900 students.
Reviews gathered from the second round were used to finalize the modules, so that at the end of the project 10 well tested educational modules introducing Responsible Research and Innovation are available.
Evaluation
In order to assess the impact of the modules several questionnaires are developed. These questionnaires were used both in the first and second round of the CoL’s. They concerned knowledge and attitudes of teachers and students about Responsible Research and Innovation, exhibition development as a part of the modules, as well as teachers' and other CoL members' views on the CoL work, RRI teaching, inquiry-based teaching and some social matters in science education. The modules were also evaluated against the set of criteria specifically developed for the project.
Dissemination
Dissemination took place on both national and international scale using platforms like the Division of Chemical Education of EUCHEMS, the Committee on Chemistry Education of IUPAC as well as ECTN. The project has been reported within the framework of ‘Scientix’

Project Context and Objectives:
General goal of the project Irresistible
The project IRRESISTIBLE designs activities that foster the involvement of students and the public in the process of responsible research and innovation. We raise awareness about RRI in two ways:
• Increasing content knowledge about research by bringing topics of cutting edge research into the program
• Fostering a discussion among the students about RRI issues about the topics that are introduced.
Teacher training
The main focus of the project IRRESISTIBLE is on teacher training. All partners have experience in both pre- and in-service teacher training. Through teacher training we will establish a longer lasting effect than only working with different students year after year. Teachers that have used educational material successfully will be using this material in consecutive years.
In the teacher training process we want to connect formal and informal learning environments. Informal environments can be used in different ways in the educational process:
• Attract positive attention from students towards a subject,
• Introduce content knowledge in a different way,
• Possibility to discuss with stakeholders about RRI issues.
In the formal learning environment we want the teachers to adapt existing material into a new format in which
• students are activated,
• interest from both boys and girls is promoted,
• students take responsibility for their own learning,
• new topics are introduced that demonstrate the overlap between different fields of science.
Community of Learners
For the teacher training IRRESISTIBLE will use Communities of Learners (CoL). Communities of Learners have proven to be a powerful means of training teachers(Loucks-Horsley, Stiles, Mundry, Love, & Hewson, 2010). Both in the Netherlands in the project ‘Nieuwe Scheikunde’ as well as in Germany in ‘Chemie im Kontext’ these communities have been used and are still used to improve the professional abilities of teachers. Within the Community of Learners each group has a different role: teachers have expertise with working in the classroom; science educators have a large theoretical background about education; science centres have experience in informal learning activities; researchers are experts in cutting edge science research; and people from industry are aware of the way science is used in industry.
Our Communities of Learners include experts from the field of formal and informal education, both in research and practice. The first step will be to adapt existing material on teaching and learning about Responsible Research and Innovation for school and out-of-school learning environments.
Topics will be cutting edge research taking place in the local universities, and will be supported by the researchers that will be part of the Communities of Learners. Cutting-edge scientific and technological matters highlight a “borderline science”, that is controversial, preliminary, uncertain and under debate. The controversial dimension refers to “differences over the nature and content of the science such as the perception of risk, interpretation of empirical data and scientific theories, as well as the social impact of science and technology” (Levinson, 2003, p. 1202).
Apart from content knowledge about the research related to the local curriculum, focus will be on the Responsible Research and Innovation aspects that will be integrated in the adapted teaching modules in an IBSE approach
Each teaching module
1. Introduces an everyday situation/ subject (in order to make the topic contextualized and relevant to students),
2. uses an IBSE approach, advances to the observing, classifying, experimenting and explaining the phenomena and the properties that are relevant to the chosen application,
3. addresses the broader issues related to the application in question: societal and environmental implications, ethical issues, and other RRI aspects,
4. includes instructions for teachers on how to use the module and utilize the platform (e.g. exemplary schedule for the course, suggestions for lesson plans...),
5. provides additional reading material on the topic in question, to be included in the textbook-like information source for teachers and students,
6. let students design exhibit that
a. presents the chosen subject (the same one as in the teaching module),
b. highlights the phenomena and properties relevant to that application,
c. addresses the societal and environmental implications and related ethical issues.

The Communities of Learners will use Inquiry Based Science Education techniques that have proven to be effective (Eisenkraft, 2003; Martin-Hansen, 2002). The Community of Learners will work on modules to be used in the classroom. The Communities will be using the 6E template (see below) as a communal way to introduce content knowledge about the topic chosen . The teachers and the other experts will learn how to use these techniques by fitting the existing material into the 6E and IBSE format. They will then use this material in the classroom, if necessary being coached by the local experts in formal education.
Modules will be adapted based on the experience in the classroom. These modules will then be used in the second round. As each partner will produce a module at the end of the first round, the teachers from round 2 can choose from 10 modules which module they would like to work with. The teachers from round 1 will act as coach and will introduce the teachers from round 2 into the format used for teaching. The science centres will use or adapt their exhibition to draw attention towards the role of the research studied for society. Such an exhibition is also meant to catch the attention of the general public, supported by different dissemination activities. For the students this may be a starting point for their enquiry RRI project. In the second part of the modules the science centres will play an important role in the RRI discussions.
Dissemination
The dissemination aims to raise awareness for the project and to ensure that all the performed activities and outcomes are disseminated and exploited widely and efficiently to the target audiences using suitable communication methods across Europe. Each partner will be involved in the activities of dissemination locally and internationally.

Target audiences will be
(a) Pre- and in-service science teachers and their professional associations,
(b) Science Museums/Centres,
(c) Researchers in Science Education,
(d) Parents and their associations,
(e) Policymakers at different levels (local, national, European) involved in the design of school curricula, and
(f) Media representatives interested in new data about students’ scientific competences.

