Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

FP7

CISTEM Report Summary

Project ID: 325262
Funded under: FP7-JTI
Country: Germany

Final Report Summary - CISTEM (Construction of Improved HT-PEM MEAs and Stacks for Long Term Stable Modular CHP Units)

Executive Summary:
Vision of the CISTEM project was to develop a new fuel cell (FC) based CHP technology, which is suitable for fitting into large scale peak shaving systems in relation to wind mills, natural gas and SMART grid applications. The technology was integrated with localized power/heat production in order to utilize the heat from the FC via district heating and should deliver an electrical output of up to 100 kW. Additionally, the CHP system is fuel flexible by use of natural gas or use of hydrogen and oxygen which can be provided by electrolysis. This gave the additional opportunity to store electrical energy in case of net overproduction by production of hydrogen and oxygen for use in the CHP system and provide an additional performance boost for the fuel cell. The purpose of the CISTEM project was to show a proof of concept of high temperature PEM (HT-PEM) MEA technology for large combined heat and power (CHP) systems. A CHP system of 100 kWel was set up and demonstrated. This CHP system size is suitable for district heat and power supply. The system was built up modularly, with FC units of 4 kWel output each. This strategy of numbering up will achieve an optimal adaption of the CHP system size to a very wide area of applications, e.g. different building sizes or demands for peak shaving application. Within CISTEM, one 4 kWel module was implemented as hardware; the remaining 24 modules were implemented as emulated modules in a hardware in the loop (HIL) test bench. The advantages of the 4 kW modular units are: suitable for mass production at lower production costs, higher system efficiency due to optimized operation of each unit, maintenance “on the run”, stability and reliability of the whole system. With the help of the HIL approach different climate conditions representing the European-wide load profiles can be emulated in detail. Furthermore, interfaces to smart grid application have been prepared. Increased electrical efficiency for the FC was obtained by the utilization of oxygen from the electrolyser which is normally wasted, as well as by general improvement of the FC. Besides, the overall energy efficiency was improved by utilization of the produced heat in the district heating system. The latter was facilitated by high working temperature of the HT-PEM FC (i.e. 140 - 180˚C). CISTEM developed a new generation of HT-PEM based CHP systems. It was implemented for demonstration within a modified energy storage concept following the usage of hydrogen and oxygen production with electrolyser from wind energy. Improved FC operational conditions with new materials and the additional use of oxygen enriched air on the cathode supply have led to better HT-PEM FC efficiencies. In parallel a highly efficient natural gas reforming unit was developed and implemented which allows the use of natural gas as standard or backup energy source for of the CHP operation. The reforming unit has used the most efficient steam reforming technology with respect to the modular system design of the numbering up strategy. The development of the modular HT-PEM CHP design included various working tasks with intense interactions. CISTEM improved and optimized materials including membrane and bipolar plate materials to achieve operation up to 40,000 h. A desirable heat management has been developed. All development steps have been supported by state-of-the-art modelling. As a final step the complete CHP system was tested under end-user operation conditions. This has verified the proof-of-concept and evaluated the capabilities.