Concerning the dissemination tools, the project will include:
• IRRESISTIBLE Website: The project website will be the major tool of dissemination and will be used at every stage of the project to provide information about the project. This website will also have a mobile version accessible with smartphones. Facebook pages: On a national level Facebook pages will be created to spread the information about the project among younger users.. Every party writes two posts a year that will be translated to all pages. The project will have at least a new posting every two weeks.
• Use networks among teachers at national and international levels aimed at supporting the teachers’ work and ensuring the spreading of educational best practices beyond the group of teachers and schools directly involved in the project; both teacher and science associations will be included through their conferences and journals or newsletters: scientific and popular scientific journals / publishers, such as Spektrum der Wissenschaft in Germany or Wiley, will be starting points for this other important projects and networks across Europe will be used to disseminate the outcomes of the Irresistible project beyond the partner countries;
Special criteria for all topics: Gender
Gender is an important facet that relate to Responsible Research and Innovation.
To successfully address the needs and interests of underrepresented groups, we need to know not only what works, but what works for whom (AAUW, 2004). Research has provided insight into these issues, especially on the role of gender in predicting scientific interest. The ROSE study, for example, found that girls’ interests were focused on health, medicine, the body, the mind, and well-being, whereas boys wished to learn more about the dramatic aspects of physics and chemistry, and how technology works (Busch, 2005; Jenkins & Nelson, 2005; Schreiner, 2006; Lavonen, Juuti, Uitto, Meisalo, & Byman, 2005 and others). The list of topics that were suggested in the Irresistible project cover the different interest dimensions that boys and girls find to be appealing. Therefore, the project is designed to be attractive to boys and girls. Additionally, a number of studies pointed out the influence of role models, sociocultural influences, and self-efficacy as well as achievements (e.g. Lorenzo et al., 2006). Those aspects will be included into the teacher professionalization programs and thereby considered in the design of the modules. Recently a campaign It’s a girl thing was started by the EU. http://science-girl-thing.eu/en/6-reasons-science-needs-you/innovative-and-secure-societies . The IRRESISTIBLE will explicitly address the themes highlighted by that campaign by applying the “Six reasons science needs you” (http://science-girl-thing.eu/en/6-reasons-science-needs-you) for the topics of the modules:
- the theme “Health, demographic change and wellbeing” is explicitly addressed in the module developed by University of Groningen;
- theme ”Food security, sustainable agriculture and the bio-economy” in the modules developed by IPN Kiel, Deutsches Museum, and University of Lisbon;
- theme “Secure, clean and efficient energy” in the modules developed by Weizmann Institute of Science and Valahia University Targoviste;
- theme “Smart and clean transport” through nanotechnological applications in the modules developed by University of Bologna, University of Palermo, Jagiellonian University, Bogazici University, and University of Crete;
- theme “Climate action, resource efficiency and raw materials” in the modules developed by University of Jyväskylä, University of Helsinki, IPN Kiel, Deutsches Museum, and University of Lisbon;
- theme “Innovative and secure societies” through nanotechnological applications in the modules developed by University of Bologna, University of Palermo, Jagiellonian University, Bogazici University, and University of Crete.
Also other information on the “It’s a girl thing” website will be utilized in the project. In the design of the materials as well as in the evaluation special attention will be given to the relation between science education, gender and RRI.
In the design of the materials as well as in the evaluation special attention will be given to the relation between science education-gender –RRI. As a consequence the gender issue will receive special attention during our meetings and our reports. In the Newsletter we will include a special paragraph about gender issues. In the reports we will publish and will present at conferences one of the attention points will be the role of gender in our projects.
The extended 5E method.
In ‘Science education now’ (Rocard et al., 2007) a number of problems are observed for the low number of young people that are attracted towards science and science education. The way science is taught is observed to be one of the problems. Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE) is introduced as one of the ways to improve this situation and increase students’ interest in science (Osborne and Dillon, 2008). In IRRESISTIBLE we employ IBSE as the pedagogical approach in the design of tools for teaching and learning. A lot of research exist in this field and the approach has been described and used successfully in other FP3 and FP7 projects such as ESTABLISH (2007), PROFILES (2011) and S-TEAM (2009). The IBSE approach employed here provides the students with an insight into the process of Responsible Research and Innovation, and specifies the important steps in that process (that are carried out often more than once and not always in a straight forward order).
The IBSE approach used in this project addresses also several other challenges of contemporary science education pointed out in ‘Science education now’ (Rocard et al., 2007) and the literature on science education (Bennett & Holman, 2002; Osborne & Dillon, 2008; Parchmann & Ralle, 1998):
Lack of cooperation between various actors in the formal and informal arenas:
the IRRESISTIBLE project will develop in each module classroom solutions and out-of-school learning environments in which will reinforce each other and provide a specific platform for bringing together learning experiences from different settings
The insufficient scale and dissemination of activities:
the IRRESISTIBLE project will pay special attention to the dissemination of the educational materials using international platforms that have proven successful in disseminating results like www.scientix.eu. Working with an integrated working platform with representatives from primary or secondary schools to higher education, science centres and if possible industry, will create different introductions to responsible research and innovation.
Teachers are key players in the renewal of science education:
The outcomes of the IRRESISTIBLE projects are incorporated in pre- and in-service teacher education programs as well as disseminated through teachers’ networks both locally and internationally.
In the design of possible modules we consider the use of the 5E approach as designed by Roger Bybee (Bybee, 2002) in which five stages play a central role:
Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate and Evaluate. We have extended the 5E model, by inserting Exchange between Elaborate and Evaluate, so that the different groups involved in the project may exchange information with each other. In table 3 this has been worked in some detail. The exhibits form the summative assessment for the RRI part of the module; a normal test will be used as summative assessment of the content knowledge.
Literature
American Association of University Women. (2004). Under the microscope: A decade of gender equity projects in the sciences. Washington, DC: AAUW Educational Foundation.
Bennett, J., & Holman, J. (2002). Context based approaches to the teaching of chemistry: What are they and what are their effects? In J. K. Gilbert, O. d. Jong, R. Justi, D. F. Treagust & J. H. v. Driel (Eds.), Chemical education: Towards research-based practice (pp. 165-185). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Busch, H. (2005, September/October). Is science education relevant? Europhysics News, 36(5), 162 – 167.
Eisenkraft, A. (2003). Expanding the 5E model. The Science Teacher, 30(September), 57-58,59.
Hawkey, R. (2001) Innovation, inspiration, interpretation: museums, science and learning, Ways of Knowing Journal, 1(1).
Jenkins, E. W., & Nelson, N. W. (2005). Important but not for me: Students’ attitudes towards secondary school science in England. Research in Science & Technological Education, 23(1), 41 – 57.
Lavonen, J., Juuti, K., Uitto, A., Meisalo, V., & Byman, R. (2005). Attractiveness of science education in the Finnish comprehensive school. In A. Manninen, K. Miettinen, & K. Kiviniemi (Eds.), Research findings on young people’s perceptions of technology and science education (pp. 5 – 30). Helsinki: Technology Industries of Finland.
Levinson, R. (2003). Towards a theoretical framework for teaching controversial socio-scientific issues. International Journal of Science Education, 28(10), 1201–1224.
Loucks-Horsley, S., Stiles, K. E., Mundry, S., Love, N., & Hewson, P. W. (2010). Strategies for proffesional learning Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics (Third ed., pp. 157-278). Califirnia: Corwin.
Martin-Hansen, L. (2002).Defining inquiry: Exploring the many types of inquiry in the science classroom. The Science Teacher, 59(February), 34-37.
Nentwig, P. M., Parchmann, I., Gräsel, C., & Ralle, B. (2007). Chemie im kontext: Situated learning in relevant contexts while systematically developing basic chemical concepts. Journal of Chemical Education, 84(9), 1440-1444.
Osborne, J. & Dillon, J. (2008). Science Education in Europe: Critical Reflections. A Report to the Nuffield Foundation. London: King’s College.
Parchmann, I., & Ralle, B. (1998). Chemie in kontext- ein konzept zur verbesserung der akzeptanz von chemieunterricht? In A. Kornetzt (Ed.), Chemieunterricht im spannungsfeld gesellschaft-chemie-umwelt (pp. 12-24). Berlin: Cornelesen Verlag.
Rocard M., Csermely P., Jorde D., Lenzen D., Walberg-Henriksson H., Hemmo V. (2007). Science Education Now: A renewed pedagogy for the future of Europe. Directorate-General for Research, EUROPEAN COMISSION.
Schreiner, C. (2006). Exploring a ROSE-garden: Norwegian youth’s orientations towards science-seen as signs of late modern identities. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
Shulman, L. S., & Sherin, M. G. (2004). Fostering communities of teachers as learners: Disciplinary perspectives. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 33(2), 135-140.
Sutcliffe, H. (2011). A report on responsible research and innovation. Brussels: Matter.

Project Results:
Main results and foregrounds.

This project is a coordination and support project. That means results are primarily in products.

The title of the products are given below.
Short Name; Developed by; Module name; Languages
The Netherlands; Carbohydrates in breast milk; Turkey; Nano in health ;
Israel; The RRI of Perovskite-Based Photovoltaic Cells; Poland; The Catalytic Properties of Nanomaterials; Italy (Bologna); Nanotechnology for Solar Energy; Italy (Bologna); Nanotechnology for Information; Italy (Palermo); Energy Sources; Greece; Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Applications; Portugal; Geoengineering;
Portugal; Evaluate Earth's Health through Polar Regions; Germany (Kiel); Plastic - Bane of the Oceans; Germany (Munich); Offshore Wind Energy; Romania; Ferrofluids technology; Romania; Lotus Effect; Romania; Nanoscience; Romania; Natural Nanomaterials; Finland; Climate Change;

The modules that have been produced are published through the website: http://www.irresistible-project.eu/index.php/en/resources
These contain the pdf versions of the modules.

Making of the modules
The modules have been produced by the Community of Learners that each partner formed. In the first round the modules have been designed and written. They were tried out by the teachers, that were a member of the CoL. Their feedback was used to adapt the modules.
After year 1 the modules were exchanged among the partners. These were then tried out. During the meeting in Sinaia, March 2016, feedback was given for each module. This feedback was used to finalize the modules.
For the lay out a word template was used that was designed by the University of Groningen.
For each module a folder was designed as well as a short video, to introduce the module. These videos can be found on youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCC1DW2ydiGXCTbjfbELQvNA/videos?shelf_id=0&view=0&sort=dd

The folders are collected in a pdf document, that has been attached to the main report.

In the following pages a short description of each module is given (taken from the folders).

Articles
A number of articles are either accepted and awaiting print. Others have been submitted and are under review. More than 20 articles have been published in national teacher journals.

Other products

Some other guides have been produced that are also available through the project website.
This includes the Irresistible Exhibition Development guide. This guide helps teachers and students to prepare an exhibition as part of the project.
The Generic Teaching guide gives general information about teaching IBSE modules.
The last guide that was published is the guidebook: ICT Tools in School- a practical guide.
The questionnaires that have been used in WP5 and WP2 are also available on request (j.h.apotheker@rug.nl)

Carbohydrates in (Breast) Milk a better health with smart carbohydrates
“Why don’t babies drink milk from the supermarket?”
This central question in this interdisciplinary teaching module is answered during biology and chemistry classes. The module comprises many topics from the curriculum of both subjects. The module is suitable for upper level high-school, but with adaptations it can also be used in different grades.

Why use this module in class?
- Interdisciplinary module combining biology and chemistry in a scientific context
- Combination of many active learning approaches
- Modules addresses many Academic Skills
- Module includes the relation of the scientific topic with societal issues by using Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
- Students make an exhibition on the science & the ethical issues as windup of the module

Module carbohydrates in milk
In this module, students work on many different aspects of (breast)milk and its effect on babies.
The module combines biological topics like digestion, the importance of gut bacteria and their influence on the immune system and thus the health of adults and babies, and chemical topics like biochemistry and process chemistry in the context of milk and the production of baby formula. In addition, ethical issues are addressed like the marketing of breast milk substitutes, and the discussions between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding mums.
The project is closed by an exhibition at school, in which the students present what they have learned to their peers, combining scientific and ethical issues.
The project takes about 12-16 lessons, depending on the topics and learning approaches used.

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)

Responsible Research and Innovation is a term that is introduced by the EU to make science and society work better together. The goal is that all societal actors, including citizens, are more involved in the process of Research and Innovation.
The students of today are the scientists and the citizens of tomorrow, so it is necessary for them to see the relevance of science topics for society. In the module, the six key issues of RRI are introduced (Engagement, Open Access, Gender, Ethics, Science Education and Government) and the students are motivated to work with this topic by activities like a game, role play or debate over propositions that relate to the scientific topics.