Project Context and Objectives:
Major concerns in future energy supply on a European level are related to a stable and efficient supply of electrical power and heat for domestic purposes. These concerns are mainly related to the fast changes in the ratio between demand and supply as a result of the increasing contribution of new and variable energy sources like wind mills and photovoltaic units. Since the market share of domestic heat and electrical power supply is substantial it is possible with a new technology, that can store and supply energy in an efficient way, to improve the stability of the European energy network significantly.
The vision of the CISTEM project was to develop a new fuel cell (FC) based CHP technology, which is suitable for fitting into large scale peak shaving systems in relation to wind mills, natural gas and SMART grid applications. The technology should be integrated with localized power/heat production in order to utilize the heat from the FC via district heating and should deliver an electrical output of up to 100 kW. Additionally, the CHP system should be fuel flexible by use of natural gas or use of hydrogen and oxygen which can be provided by electrolysis. This gives the additional opportunity to store electrical energy in case of net overproduction by production of hydrogen and oxygen for use in the CHP system and gives an additional performance boost for the fuel cell.
The main idea of the project was a combined development of fuel cell technology and CHP system design. This gave the opportunity to develop an ideal new fuel cell technology for the special requirements of a CHP system in relation to efficiency, costs and lifetime. On the other hand, the CHP system development took into account the special advantages and disadvantages of the new fuel cell technology to realize an optimal system design.
The purpose of the CISTEM project was to show a proof of concept of high temperature PEM (HT-PEM) MEA technology for large combined heat and power (CHP) systems. A CHP system of 100 kWel was set up and demonstrated. This CHP system size is suitable for district heat and power supply. The system was build up modularly, with FC units of 4 kWel output each. This strategy of numbering up will achieve an optimal adaption of the CHP system size to a very wide area of applications, e.g. different building sizes or demands for peak shaving application.
Within CISTEM, one 4 kWel module was implemented as hardware; the remaining 24 modules will be implemented as emulated modules in a hardware in the loop (HIL) test bench. The advantages of the 4 kW modular units are: suitable for mass production at lower production costs, higher system efficiency due to optimized operation of each unit, maintenance “on the run”, stability and reliability of the whole system. With the help of the HIL approach different climate conditions representing the European-wide load profiles can be emulated in detail. Furthermore, interfaces to smart grid application will be prepared.
Increased electrical efficiency for the FC was obtained by the utilization of oxygen from the electrolyser which is normally wasted, as well as by general improvement of the FCs. Besides, the overall energy efficiency was also improved by utilization of the produced heat in the district heating system. The latter was facilitated by high working temperature of the HT-PEM FC (i.e. 140 - 180˚C). There are several on-going projects, nationally and internationally, for the development of efficient electrolyser suitable for large scale hydrogen production. However, efficient utilization of the produced hydrogen and oxygen is lacking which is also directly addressed within CISTEM.
CISTEM developed a new generation of HT-PEM based combined heat and power (CHP) systems. It has been implemented for demonstration within a modified energy storage concept following the usage of hydrogen and oxygen production with electrolyser from wind energy. Improved FC operational conditions with new materials and the additional use of oxygen enriched air on the cathode supply have led to better HT-PEM FC efficiencies. In parallel a high efficient natural gas reforming unit have been developed and implemented which allows the use of natural gas as backup energy source for of the CHP operation. The reforming unit has been used the most efficient steam reforming technology with respect to the modular system design of the numbering up strategy.
The development of the modular HT-PEM CHP design included various working tasks with intense interactions. CISTEM improved and optimized materials including membrane and bipolar plate materials to achieve operation up to 40,000 hours. The catalyst material has been improvement to allow even less platinum loading or non-precious catalysts. A desirable heat management has also been developed. Therefore, very much care has been taken on the design of the stack to follow the modular concept. Fully identical stacks are needed for evaluation to verify such modular design ideas. All development steps have been supported by state-of-the-art modelling. As a final step a CHP system, consisting of several stacks, reforming unit and heat supply units combined with hardware in the loop test bench, is supposed to show its operating capabilities within the end-user operation. This will verify the proof-of-concept and evaluate the capabilities.
The CISTEM objectives can be summarized in direct interrelation with the FCH JU targets given in the AIP and MAIP 2011 which are:
• Small-scale stationary CHP application between 5 and 50 kW as well as serving the midscale application range <300 kW;
• Follow 2020 cost targets through mass production allowed by the modular design of the CHP system;
• System level proof of concept for mini HT-PEM based CHP systems up to 100 kW;
• Enhancement of system durability to longer lifetimes up to >20,000 hours;
• Improvement of annual operational hours of the CHP through the modular concept;
• Improve electrical efficiency to more than 40%;
• Overall system efficiency – electrical and thermal - above 90%.
Specific CISTEM project objectives are:
1. Concept and testing of large area pressurized HT-PEM FC for large scale systems;

2. Improvement of the HT-PEM FC technology for performance and lifetime;

3. Optimization of the effect of cathode air enrichment by pure oxygen for efficiency;

4. Development and integration of a modular designed natural gas reformer;

5. Improved stack design for modular concept approach;

6. Modular CHP system design for a 100 kWel CHP unit based on 4 kWel units;

7. Proof of concept for the modular CHP system design for a 100 kWel CHP unit based on 4 kWel units using a hardware in the loop test bench;

8. System modelling provides detailed specifications for the CHP system numbering - up from 10 kWel up to 100 kWel;

9. General design rules for efficient operation of a modular HT-PEM based CHP system using fuel flexible conditions with respect to smart grid applications.