Inquiry-based Science Education (IBSE) and active learning

The module is based on the didactic model of IBSE and is divided into 6 chapters:
Engage – engage the student with the topic with a quiz and some background information
Explore – explore the scientific questions, perform experiments;
Explain – answer the scientific questions in groups;
Elaborate – elaborate on the ethical/RRI-issues;
Exchange – building an exhibition and pitching;
Evaluate – test and grading of the exhibitions.
The teaching module contains many opportunities for active learning approaches:
- Manuals for different experiments included in the module.
- Students learn the scientific content in groups, and present their findings to the rest of the class;
- Ethical/RRI-issues can be discussed in a role play game or a debate
- Students summarize their findings in an exhibition.
In this way, academic skills like summarizing, searching for information, presenting, argumentation and designing are dealt with.

Nano and Health
This module was developed around the central theme of applications of nanotechnology in health sciences integrating chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics. It addresses the central questions above and many more.

Why use this module in class
• It addresses a cutting-edge science topic integrating chemistry, physics, biology, and mathematics.
• It was developed around approach of the inquiry-based science education, which requires students active involvement in learning as they practice certain science process skills
• It introduces students some Web 2.0 tools (Kahoot, Mindomo, Glogster, Aurasma and etc.) as learning-aid.
• It provides students with discussions of scientific topics through the critical perspective of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
• It gives students the opportunity to develop and present an exhibition product.
Short Description of the Module
Using the method of inquiry-based science education, the module aims to teach the fundamental ideas of nanoscience (e.g., size and scale, size dependent properties, tools and instruments) and the use of nanoparticles in health sciences, in particular antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles, by integrating the dimensions of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI).

The module includes 8 coherently related lessons, and also a month-long period, at which students develop and exhibit interactive exhibition products. It involves various alternative activities, which are suitable for grade 7-11 (Age: 13-17).

Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE)

This module is developed based on 6E Learning Cycle:
• engagement: Students are engaged in topic with a local news about cross infections in hospitals, examination of a brochure including nano-based suggestions for prevention of cross infections and several activities on size and scale concept, size dependent properties and instruments (AFM, SEM) used in nanoscience.
• exploration: Students synthesize silver nanoparticles, test its antibacterial effect and test the durability of the antibacterial effect of a textile nano-product against washing.
• explanation: Students share and discuss the results of experiments they conduct, and discuss on the mechanism behind the antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and results of washing analysis.
• elaboration: Students examine the properties and usage areas of other nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanoparticles.
• exchange: Students develop an exhibit product related to content of the module in groups. They display these products first in their schools, then at a science center.
• evaluation: Students discuss and share the results of experiments they conduct with each other, they argue about many controversial RRI issues, and upload their journal entries on Edmodo. Finally students exhibitionproducts are evaluated.

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
RRI is a term introduced by European Commission (EC, 2012) to describe a process, which meets all societal actors including citizens, scientists, politicians, and governmental and non-governmental organizations at a common ground, revealing their responsibilities for each other so as to improve the cooperation of science and society. EU has defined 6 key aspects of RRI (EC, 2012):
• engagement of all societal actors in the research and innovation process to develop joint solutions to societal problems and opportunities,
• gender equality is integration of gender dimension in research and innovation content with joint participation of women and men,
• science education should be focused for enhancement of the current education process for better equipped future researchers and other societal actors with the necessary knowledge,
• ethics implies that research and innovation must respect fundamental rights and the highest ethical standards,
• open access is free online access to the results of researches to enhance use of scientific results by all societal actors,
• governance implies the responsibility of policymakers to prevent harmful or unethical developments and promote improvements in research and innovation.

Student Curated Exhibitions
At the end of the 8 lessons of the module,students start to design and develop an interactive exhibition product at which they integrate a scientific topic about nanotechnology applications with RRI. Student-curated exhibition is the exchange phase of this module in a broad sense. During these exhibitions, students meet with many visitors from peers at other schools to academicians.

The RRI of Perovskite-Based Photovoltaic Cells (Weizmann Institute of Science)
This module was developed around the leading question: Under what conditions, if any, would we (the students) agree to have perovskite-based photovoltaic cells installed on the windows of our school?"

Why use this module in class

• It addresses a cutting-edge science topic integrating chemistry, physics, energy and environment
• It was developed around approach of the inquiry-based science education, which requires students active involvement in learning as they practice certain science process skills
• It includes lab activities and a visit in a science museum
• It provides students with discussions of scientific topics through the critical perspective of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
• It gives students the opportunity to develop and present an exhibition product.

Short Description of the Module

The main goal of the module is to foster positive attitudes towards RRI by both teachers and students, by focusing on the use of perovskite-based photovoltaic cells (Snaith, 2013) within the context of using alternative energy. Perovskite-based photovoltaic cells are the research topic of a Weizmann Institute scientist. These photovoltaic cells have a relatively high efficiency but also have liabilities, such as the use small amounts of lead, a poisonous substance.

Target Group: 10th to 12th grade chemistry students

Duration of the Module: one 3-hour lesson on RRI (in the classroom), followed by a 6-hour visit (in the science museum and in the Weizmann Institute of Science) and a 3- to 4-hour session on building the exhibits (in the classroom).

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)

RRI is a term introduced by European Commission (EC, 2012) to describe a process, which meets all societal actors including citizens, scientists, politicians, and governmental and non-governmental organizations at a common ground, revealing their responsibilities for each other so as to improve the cooperation of science and society. EU has defined 6 key aspects of RRI (EC, 2012):
• engagement of all societal actors in the research and innovation process to develop joint solutions to societal problems and opportunities,
• gender equality is integration of gender dimension in research and innovation content with joint participation of women and men,
• science education should be focused for enhancement of the current education process for better equipped future researchers and other societal actors with the necessary knowledge,
• ethics implies that research and innovation must respect fundamental rights and the highest ethical standards,
• open access is free online access to the results of researches to enhance use of scientific results by all societal actors,
• governance implies the responsibility of policymakers to prevent harmful or unethical developments and promote improvements in research and innovation.

Student Curated Exhibitions

At the end of the module, students start to design and develop an interactive exhibition product at which they integrate the leading question of the module. Th exhibition includes the scientific parts as well as the RRI dimension. Student-curated exhibition is the exchange phase of this module in a broad sense. During these exhibitions, students meet with many visitors from peers at other schools to academicians.

The Catalytic Properties of Nanomaterials
“Why is soot harmful and how we can get rid of it?”
It is one of the questions in this teaching module. The module comprises many topics from the school Chemistry curriculum such as absorption, catalysis, colloids, combustion processes. Students start their activities from the elements of the Nature of Science. The module is proposed for upper secondary schools, but with adaptations it can also be used for younger students.
Why use this module in class?
- Module combining nanotechnology, environmental protection and catalysis
- Collection of many active learning approaches
- Modules addresses many Academic Skills
- Module includes the relation of the scientific topic with societal issues by using Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
- Students make an exhibition on the science & the ethical issues as windup of the module

the Catalytic Properties of Nanomaterials
In this module, students work on many different aspects of catalysis. They learn, obtain experimentally, investigate and model the effectiveness of various catalytic substances. Particular emphasis is placed on the catalytic removal of air pollutions. In parallel, the ethical aspects of innovations introduced are discussed, such as the disposal/recycling of the old automotive converter, illegal removal of particular matter exhaust converters from Diesel engines, or fraud when measuring the composition of exhaust gasses.
The project is closed by an exhibition at school, in which the students present what they have learned to their peers, combining scientific and ethical issues.
The project takes about 14-22 lessons, depending on chosen sub-modules and learning approaches used.

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
Responsible Research and Innovation is a term that is introduced by the EU to make science and society work better together. The goal is that all societal actors, including citizens, are more involved in the process of Research and Innovation.
The students of today are the scientists and the citizens of tomorrow, so it is necessary for them to see the relevance of science topics for society.
In the module, the six key issues of RRI are introduced (Engagement, Open Access, Gender, Ethics, Science Education and Government) and the students are motivated to work with this topic by activities like a game, role play or debate over propositions that relate to the scientific topics.
Each lesson consists of 6 phases (6E –characteristic for IBSE):
Engage ... the students with the topic by means of a quiz, videos, news,
Explore ... the scientific questions, perform experiments;
Explain ...in groups and in collaboration with the teacher;
Elaborate ... by exploration new chemistry related fields and the RRI-issues
Exchange ...between the groups of students as well as finally with wider audience by creating an open exhibition;
Evaluate ... through self- and peer-assessment, tests, and tasks.

Inquiry-based Science Education (IBSE) and active learning
The module contains many opportunities for active learning approaches: students experiments, mind maps, discussions: debate, brainstorming. In this way students will:
• Develop their inquiry skills such as searching for information, analysing data, reasoning, argumentation, and such competencies as communication, cooperation.
• Learn about catalysis and catalysts, nanomaterials and nanotechnology
• Increase their awareness of the scientific method, RRI, and environmental protection.

Nanotechnology for information
“How can we use light to get information about the world?”
This central question is answered in an educational module focused on the nanotechnology studies carried out to get information from the interaction light/matter and on the RRI aspects relevant to this specific research field. The module is suitable for upper level high school and comprises many topics from the curriculum of both physics and chemistry.
Why use this module in class?
- It is an interdisciplinary module combining physics and chemistry in a scientific context, but also technological application in everyday life
- It combines many active learning approaches
- It evolves many academic skills
- It includes the relation of the scientific topic with societal issues by using Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
- It involves students in making an exhibition on the science & the ethical issues as wind-up of the module

The module is composed of a basic core dealing with nanotechnology and active learning nanosensors: the fundamental laws of chemistry underpinning the development of nanotechnology; what nanosensors are, in particular the luminescent ones, and what they can be used for; the involvement of chemistry to design, prepare and use nanosensors; the importance of nanotechnology and nanosensors in our society for the human beings and the environment; the different types of natural and artificial nanosensors. The module is implemented by experimental activities concerning the use of luminol emission in forensic test to reveal blood stains and the identification of the compound responsible of the blue emission shown by Schweppes irradiated with UV-light. Ethical issues, like advantages and hazards connected to the use of nanosensors both for human beings and environment, the involvement of different actors in the development and use of nanosensors, the importance to design nanosensors for and with society, are also addressed.
At the end of the module the students are engaged in the creation of exhibits in which scientific and ethical issues are combined.
The module takes about 14-18 hours spanned in 8-10 lessons.

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
Responsible Research and Innovation is a term that is introduced by the EU to make science and society work better together. The goal is that all societal actors, including citizens, are more involved in the process of Research and Innovation.
The students of today are the scientists and the citizens of tomorrow, so it is necessary for them to see the relevance of science topics for society.
In the module, the six key issues of RRI are introduced (Engagement, Open Access, Gender, Ethics, Science Education and Government) and the students are motivated to work with this topic by activities like a game, role play or debate over propositions that relate to the scientific topics.

Inquiry-based Science Education (IBSE) and active learning

The module is based on the didactic model of IBSE and is divided into 6 chapters:
Engage – engage the student with the topic with a quiz and some background information
Explore – explore the scientific questions, perform experiments;
Explain – answer the scientific questions in groups;
Elaborate – elaborate on the ethical/RRI-issues;
Exchange – building an exhibition and pitching;
Evaluate – test and grading of the exhibitions.
The teaching module contains many opportunities for active learning approaches:
- Manuals for different experiments included in the module.
- Students learn the scientific content in groups, and present their findings to the rest of the class;
- Ethical/RRI-issues can be discussed in a role play game or a debate
- Students summarize their findings in an exhibition.
In this way, academic skills, like summarizing, searching for information, discussing, experimenting and designing, are dealt with.

Nanotechnology for solar energy
“Why do we have to use renewable energy sources, in particular solar energy?”
This central question is answered in an educational module focused on the nanotechnology studies carried out to convert sunlight into electric energy and on the RRI aspects relevant to this specific research field. The module is suitable for upper level high-school and comprises many topics from the curriculum of both physics and chemistry.
Why use this module in class?
- It is an interdisciplinary module combining physics and chemistry in a scientific context, but also economic and technological aspects
- It combines many active learning approaches
- It evolves many academic skills
- It includes the relation of the scientific topic with societal issues by using Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
- It involves students in making an exhibition on the science and the ethical issues as wind-up of the module

Nanotechnology for solar energy

The module is composed of a basic core dealing with the need of using renewable energy sources, in particular solar energy, the description of natural and artificial ways of exploiting and storing solar energy, the importance of nanotechnology to address the problem of energy supply and the production of photovoltaic energy, pros and cons concerning the different materials used to develop photovoltaic cells, i.e. perovskite. The module is implemented by experimental activities concerning the construction of a Graetzel cell with natural dyes and the analysis of the photoanode with an atomic force microscope.
Ethical issues, like social implications raised by the development of renewable energy sources, the importance of engaging different actors to face the energy problem, the choices made by the governments of different world regions and countries to address the problem of energy supply, are also tackled.
At the end of the module the students are engaged in the creation of exhibits in which scientific and ethical issues are combined.
The module takes about 20-25 hours spanned in 12-14 lessons.

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)

Responsible Research and Innovation is a termthat is introduced by the EU to make science and society work better together. The goal is that all societal actors, including citizens, are more involved in the process of Research and Innovation.
The students of today are the scientists and the citizens of tomorrow, so it is necessary for themto see the relevance of science topics for society.
In the module, the six key issues of RRI are introduced (Engagement, Open Access, Gender, Ethics, Science Education and Government) and the students are motivated to work with this topics by actities like a game, role play or debate over propositions that relate to the scientific topics.

Inquiry-based Science Education (IBSE) and active learning

The module is based on the didactic model of IBSE and is divided into 6 chapters:
Engage – engage the student with the topic with a quiz and some background information
Explore – explore the scientific questions, performexperiments;
Explain – answer the scientific questions in groups;
Elaborate – elaborate on the ethical/RRI-issues;
Exchange – building an exhibition and pitching;
Evaluate – test and grading of the exhibitions.
The teaching module contains many opportunities for active learning approaches:
- Manuals for different experiments included in the module.
- Students learn the scientific content in groups, and present their findings to the rest of the class;
- Ethical/RRI-issues can be discussed in a role play game or a debate
- Students summarize their findings in an exhibition.
In this way, academic skills, like summarizing, searching for information, discussing, experimenting and designing, are dealt with.

Nanotechnology for solar energy
“Could we use natural pigments to exploit solar radiation?”

This central question in this interdisciplinary teaching module is answered during physics and chemistry classes. The module includes many topics from the curriculum of both subjects. The module is suitable for upper level high-school, but with adaptations it can also be used in other grades.
Why use this module in class?
- Interdisciplinary module combining chemistry and physics in a scientific context
- Combination of many active learning approaches
- Modules addresses many Academic Skills
- Module includes the relation of the scientific topic with societal issues by using Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
- Students make an exhibition on the science & the ethical issues as outcome of the module

Module Nanotechnology for Solar Energy

In this module, students work on many different aspects dealing with the conversion of solar radiation in usable energy by organic photovoltaic cells.
The module combines chemical topics such as redox reactions and the operation principles of electrochemical cells, and physics topics such as semiconductors and photovoltaic and photoelectric effects. In addition, ethical issues are addressed like renewable energy sources, and the possibility of exploiting solar radiation, a freely accessible and widely available energy source.
The classroom work ends with an exhibit, at school or at a science fear, in which the students present what they have learned to their peers, combining scientific and ethical issues.
The module lasts 12-14 1h lessons, depending on the classroom level and learning approaches used.

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)

Responsible Research and Innovation is a termthat is introduced by the EU to
make science and society work better together. The goal is that all societal
actors, including citizens, are more involved in the process of Research and
Innovation.
The students of today are the scientists and the citizens of tomorrow, so it is necessary for themto see the relevance of science topics for society.
In the module, the six key issues of RRI are introduced (Engagement, Open Access, Gender, Ethics, Science Education and Government) and the students are motivated to work with this topics by actities like a game, role play or debate over propositions that relate to the scientific topics.

Inquiry-based Science Education (IBSE) and active learning

The module is based on the didactic model of IBSE and is divided into 6 chapters: Engage – engage the student with the topic with a quiz and some background information
Explore – explore the scientific questions, performexperiments;
Explain – answer the scientific questions in groups;
Elaborate – elaborate on the ethical/RRI-issues;
Exchange – building an exhibition and pitching;
Evaluate – test and grading of the exhibitions.
The teaching module contains many opportunities for active learning approaches:
- Manuals for different experiments included in the module.
- Students learn the scientific content in groups, and present their findings to the rest of the class;
- Ethical/RRI-issues can be discussed in a role play game or a debate
- Students summarize their findings in an exhibition.
In this way, academic skills, like summarizing, searching for information, discussing, experimenting and designing, are dealt with.

Nanoscience Applications
‘How nanotechnology applications affect our everyday lives?’

The Nanoscience Applications module focuses on technologies related to improve quality of life. Students will come in touch with state of the art (photocatalytic) nanomaterials and their use for a healthy environment (air and water quality control). Through this module it is intended that students get acquainted with fundamental nanoscience concepts, boost their environmental awareness and involvement with prime societal problems and realize the role of nanomaterials and technology and their impact and risks to human health. In a second phase, students are motivated to to reflect on the 6 dimensions of RRI via discussions with scientists and to present their knowledge and concerns through scientific exhibits.
Why use this module in class?
• Combination of formal and informal learning environments
• Students come in contact and discuss with scientists
• Detailed lessons’ descriptions & students’ worksheets
• Propositions for adjustments for grades 6-12
• Broad range of hands-on activities
• Interconnection of the scientific topic with societal issues by using Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
• Students make an exhibition on nanotechnology & its ethical issues

Module: Nanoscience Applications

Nanoscale Science and Technology constitutes an interdisciplinary field that attracts students’ interest through its impressive innovative and yet controversial applications.
Nowadays, as many nano-applications are already at the market shelves it is highly important that students gain fundamental scientific knowledge to be able to make informed choices. In the same time Nanotechnology sets up a fertile field to practice students’ critical thinking through conversations about the arising ethical issues.
This module, appropriately adjusted, can be implemented in primary school classes (aged 11-12), in lower secondary classes (aged 14-15) and upper secondary classes (aged 16-17). In the detailed description of the module the activities appropriate for each age are pointed out. The module can be completed in 8-9 lessons, depending on the learning approaches used. To be able to follow this module students should be able to estimate the size of an object using a unit or another object as reference, to know what properties of a material are, to be familiarized with analysing newspaper articles.

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)

Responsible Research and Innovation is a term that is introduced by the EU to make science and society work better together. The goal is that all societal actors, including citizens, are more involved in the process of Research and Innovation. In the module, the six key issues of RRI are introduced (Engagement, Open Access, Gender, Ethics, Science Education and Government) and the students are motivated to work with this topics by activities like analysing cartoons and newspaper articles, and discussions over propositions that relate to the scientific topics.