Project Results:
The main idea of the project CISTEM was the utilization of the HT-PEM fuel cell technology as CHP-concept for applications between 8 and 100 kWel. HT-PEM technology was not available for this range of capacity until the starting point of the project and therefore new developments for the special requirements referring to efficiency, lifetime and costs of HT-PEM fuel cells was demanded. The substantial single components of this kind of system are the reformer and the fuel cell stack, which have been developed within the runtime of CISTEM next to other BoP components. The full stack as well as the single MEAs can be operated with pure hydrogen or with reformate; this makes the system more flexible.
The tested CHP system showed an electrical power of up to 4.2 kW with an electrical efficiency of 46% while using pure hydrogen. The system was operated at 160°C, the same temperature was applied to fuel cells during single cell tests (long term and accelerated stress tests). Several tests have been performed like fuel switching, start/stop-cycling with different idling temperatures and extended long term tests. These special long term tests have been performed with Beyond State of the Art MEAs and revealed very low degradation rates of -4 µV/h after 12,500 hours of operation (this test is still running). With help of these experiments, a proof of concept of the HT-PEM fuel cell durability could be given. These ultralow degradation rates could also be proven with help of short stack tests under pure hydrogen, which also depicted a decay rate of -4 µV/h.
Next to the improved MEA with thermal treated membranes, components like bipolar plates (PPS) and gaskets (FKM) have been optimized as well.
In addition, a 2D and 3D model of HT-PEM fuel cell stack was developed.
In the following subchapters, the main results of each technical work package (WP2 to WP6) are presented.
Work package 2:
The goal of this work package is to optimize the performance and durability of the MEAs towards the target of the project by:
• Optimization of fuel/oxidant strategy;
• Optimization of electrodes and membranes;
• Optimized MEA design for the chosen fuel/oxidant strategy.

■ Fuel and air/O2 optimization
The effect of higher oxygen partial pressure on the performance and durability has been addressed. The fuel cell performance decreases after each oxygen enrichment measurement and hence, a slight degradation in the fuel cell is observed when the oxygen concentration is increased. The best results were achieved when the oxygen concentration was 30%.

■ Electrode and membrane optimization
In this WP, Pt supported on four different novel materials have been compared to the classical Vulcan Carbon support, in order to evaluate the effect of the catalyst support on the performance of HT-PEMFC. Two of them are carbonaceous materials: graphene and carbon nanofibers (CNF). The other two are non-carbonaceous materials: silicon carbide (β-SiC) and binary silicon titanium carbide (SiCTiC). The electrodes with Pt onto SiCTiC showed the lowest degradation. Moreover, Pt supported on different “novel” supports has been and will be tested in a single cell. Up to now, the best performance has been achieved by the standard Pt/C Vulcan whereas the Pt/SiCTiC has shown a very good stability (200 µV/h during the first 100 h of operation) compared with the standard one (600 µV/h) under the same operation conditions. Thus, Pt/SiCTiC was selected as a novel catalyst for the experiments in a short stack.
On the other hand, with the aim of reduce the Pt loading, a binary catalyst PtCo supported on PtSiCTiC were prepared and tested in a single cell. Very promising results related with the stability were achieved.

In WP2, DPS and UCLM have been in close cooperation, exchanging membranes for testing. The new thermally cured PBI membranes performed better than the standard ones, not only reached high conductivity values but also high acid retention capability. Besides high chemical resistances through Fenton tests, these both membranes can be used in HT-PEMFCs and have demonstrated a high durability. Thus, 1,000 hours were reached with MEAs prepared with these two novel PBI based membranes under our operation conditions. The new PBI based membranes proposed by both DPS and UCLM partners showed very good performance and durability, and they could be used in further stages of development of this project, although the membrane developed at DPS was found to be able to attain slightly better reproducibility and hence was chosen as example of membrane beyond state of the art.

Moreover, bipolar plates and gasket have been tested in this WP. The effect of temperature and phosphoric acid concentration on the corrosion of the standard material for BPP has been evaluated. Besides the evaluation of scientific characteristics of the new materials, the influence in the manufacture of the plates with the new formulations at high scale (mass production) has been considered as well. Consequently, Eisenhuth optimized the compounding and plate manufacturing process with respect to conductivity, tolerances and scrap rate of the bipolar plate material. Finally, a manufacturing process for PPS/graphite bipolar plates has been established and material for cell testing and stack building purposes has been delivered to CISTEM partners.