Inquiry-based Science Education (IBSE) and active learning

The module is oriented to the inquiry based approach in Science Education and is divided into 5 chapters:
Engage – students are engaged to the topic through a) videos with current nanoapplications and self-cleaning materials and b) a visit to the science and research center.
Explore & Explain – students explore various aspects of nanoscience through their involvement in a series of hands-on activities based on nanomaterials. They collect, analyze data and draw conclusions while dealing with experimental activities.
Elaborate – students elaborate their findings and discuss RRI issues: a) by visiting a research institute and discussing with experts, b) through newspaper articles.
Exchange – students (with the support of museum experts and their teachers) develop exhibits which are hosted at science centres and presented to the public.
Evaluate – students assess their knowledge through a final questionnaire and the exhibits development and presentation.

Through the module’s activities, students are expected to:
• Develop substantive knowledge concerning Nanoscale science & technology
• Develop a critical attitude towards the use of derivatives of current research
• Develop communicational skills by presenting their knowledge through exhibits
• Become familiarized with the scientific method
• Cooperate effectively to build a scientific exhibit

Geo-engineering: Climate control
“Climate Geoengineering: is it real or just another conspiracy theory?”

Students, will research about Geoengineering — which is presented to them as “maybe another conspiracy theory?” – more precisely about its strategies in mitigation of Global Warming. It is intended that students understand the Biological/Physical/Chemical principles behind each strategy and, also, its advantages and disadvantages. In a second phase, students need to reflect about the 6 dimensions of RRI and conceive situations that relate each dimension with Geoengineering with the purpose of conceiving a Manifest Pro-Responsible Geoengineering that will be presented in the final exhibition, intended to be developed and presented by students as a way to educate the community about this topic.

Why use this module in class?

• Interdisciplinary module combining biology, physics and chemistry in a scientific context
• Combination of many active learning approaches
• Modules addresses many Academic Skills
• Module includes the relation of the scientific topic with societal issues by using Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
• Students make an exhibition on the science & the ethical issues as wind-up of the module

Module Geoengineering: Climate Control

The fantastic idea of Geoengineering — the intentional large scale manipulation of the environment to counter act the negative impacts of global climate change — is starting to be taken seriously in science and policy circles. For some scientists and policymakers, concern about the efficacy of political efforts to avoid dangerous climate change is beginning to make these schemes look less fantastic. So far, the disadvantages of Geoengineering approaches have tended to outweigh the advantages in most minds that have turned to the issue. However, in recent years such proposals have received more support from a number of prominent scientists and economists, with calls for more research into their feasibility, costs, side effects and frameworks for implementation.
This module is aimed at students from 12 to 18 years old, and it takes about 12-18 lessons, depending on the learning approaches used. Climate Change, its causes and consequences should be a topic already addressed by students and such concepts must be clear so that students can understand not only the potential of Geoengineering but also the risks associated with this scientific field and, as such, the importance of Responsible Research and Innovation.

Inquiry-based Science Education (IBSE) and active learning

The module is based on the didactic model of IBSE and is divided into 7 chapters:
Engage – engage the student with the topic with cartoons, videos and newspaper article analysis;
Explore – explore Geoengineering strategies (the science behind them but also their advantages and disadvantages); perform an experiment;
Explain – develop a collaborative presentation about the issues explored and present it to the class;
Elaborate – elaborate on the ethical/RRI-issues;
Exchange & Empowerment – develop a final exhibition to be presented to the community – it serves as a platform for students to share with others what they’ve learned and also share their own opinions and concerns about the topic;
Evaluate – students assess their peers through online questionnaires; self and hetero assessment of the objects and final exhibition.

Through the set of tasks of the module, students will:
• Develop substantive knowledge concerning Climate Geo-engineering
• Develop reasoning competencies;
• Develop communicational competencies;
• Construct a reflexive and critical attitude in relation to Responsible Research and Innovation regarding Climate Geoengineering.

Polar Science: Evaluate Earth Health trough Polar Regions
“Polar Science: an imperative part of understanding how climate change affects our planet.”
Students, will research about Polar Science as a multidisciplinary scientific domain that contributes to a better understanding of our planet’s health. It is intended that students know the importance of Polar Science and understand how it contributes to our changing world through the analysis of scientific papers. In a second phase, students need to reflect about the 6 dimensions of RRI and identify RRI practices in the papers and also suggest other, having the opportunity to explore some examples of good RRI practices in Polar Science. Finally, students will build an interactive exhibition as a way to educate the community about this topic.

Why use this module in class?
• Interdisciplinary module combining biology, physics, chemistry, geology and geography in a scientific context
• Combination of many active learning approaches
• Modules addresses many Academic Skills
• Module includes the relation of the scientific topic with societal issues by using Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
• Students make an exhibition on the science & the ethical issues as wind-up of the module

Module Polar Science: Evaluate Earth Health trough Polar Regions

Few people know the importance of Polar Science and how it contributes to our changing world. The Polar Science aim is understanding how climate changes affect our planet. Polar scientists have participated in multidisciplinary international projects, with the objective of evaluating environmental and sociological processes in the Arctic and in Antarctica, studying the relationship between the polar regions and the rest of the Planet. These multidisciplinary projects have the major purpose of improving our ability to detect regional and global changes, allowing an evaluation of the consequences for humanity and for the planet. “Along the way the students learned many things, mostly about RRI and Polar Science. I figured out in the products presented in the exhibition and the way they presented them.
This module is aimed at students from 15 to 18 years old, and it takes about 10 lessons with extra classroom work, depending on the learning approaches used. Change, its causes and consequences should be a topic already addressed by students and such concepts should be clear so students can understand the polar science study objet. Being familiarized with the scientific method and having a level of knowledge and language that allow students to analyse a scientific paper it is also required.

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)

Responsible Research and Innovation is a term that is introduced by the EU to make science and society work better together. The goal is that all societal actors, including citizens, are more involved in the process of Research and Innovation. In the module, the six key issues of RRI are introduced (Engagement, Open Access, Gender, Ethics, Science Education and Government) and the students are motivated to work with this topics by exploring real examples of RRI practices related to polar science and discussions on RRI practices present in the analysed scientific papers.

Inquiry-based Science Education (IBSE) and active learning

The module is based on the didactic model of IBSE and is divided into 7 chapters:
Engage – engage the student with the topic with reflexive tasks, videos and texts.
Having a national polar scientist talking with students will lead to greater engagement;
Explore – explore Polar Regions characteristics regarding some relevant aspects as their climate, biology, geology...;
Explain –analysis of different research papers;
Elaborate – identify the presence (or absence) of RRI practices in the research paper; suggest ways of improving RRI regarding the investigation; Exchange & Empowerment – develop a final exhibition to be presented to the community – it serves as a platform for students to share with others what they’ve learned and also share their own opinions and concerns about the topic;
Evaluate – students assess their peers through online questionnaires; self and hetero assessment of the presentations, objects and final exhibition.

Through the set of tasks of the module, students will:
• Develop substantive knowledge concerning Polar Science
• Develop reasoning competencies;
• Develop communicational competencies;
• Construct a reflexive and critical attitude in relation to Responsible Research and Innovation regarding Polar Science

Plastic – Bane of the Ocean
Oceanography and Climate Change
The module explores the influence of plastics on the ocean such as the different ways of contamination, the behavior of plastics in the ocean, the adsorption of pollutants on micro-plastic particles, as well as their intrusion in the food chain. The module has a global as well as local level and includes experimental and group work.

Why use this module in class?
• Interdisciplinary module combining chemistry, biology, and physics in a scientific context
• Combination of many active learning approaches
• Modules addresses many academic skills
• Module includes the relation of the scientific topic with societal issues by using Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
• Students develop an exhibition on the science as well as ethical issues to reflect on the module’s topic

Module: Plastic – Bane of the Ocean

In this interdisciplinary module, students explore different types of plastic, their lifetime and way of decomposition as well as the effects on the ocean and marine life. Next to oceanographic content, the module combines biological, chemical and physical aspects. It starts with macro-plastic and its decomposition to micro-plastic, the problem of plasticizers dissolved from it and its threat to flora, fauna and humans. Different factors influencing the process are highlighted, like sea currents and the food chain, including experiments like investigating local water bodies. Within the module, a red line is drawn from useful (everyday) products to products with a high risk potential – e.g. containing micro-plastic particles. In addition, ethical issues like the use of microplastic particles in cosmetics are addressed. The project is closed by an exhibition at school, in which the students present their topic to their peers and/or parents, combining scientific and ethical issues.
The project takes about 15-20 lessons, depending on the topics and learning approaches used. It can be taught in lower as well as in upper level high-school.

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)

Responsible Research and Innovation is a term that is introduced by the EU to make science and society work better together. The goal is that all societal actors, including citizens, are more involved in the process of Research and Innovation.
The students of today are the scientists and the citizens of tomorrow, so it is necessary for them to see the relevance of science topics for society. In the module, the six key issues of RRI are introduced (Engagement, Open Access, Gender, Ethics, Science Education and Government) and the students are motivated to work with this topics by actities like a game, role play or debate over propositions that relate to the scientific topics.

Structure of the module following the 6E approach

Engage: Starting with a trailer showing flora and fauna of the ocean in fascinating pictures, followed by a PowerPoint slideshow, which gradually shifts from great pictures to touching photographs showing the impact of plastic on marine creatures.
Explore: Mystery: “Why is the health of the Larsson family in Greenland possibly in danger because they don’t want to give up their traditional diet?” Students get ~16 fact cards with different arguments. In groups of 4 they analyze the arguments and try to create a path to solve the question. The game should give an idea of the complex relations playing together in the ocean.
Explain: As a result of the mystery, students describe a possible way how the Larsson’s family is connected to the global problem of plastic waste in the ocean.
Elaborate: Pupils deal with further research questions about the local observation of the plastic problem. In this phase, pupils perform their own experiments, read scientific publications on the subject and confront extracurricular learning partners with questions. In the second part of the elaborate phase, the aspects of RRI are discussed in class, looking back and highlighting them in the module performed so far.
Exchange: An exhibition is developed to exchange the gained knowledge with peer students and/or parents.
Evaluate: At this stage, the expertise of the students is checked with a test. This includes questions about both the global and the local view of the problem.

Business Game Offshore Wind Energy
Oceanography and Climate Change

The module is a simulation game in which students discuss the possible investment of a municipality into an offshore wind park. They research and adopt the roles of different stakeholders and debate the risks and benefits of the investment in the light of local (municipal) and global (ocean) aspects.

Why use this module in class?
• Interdisciplinary module combining biology, physics, and economics in a scientific context
• Combination of several active learning approaches
• Modules addresses many academic skills
• Module includes the relation of the scientific topic with societal issues by using Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
• Students develop an exhibition on the science as well as ethical issues to reflect on the module’s topic

Module: Offshore Wind Energy

In this interdisciplinary module, topics from the curriculum of biology and physics are addressed. Students independently develop structures for risks and benefits of an offshore wind park. By stepping into the role of a stakeholder, they analyze the information from this point of view and develop a suitable line of argumentation. Meanwhile they have to evaluate alternative sources of energy supply (like other forms of conventional or regenerative energy) and take into account environmental legislations as well as principles of sustainability. During the final discussion ethical and political aspects are addressed – like the consequences for the marine life and the financial situation of the municipality. The project is closed by an exhibition at school, in which the students present their topic to their peers and/or parents, combining scientific and ethical issues.
The project takes about 5-12 lessons, depending on the topics and learning approaches used. It can be taught in lower as well as in upper level high-school.

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)

Responsible Research and Innovation is a term that is introduced by the EU to make science and society work better together. The goal is that all societal actors, including citizens, are more involved in the process of Research and Innovation.
The students of today are the scientists and the citizens of tomorrow, so it is necessary for them to see the relevance of science topics for society. In the module, the six key issues of RRI are introduced (Engagement, Open Access, Gender, Ethics, Science Education and Government) and the students are motivated to work with this topics by actities like a game, role play or debate over propositions that relate to the scientific topics.

Structure of the module following the 6E approach

Engage: The module starts with a description of the scenario: in order to secure the future energy supply, the local community would like to invest in an offshore wind park and invites a number of stakeholders to a council meeting .
Explore: Students choose a stakeholder role and explore relevant facts and arguments in order to present and defend their position on the issue.
Explain: In the municipal debate pupils have to present and explain their viewpoints and arguments as a specific stakeholder within their role (including technical, scientific, social, ethical and personal points of view).
Elaborate: After the initial viewpoints have been given in the municipal debate, the pupils have to react to the statements of the other stakeholders and elaborate on their previous presentations. This phase also requires pupils to reflect on their initial views in light of the emerging complex problem, thus challenging them to develop and propose a responsible decision.
Exchange: An exchange takes place at different levels throughout the simulation game: usually, an identical stakeholder role is assigned to two or three pupils. In the research phase these have to work together, exchanging findings on facts and arguments. The main exchange then occurs in the ‘municipal conference’, where the various stakeholders debate the issue of whether the municipality should invest in offshore wind energy. Finally, additional exchange is necessary to develop an exhibition with a coherent picture of the topic.
Evaluate: The simulation game ends with a communal debriefing session, in which the pupils reflect on the simulation game.

Romanian IRRESISTIBLE Teaching Module: Applications of Nanomaterials

The development of the Module was made by the Romanian Community of Learners (CoL 1) set up in the frame of the IRRESISTIBLE Project, and covered a period of almost 12 months. In this period, 12 academic staff (including researchers, scientific and educational experts), 6 teachers (1 coming from primary education) and experts from History Museum of Dambovita County, Targoviste and Prahova Natural Science Museum, Ploiesti, designed a Training Module (approx. 40 hours), proposing 10 different Units grouped in four units dedicated to formal learning activities - (1) Natural Nanomaterials9) The World of Nanomaterials; (10) Biomimicry / Nanobiomimicry -,; (2) Lotus Effect8) Applications of Nanomaterials in Museum Research; (3) Nanoscience - A Facilitator Background for a United Group (5) Applications of Nanomaterials in Medicine; (6) Applications of Nanomaterials in Solar Energy Systems; (7) Industrial Applications of Nanomaterials; ; (4 ) Magnetic Liquids Technology - Ferrofluids - and non-formal ones - (using the Inquiry-based learning strategy and the 6E Model., introducing also Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) dimensions, contextualized in the designed units.

General Description

The proposed units try to address RRI issues, being linked to societal and environmental implications of the discussed topics, together with the engagement, open access or ethical issues. Each unit contains didactical guidelines for teachers and additional materials related to the proposed topics.
In general, the activities are addressed to lower / upper secondary school students. But some formal activities - like Natural Nanomaterials or Lotus Effect - also suit the level claimed for primary education introducing simple experiments, in-line with the students’ prior knowledge, and a clear connection to the existent curricula. The non-formal activities (the last two exploiting contexts of informal education) can be also addressed to primary education, the teacher becoming the key-person able to select the suitable parts of the units, taking into consideration the proper level of concepts / phenomena understanding by her/his students.
Each Unit is designed to be taught in 4 hours, approximately. This means that the entire Module can be covered in 40 hours, approximately.
Unfortunately, the Romanian national curriculum for Sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Biology) does not include issues related to RRI. This real challenge has led us to analyze the introduction and adaptation of the RRI paradigm in the proposed units’ activities. That’s why, the RRI dimensions have to be treated in conjunction with curricular science education activities.

Presentation of Units

1. Natural Nanomaterials
The activities designed in this unit direct students to acknowledge the nanoparticles in natural nanomaterials. Students should also establish the structure-properties correlation. The activities are planned to make students thinking about maintaining people’s health and responsible use of nanotechnology related to food issues. As example, they learn about changing the organization of nanostructures in dairy products, where the change of micellar casein by specific methods (e.g., chymosin treatment or lactic acid bacteria fermentation) leads to different products (cheese, yoghurt).

2. Lotus Effect
The students approach the effect from a nanoscience innovation perspective. The purpose is to form a responsible attitude towards using nanomaterials in various industries. The experimental activities highlight the structural and functional properties of super-hydrophobic nanomaterials. They are followed by debates on topics such as open access to research results, when transferring those results to industry and large scale consumption.
The experiment introduces a series of innovative materials, completely hydrophobic or non-oxidizable, as results of nanotechnology that uses nature as an inspiring source. Students study and test the properties of the lotus leaf from the biological, chemical and physical perspective and discover properties of nanomaterials as applications of Lotus effect, appraising the benefits, but also understanding the limits of nanotechnology.

3. Nanoscience - A Facilitator Background for a United Group (Nanoparticle Synthesis)
The students are introduced to the concept of nanometals, trying to understand their specificity, and using green methods for obtaining some colloidal nanoparticles (Au and Ag) from plant extracts. The activities are conducted in interdisciplinary “research teams” who have the tasks to gain knowledge about nanometals and their applications, raising so the importance of Science education in their everyday life.
The teaching approach is based on students’ prior learning related to: extraction, chemical reactions, pH, salts and metal properties. On conducting the experiments, the students use plants which grow everywhere: in gardens, parks, common fields. Students are asked to make a documentation concerning the nanoparticles, and to identify applications of metal nanoparticles of Au and Ag in practice.
Capitalizing the IBSE strategy and the 6E Model, the activities are organized and led, so that through their own effort, they can discover / rediscover scientific facts or solve problem situations (common met in their everyday life), involving the use of metal nanoparticles of Au and Ag. 6 specific dimensions that envisage RRI are proposed to be discussed in this Unit (involvement, gender equality, science education, accessibility, ethics, governance).

4. Magnetic Liquids Technology - Ferrofluids
Ferrofluids are a special class of nanomaterials that combines the usual properties of a liquid and a magnet. This activity has students thoroughly study properties of an unusual material before proceeding to design applications for it. Here, students need some previous knowledge about magnets, magnetic field and magnetic materials.
The experimental activities help students understand the unusual behavior of colloids, very fine particles dispersed in liquid. They predict and observe the unusual behavior of fluids. In successive steps, discussions about the properties of colloids follow. Finally, the students try to produce ferrofluids by themselves and design applications in the laboratory.

5. Applications of nanomaterials in Medicine
The unit enables the students to learn general knowledge about nanomaterials and their applications in medicine. The activities designed in this unit aim to the formation of a conscious and responsible attitude towards the importance of using properties of nanomaterials - either natural or synthesized - in the medical laboratory.
This involves the development of experimental activities to highlight the structural and functional characteristics of natural nanomaterials and their involvement in various medical applications (accessible also to the public).