■ MEA design
The overall purpose of this task is the integration of knowledge obtained in the previous tasks into the production process.

Major findings have been done in order to consistently manufacture PBI membranes that fulfill the requirements for an optimized MEA suited for the proposed CHP applications. DPS has enabled a doping method where the casted PBI membranes are doped under humidity and temperature controlled and isolated from the environment. This gives higher quality and reproducible results on the MEA test results.
Several aspects should be taken into consideration in order to successfully scale-up large MEA production, and those are:

• New settings for MEA hot-pressing: new investigations for fabricating large size MEAs had to be done to optimize time, temperature and contact pressure. The results revealed that the MEA performance is mostly dependent on the contact pressure (kg/cm2) which is applied on the active are of the MEA. This parameter has been trimmed and set for large MEAs.
• MEA ionomer design: two different type of MEA designs were considered for the large size manufacturing.
• Stamping tools and laser cutting technique to cutting-out the MEA gas channels.

Work package 3:
The activities in WP3 are dealing with the degradation of State of the Art (SoA) materials for the HT-PEM Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) and stack materials (BPP, gasket and cooling fluid). The objectives of the activities are:
• To achieve general agreement on various test and operating procedures as well as long-term and accelerated stress testing;
• To identify the optimal gas composition for oxygen enriched cathode air with respect to durability and degradation;
• To manufacture some single cells with SoA components and test the MEAs for durability and degradation analysis under various operating conditions;
• To manufacture a few short stacks for lifetime testing;
• Identify relevant degradation mechanisms;
• Perform post mortem analysis;
• Verify the targeted life time of the system.
The work on MEAs within WP3 has resulted in:

• Two protocols that describes the details and procedures for MEA testing. These resulted in uniform test conditions, meaning that the results obtaind by the various partners are both comparable and directly relevant for the development of MEAs that are suitable for the overall project objective.
• The optimum oxygen enrichment of the cathode air has been identified to 30%, and this has been included in the relevant test protocol. Durability tests are still in progress and have already shown higher power density compared to previous data.
• Post mortem analyses have been performed using SEM and µCT. The results show that the Dapozol® MEAs are much more resistant towards mechanical stress as compared to the BASF MEAs.
• Accelerated stress tests and impedance measurements have been performed.
• Extensive single cell testing has been performed with SoA materials, i.e. Dapozol® 100 materials consisting of a standard 40 µm PBI membrane and SoA electrode manufacturing procedures. The results of these single cell tests and post mortem analysis investigations have formed the basis for the selection of the Materials for Beyond SoA materials (described in WP2). In addition, several tests with the BoA-MEAs have been performed with dry and wet reformate.
• Load cycling enhances degradation of MEA materials comparing with constant load testing. Besides, load cycling may be used as stress testing to collect degradation data in shorter time period than constant load testing.
• Start-stop cycling testing enhances degradation of MEA materials. It has been found that keeping idling temperature at 25°C during shut-down periods does not influence fuel cell life time.
• Fuel switching tests have demonstrated the feasibility of switching the fuel from pure hydrogen to synthetic gas reformate composition operation. The fuel cell operation between pure hydrogen and synthetic dry reformate has apparently not shown extra degradation in the fuel cell.
• BoA1-MEAs have been tested in extended long term test with degradation rates below -4 µV/h. Several tests with a runtime of 2,000 h and an average degradation rate of -2 µV/h have been performed. One tested MEA overcame 12,500 h with a degradation rate of -4 µV/h (still running in November 2016).
• These MEAs can fulfil the targeted life time of the system.

The work on the stack materials within WP3 has resulted in:

• A significant improvement in materials for bipolar plates has been achieved. The PPS based plates demonstrate significantly lower acid uptake and lower corrosion compared to standard phenolic resin based plates. Furthermore, the PPS based material is fully compatible with the selected cooling fluid (Galden HT270).
• The gasket materials have been improved and tested (FKM).

Work package 4:
The main objectives of this work package are the development of the main components of the plant (BoP) with respect to maximum electrical efficiency of the system, lifetime of the components, minimum component costs and compliance to technical rules and legal aspects and limitations.
The BoP components were tested under system equivalent conditions with respect to optimization of components in single components tests and specification of components for system operation.
Within the project period following tasks were fulfilled:
• Specification of the basic process parameters for all BoP components;
• Specification of the detailed functional parameters for all BoP components;
• Setup and test of a small-scale version of the fuel-processor;
• Design of all full-size components of the fuel-processor including a bi-fuel burner;
• Construction and setup of a full-size version of the fuel-processor;
• Setup and test of two short stack versions of the fuel-cell module;
• Basic design of the system setup for the evaluation unit components;
• Detailed design of the system setup for the evaluation unit including heat storage and backup-boiler and all piping and instrumentation;
• Components for the BoP (full-scale fuel processor and fuel cell stack) are delivered by the project partners.

A fuel processor for supplying two full stacks was delivered and tested on component level and system level. The efficiency of the full-scale fuel processor is in good accordance to small-scale tests conducted by the project partners.
Within this work package, a short stack consisting of seven cells was constructed with beyond state of the art materials developed on other work packages. The assembly and testing of the short stack has been completed with very low decay-rates over 1,000 hours of testing. The decay-rate of 4 µV/h could be demonstrated on short stack level under pure hydrogen operation.
Finally, a full stack with 80 cells and an electrical output of about 4.2 kW could be constructed, delivered and tested on component level as well as system level (WP5). The single cell behavior is in very good accordance to short stack behavior. Hence, comparable lifetime and degradation rates can be expected. The stack was integrated into the CHP system and evaluated in WP5.

Work package 5:
The main objectives of this work package are the proof of concept for the modular CHP design, setup of two full stack modules in one “modular” CHP unit, investigation of controls options and operational strategies, detailed analysis of system potential and providing guidelines and rules for numbering up to larger units.
Within the project period following tasks were fulfilled:
• Design of a basic system setup;
• Modelling of several versions for the basic system setup and calculation of the electrical efficiency;
• Setup of a transient model for the basic system setup for calculation of the start / stop – procedure;
• Development and calculation of a start-up strategy for the basic system setup;
• Parameter variation with system model (reformer temperature, steam to carbon ratio, fuel utilization fuel cell) for operational strategy and system potential;
• Development of a transient calculation model for the heat and electrical demand of a single household and a cluster of multiple single households for district heating application which takes seasonal changes into account;
• Definition of an operational strategy for the operation of a 100 kW CHP system with 10 sub modules;
• Calculation and assessment of the operational hours and electrical efficiency of a 100 kW CHP system with 10 sub modules with transient heat and power demand model for one year of operation;
• A detailed report of CHP system operation and potential will be given, including the detailed investigation of modular upscaling capabilities and limitations.

On the test rig, a CHP unit consisting of one fuel processor and one fuel cell stack could be demonstrated. The CHP unit is designed for hydrogen operation and syngas operation. Under hydrogen operation, an electrical output of up to 4.2 kW per stack could be demonstrated successfully. At nominal load (i=0.3 A/cm²) the electrical fuel cell efficiency is 46% with an overall efficiency (electrical and thermal) of about 90%. Under syngas operation, electrical system efficiency was determined to 29% with an overall efficiency (electrical and thermal) of about 70%.
The results from simulation are in good accordance to results measured on hardware. Furthermore, the simulation approach could be used successfully to find improved system operation.

Work package 6:
Within this work-package, a model of the high temperature (HT) polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) stack was developed. The model underwent through several steps.
In the first step the two-dimensional (2D) model of stack was proposed to verify utilization of chosen approach. The macro-homogeneous approach assumes that for an industrial size stack, consisting of more than approximately 20 to 50 cells, can be assumed to be characterized by corresponding continuous effective anisotropic reaction-transport parameters. Mass and charge exchange between the individual layers are mathematically realized via source/sink terms in the corresponding balance equations. This approach enables to evaluate and display local distribution of physical variables with relatively low demands on computational hardware.
The 2D model represented a stack with parallel channels flow-field geometry. The proposed model was isothermal and in the first stage stationary. The results corresponded to the expectations and were physically correct. Thus, the macro-homogeneous approach has been proofed as feasible and sufficiently accurate to describe this system (Kodym R. et al, Electrochimica Acta (2015) 179).
In the next step, the 2D model was extended to three-dimensional (3D) one. The model results revealed non-uniformity in mass distribution given by the stack geometry used. Therefore, an attempt was made to utilise the model to optimise the geometry in order to improve this situation.
Pt catalyst degradation represents a dynamic process. It was thus necessary to extend the available 3D mode model to the dynamic one. The 3D isothermal dynamic model of the 80 cells stack was realised for the flow-fields design developed by inhouse engineering. The degradation of Pt catalyst in fuel cells mainly results in decrease of the specific electrochemically active Pt surface area. The kinetics of this process was evaluated within the framework of the DeMStack project. An extensive set of the experimental data obtained in specially designed experimental setup was used for this purpose. Using the kinetics description developed, mathematical modelling of HT-PEM FC stack with implemented degradation of the Pt catalyst was successfully performed. The results revealed very good agreement with experimental data at the low current densities. For high current loads it has overestimated the Pt catalyst degradation rate. This is due to incomplete set of experimental data for the domain of high current loads and long cell operations.