6. Applications of nanomaterials in Solar Energy Systems
The envisaged activities proposed in this unit, target to enrich the students’ knowledge concerning the renewable energy, but also to specific Responsible Research and Innovation issues related to solar energy technologies.
The module envisages several learning objectives, as follows: (a) understanding the physical phenomena in relation to the operation of photovoltaic / solar thermal panels; (b) improving the students’ knowledge concerning the physical characteristics of the photovoltaic installations; (c) applying the new knowledge on the assessing of the costs of the green energy installation; (d) forming of a favorable attitude related to the green energy production and for the reducing household energy consumption, in strong connection with the RRI principles.
In addition, students must become aware on the research opportunities which exist locally, but also on studying actual and innovative aspects of science and technology.

7. Industrial applications of nanomaterials
In this unit, the activities proposed to be carried out by the students can get to know general notions about nanomaterials and their applications in industry. It is important that the activities to be organized by the method of discovery so that the students to participate actively in the debate, bringing arguments on their claims. The groups of students can get toward solving or investigating a problem in the community that can be solved through nanotechnologies. Problems are solved through group discussion, with proposals for alternative solutions and with motivating the choice of final solution.
The purpose of the activity is to make known to the pupils a range of relevant issues from the scientific point of view: the definition of nanoparticle, the properties of nanoparticles and their areas of applicability. The activities carried out under this module aim - at the same time to the formation of a conscious and responsible attitude toward the importance of using certain properties of nanomaterials in various industrial applications.

8. Applications of nanomaterials in Museum Research
The envisaged activities - near strengthening the knowledge gained till this moment - propose to carry out also experimental / practical work in the museum, concerning three distinguish experimental activities: (a) the dosage of sulphates in a material which is to be restored by obtaining a nano-substance; (b) the dosage of chlorides in a material to be restored by obtaining a nano-precipitate; (c) the hydrophobic impregnation of lime with a nano-solution of the SurfaPore®FX type.
In addition, the students’ creative activity will consist of:
(a) designing - in groups of students - of portfolios including theoretical aspects and different uses of nanomaterials; (b) designing of an informative material on all activities undertaken and which purpose is the dissemination of the acquisitions of knowledge which is posted on various websites, and in particular on the website of the institution organizing the activity (museum); (c) designing of an exhibition with images, videos and samples (limestone blocks) obtained as a result of the activities of the project.

9. - 10. Multimedia-based Units
The last units (The World of Nanomaterials and Biomimicry / Nanobiomimicry) are designed in order to fundament the previous concepts learnt by the students during the entire Module. In this respect, a movie (in the first activity) and many images (in the last one) are exploited to explain in details various applications of nanomaterials and also introduce the concept of biomimicry which is defined as "a new science that studies nature models and then imitates or is inspired by those designs and processes, in order to solve human problems."

Addressing the RRI Dimensions in the proposed learning activities

The activities have been designed on the assumption that any approach to research and innovation should be done in the context of assuming (by the researcher) of social and individual responsibilities. This means that research and innovation must meet a number of principles related to social ethics, being beneficiary for the society as a whole and for individuals, taking into consideration the benefits / risks ratio, contributing to human progress, subordinating positive goals etc.
All RRI specific principles are promoted in the proposed non-formal units, as follows:
- Engagement - highlighting the role of relevant stakeholders (researchers, teachers, students) in RRI dimensions, related to applications of nanomaterials in various areas.
- Gender Equality - ensuring optimal representativeness of women (students, researchers and teachers) in RRI dimensions, related to applications of nanomaterials in various areas.
- Science Education - handling the students with knowledge and necessary skills for participation in research and innovation processes, with respect to applications of nanomaterials in various areas.
- Open Access - ensuring the transparency and easy access to all results of research and innovation, with the view to its stimulating and its adequate valorizing at social level. This principle is strongly met when students are visiting the Multidisciplinary Research Institute (the Energy-Environment Research Department), the Museums and the County Library, experimenting, debating and being informed, according to proposed units learning activities.
- Ethics - respecting and valuing the principles of ethics in research and innovation processes. In this respect, in the units, it is mentioned that the researchers initiate conversations that address issues related to the implications of scientific, social, economic and moral use of nanomaterials in practice.
- Governance - becoming aware concerning the role of policy makers on preventing / controlling of some research and innovation efforts that can disregard the ethical principles and lead to social harm. According to this dimension, the students express personal point of views in relation to the importance of involving social actors in scientific research.

Organized Exhibitions

• Local Exhibitions (in schools) - starting with March 2015 (schools involved in IRRESISTIBLE Project)
• Exhibition 1: “The World of Nanomaterials and Solar Energy” - August - November 2015 - at History Museum of Dambovita County
• Exhibition 2: “The Sun & The <Nano> World” - March - September 2016 - at Prahova Natural Science Museum
• Exhibition with the occasion of The European Researcher’s Night - 25 September 2015 - at History Museum of Dambovita County
• Exhibition with the occasion of The European Researcher’s Night - 30 September 2016 - at History Museum of Dambovita County / Museum of the Romanian Police
• Exhibition with the occasion of The European Researcher’s Night - 30 September 2016 - special event in Kiel, Germany

Examples of Workshops organized with teachers & students

• “Nanosciences and responsible research” - History Museum of Dambovita County
• “Multimedia Instruments for Promoting the Concept of Responsible Research and Innovation in Museum Practices” - Prahova Natural Science Museum
• “Responsible Research and Innovation in the Area of Nanotechnology” - Ion Heliade Rădulescu” Dambovita County Library
• “Nanobiomimetics and Responsible Research” - National College “Constantin Cantacuzino” Targoviste
• “Applications of nanomaterials in industry” - Valahia University Targoviste
• “Applications of nanomaterials in renewable energy technologies” - Multidisciplinary Scientific & Technological Research Institute of Valahia University Targoviste
• “History of nanomaterials. Applications of nanomaterials in practice” - “Ion Heliade Rădulescu” Dambovita County Library
• “Applications of nanomaterials in museum research” - Prahova Natural Science Museum
• “The World of Tomorrow and the Future Energy” - Technical College “Elie Radu” Ploiesti

Climate change – effects and adaptation
“Ocean temperatures on the rise. Glaciers melting. Droughts and floods becoming more common.
What is it all about?
What can we do about it?”

As the climate conversation affects all members of society and policy makers, education is key to meaningful correspondence between decision makers and citizens. This module includes chemistry, physics, biology, geography, and social sciences topics important to the study of climate change such as acidity, CO2 –cycle, greenhouse effect and policy-making. The module is proposed for students aged 11-13. It includes additional tasks for use with older students. –

Why use this module?

Module is interdisciplinary combining earth sciences, chemistry, physics and social sciences in the context of a global grand challenge
- Module addresses many academic skills
- Module combines diverse active learning approaches
- Module bridges science with societal issues by addressing Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) dimensions
- Students make an exhibition on science and society as outcome of the module

About the teaching module
The goal in this module is to educate students about the numerous phenomena that are associated with climate change. During the learning sequence, students will familiarize themselves with several effects of climate change, the adaptation of different fauna to changing environments, and the role of local governance in climate change prevention. This is accomplished by the students doing scientific experiments, investigating related topics and interacting, relating and corresponding with the parties affected by climate change. The module culminates on a student-made exhibition, in which the students’ present their peers with what they want them to know about climate change and help ensure their responsible future decision-making.

Responsible Research and Innovation(RRI)

Responsible Research and Innovation is a term that is introduced by the EU to make science and society work better together. The goal is that all societal actors, including citizens, are more involved in the process of Research and Innovation. The students of today are scientists and the citizens of tomorrow, so it is necessary for them to see the relevance of science topics for society. In the module, the six key issues of RRI are introduced (Engagement, Open Access, Gender, Ethics, Science Education and Governance) and the students are motivated to work with this topic with games, roleplay, or debates over propositions that relate to the science topics.

Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE) and active learning
The teaching module utilizes inquiry-based teaching methods, which emphasize learning by using similar methods as researchers. The lessons comprise six activities (6E – characteristic for IBSE)
Engage - Arousing students’ curiosity and generating interest (video, news, story, etc.)
Explore - Acquiring a common set of experiences within which students can begin to construct their understanding
Explain - Connecting students’ previous experiences with current learning and making sense of the main concepts. Introducing formal language, scientific terms, and content information relevant to the subject
Elaborate – Applying previously introduced concepts and experiences to new situations
Exchange - Sharing of knowledge between students’, peers and other audiences via different medias (exhibition, blogs, videos)
Evaluate - Evaluation of students’ conceptual understanding and skills (also self- and peer-assessment) Inquiry-Based Science Education (IBSE) and active learning
This teaching module offers plenty of opportunities to include engaging and active learning opportunities. This is done in the module by motivating student activities such as experimental work and online assignments. In the end of the teaching period students’ also prepare presentations and exhibition as a group effort. In the end of the teaching period this will:
- Increase students’ awareness of consequences of climate change
- Give students valid tools for inquiry activities, such as controlling variables, or designing experiments
- Improve students’ understanding of scientific inquiry, RRI aspects, and science communication skills

Potential Impact:
The course of the project
At the start of the project Community of Learners were formed. These CoL’s are the backbone of the project. In the first round of the Community of Learners each partner composed a group of people in which scientific researchers were involved, teachers, people from science centers as well as educational researchers. On the average a CoL was composed of 2 scientists, one researcher 2 people from a science center and 4 to 10 teachers.
In this first CoL, the focus was on the design of educational material. Everybody has his own specific input. The scientific researcher introduced his research and the science background needed to understand it. The experts from the science centers introduced knowledge about making exhibitions, and about creating informal learning environments. The teachers their knowledge about working with students in a classroom. The educational researcher brought in the details of the 6E model, as well as the idea of Responsible Research and Innovation.
In Deliverable 2.5 the way these CoL’s worked is discussed more in detail.
The teachers brought in material that could be used. With the educational researcher as an editor the modules were put together. As each CoL decided on its own theme the modules vary quite a bit. Even the level for which the material was prepared differed. Some were focused on upper primary education others on lower secondary. Most units are meant for upper secondary education.
In the second CoL, the focus shifted from design to implementation. One of the teachers in the first CoL acted as coach for up to five teachers in a new CoL. Together the teachers developed lesson plans for implementation of the modules chosen. During the time the teachers worked with the students on the module they met and discussed problems encountered. After the module was finished they were evaluated by the teachers. This evaluation was used as feedback for the authors of the project.
The final versions of the modules were drafted after this feedback and are available on the website of the project: http://www.irresistible-project.eu/index.php/en/resources
We decided to evaluate to what extent, if any, the CoLs and the teaching of the modules changed the RRI attitudes of teachers and their students. Towards this end, using a 10-step process, we developed a reliable and valid 3-part RRI questionnaire, which we administered before and after the teaching of the modules in each country, in the second round. The questionnaire related to the RRI attitudes of teachers and students, the role assigned by teachers to different players in implementing RRI in the real and imaged world, and teachers' experiences with socio-scientific issues (SSI). Deliverable 2.5b details the 10-step process of developing the questionnaire and presents findings from our pre-post evaluation using the questionnaire; these results are summarized below in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1: Pre-Post average scores of teachers' attitudes towards RRI and its 6 dimensions. (Comparison between Pre and Post values were calculated using two-tailed t-test * p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001)

Engagement
Science Education
Gender Equality
Open Access
Ethics
Governance
RRI
All the teachers in the project
Pre
(SD)
3.8687
(0.9)
3.97
(0.803)
4.11
(0.796)
4.089
(0.813)
3.98
(0.885)
3.7189
(0.975)
3.957
(0.576)
Post
(SD)
4.2895
(0.77)
4.449
(0.587)
4.5
(0.672)
4.44
(0.603)
4.277
(0.79)
4.107
(0.89)
4.352
(0.461)

t
5.175***
7.052***
5.429***
5.07***
3.625***
4.273***
7.926***
*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001

Table 2: Pre-Post average scores of students' attitudes towards RRI and its 6 dimensions. (Comparison between Pre and Post values were calculated using two-tailed t-test

Engagement
Science Education
Gender Equality
Open Access
Ethics
Governance
RRI
All the students in the project
Pre(SD)
3.92
(0.826)
3.746
(0.904)
3.96
(0.92)
3.68
(0.936)
3.74
(0.922)
3.63
(0.933)
3.77
(0.58)
Post(SD)
4.01
(0.803)
3.85
(0.866)
4.17
(0.917)
3.83
(0.92)
3.84
(0.89)
3.7
(0.926)
3.908
(0.657)

t
4.098***

4.206***

7.972***

5.569***

4.091***

2.523*

7.654***

* p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001
The process of teacher professional development in the CoL of the Irresistible project led to a positive significant difference between the pre- and the post-test attitudes of teachers toward RRI as a general construct and for each of the 6 dimensions that construct it, as presented in Table 1 These teachers who participated in the Irresistible CoL used the modules that were developed in the project and positively influenced p the development of students' attitudes towards RRI, as presented in Table 2.

Number of people directly involved in the project.
In the project teachers and students haven been involved in both rounds. In Deliverable 2.5 this has been reported more in detail.
In the first round 79 teachers collaborated, of which 21 teachers were male and 58 were female. 1361 students participated, of which 689 were male and 672 were female.
In the second round 327 teachers participated, of which 83 were male and 226 were female. A total of 5064 students participated, of which 2432 were male and 2631 were female.
In general teachers, have indicated that they will use the module again in the next years.
Gender issues
As can be seen from the figures above most the teachers participating were female (75%). For the students, this was more equally divided, 51 % female.
In the modules gender was considered in the design, but as indicated in the goals not very explicit, as the modules were meant for all students.
Gender issues were considered explicitly in the Responsible Research and Innovation part of the modules. In the module concerning the difference between mother’s milk and formula milk for example this was clear. Questions like ‘Why do a lot of mothers stop breastfeeding their children after three month?’ are discussed relating the role of females in the work force to breast feeding.
Ethical issues
In Deliverable 4.2 a report about the ethical issues concerning this project were discussed. In the first try out phase a Parental Informed Consent Form was used for participating students. The same was done for the use of illustrations and photographs of students. The schoolboard was also asked for permission to participate in the project. In Bavaria, no permission was obtained to have the students fill in a questionnaire. Participation in the lessons was no problem.
In the second part of the project the situation was different. The material was finished now. It was more a decision of the teacher to use the provided material in his lesson, as part of his regular lessons. A special consent form was not needed.
General impact
The modules that have been developed introduce recent scientific developments to secondary school students. They give them a better view of the type of research that is taking place at the research centers. In some cases, the role of industry in innovation also becomes more clear. Students also learn about the concepts of RRI. They understand that not all research and innovation leads to products that can be used in society.
The relation between science research and innovation and society is discussed explicitly in these modules. This gives students a much better idea of the role of science in society.
On the other hand, the scientists involved in the project have gotten a much better insight in their own relation with society. In that sense the project has given a boost to presenting science to the public.
This became most clear during the final meeting of the project in Kiel September 28 and 29 2016 in Kiel. In that meeting, some of the best exhibits that were produced in each country were collected in an ‘Irresistible’ Exhibition, that was part of the researcher’s night in Kiel.
The exhibits, that are an integral part of each module, are very important. Much more important than was expected by the participants. The production of the exhibits forces the students to a deep level of learning of both the science as well as the RRI-aspects. They need to decide what they want the demonstrate in the exhibit. To be able to do so they need to have a thorough understanding of both the science and the RRI-aspects.
Making exhibits is not an activity that has often been used in education up to now. Students have made posters and reports and other products. In this project one of the conclusions is that students are very able to make exhibits and are very creative in designing them. As an attachment to the report some photographs are attached to this report.
Analyzing the exhibits gives a teacher valuable insight in the way students have reached the learning goals.
In addition to the above, our pre-post evaluation (using the RRI questionnaire, as described above) revealed statistically significant gains in positive attitudes regarding the RRI construct for both teachers and students, across all 10 countries, taken as a whole. This finding shows that the process of professional development in the CoLs led to significant gains in the teachers' attitudes regarding RRI and that the teachers used the modules developed in the project to positively promote students' attitudes regarding the RRI construct, across all 10 partner countries.

Other findings of our evaluation strongly suggest that the project empowered teachers to expand their practical experiences regarding the use of socio-scientific issues (SSI) in science education, as well as to develop an expanded ideal role regarding their own development of RRI in the future, as science teachers.

These findings strongly suggest that both the project's professional development model, as well as the modules themselves, can be used internationally to develop positive RRI attitudes in teachers and students.

Teacher training
The use of Community of Learners for teacher professionalization in this project has demonstrated that these are an effective tool for learning to design your own educational material for example. They are also very useful in helping teachers to implement new ways of teaching. Especially for in service training these CoL’s have proven to be very effective.
Dissemination
A total of 228 activities have been reported in the project. A lot of these activities has taken place on a regional or national scale. It demonstrates that the partners have been very active in showing other teachers how interesting the introduction of both new science and RRI can be.
On a more international scale the idea of RRI has been discussed with other groups like IUPAC and OPCW. The Organization for the Prevention of Chemical Warfare is changing its focus from destroying and removing chemical weapons to the prevention of the re-emergence of these weapons. For that an education and outreach program is needed. The ‘The Hague Ethical guidelines’ are closely linked to the ideas of RRI, but focus more on an individual accountability. Within IUPAC, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, a cooperation of most chemical societies, the discussion on the role of chemistry in solving the sustainable development goals of the UN is a main topic of discussion. Again, here the concept of RRI is closely linked to these discussions.
The project has been presented both to the OPCW as well as IUPAC.
Some partners that have connection with stakeholders that determine the national curricula have been able to introduce part of the ideas of RRI in education. Identifying and lining with these stakeholders is not always easy and straightforward.
Products
The curriculum products of the project are now ready. Not only the modules but also the teacher guides can be spread. Activities in the coming years by the partners in local meetings will be needed to implement the ideas behind the modules. On the other hand, outreach activities organized from within the universities can play a major role in distributing the nodules for a wider use.
Another product developed in the project, the 3-part questionnaire described above, can be used by teachers and science educators as tool to evaluate the development of RRI attitudes. A peer-reviewed article is currently being prepared to present this tool to the science education community.

List of Websites:
http://www.irresistible-project.eu/index.php/en/
coordinator: j.h.apotheker@rug.nl
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCC1DW2ydiGXCTbjfbELQvNA/videos?shelf_id=0&view=0&sort=dd

Related information

Reported by

RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT GRONINGEN
Netherlands
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