Potential Impact:
The main idea of the project CISTEM was the utilization of the HT-PEM fuel cell technology as CHP-concept for applications between 8 and 100 kWel. HT-PEM technology was not available for this range of capacity until the starting point of the project and therefore new developments for the special requirements referring to efficiency, lifetime and costs of HT-PEM fuel cells were demanded. The substantial single components of this kind of system are the reformer and the fuel cell stack, which have been developed within the runtime of CISTEM next to other BoP components. The full stack as well as the single MEAs can be operated with pure hydrogen or with reformate; this makes the system more flexible.
The tested CHP system showed an electrical power of up to 4.2 kW with an electrical efficiency of 46% while using pure hydrogen. The system was operated at 160°C, the same temperature was applied to fuel cells during single cell tests (long term and accelerated stress tests). Several tests have been performed like fuel switching, start/stop-cycling with different idling temperatures and extended long term tests. These special long term tests have been performed with Beyond State of the Art MEAs and revealed very low degradation rates of -4 µV/h after 12,500 hours of operation (this test is still running). With help of these experiments, a proof of concept of the HT-PEM fuel cell durability could be given. These ultralow degradation rates could also be proven with help of short stack tests under pure hydrogen, which also depicted a decay rate of -4 µV/h.
In addition to the improved MEA with thermal treated membranes, components like bipolar plates (PPS) and gaskets (FKM) have been optimized as well.
Next to several short stack assemblies and tests, one short stack consisting of seven cells was constructed with beyond state of the art materials developed within CISTEM. The assembly and testing of the short stack has been completed with very low decay-rates over 1,000 hours of testing. The decay-rate of 4 µV/h could be demonstrated on short stack level under pure hydrogen operation.
A full stack with 80 cells and an electrical output of about 4.2 kW could be constructed (while using optimized materials and components), delivered and tested on component level as well as system level.
Within CISTEM, the main components of the plant (BoP) were developed with respect to maximum electrical efficiency of the system, lifetime of the components, minimum component costs and compliance to technical rules and legal aspects and limitations. These BoP components were tested under system equivalent conditions with respect to optimization of components in single components tests and specification of components for system operation.
On the test rig, a CHP unit consisting of one fuel processor and one fuel cell stack could be demonstrated. The CHP unit is designed for hydrogen operation and syngas operation. Under hydrogen operation, an electrical output of up to 4.2 kW per stack could be demonstrated successfully. At nominal load (i=0.3 A/cm²) the electrical fuel cell efficiency is 46% with an overall efficiency (electrical and thermal) of about 90%. Under syngas operation, electrical system efficiency was determined to 29% with an overall efficiency (electrical and thermal) of about 70%.
In addition, a 2D and 3D model of HT-PEM fuel cell stack was developed.
The socio-economic impact of the CISTEM project was divided into a number of activities:
• Education of scientists and engineers;
• Gender aspects.
A number of scientists and engineers have been educated; 13 exam or thesis projects have been finalized.
The gender aspect has also been dealt with, since several female researchers, engineers and project assistants have been working within the project.
The key exploitation results of CISTEM are the fuel processor, long term stable MEAs and bipolar plates (TRL 6 each) as well as the HT-PEM stacks and the complete CHP unit (both TRL 5).
At this point it should be referred to the following questionnaire and the exploitation report (D7.4).
CISTEM dissemination has been done through different communication channels, described in the Exploitation and Dissemination Plan. The main channels were:
• Scientific conferences and workshops with posters and lectures;
• Publications in journals, conference proceedings etc.;
• CISTEM and project partner websites;
• Press releases;
• Workshop;
• Commercial Trade Fairs.

List of Websites:
www.project-cistem.eu

Contact

Peter Wagner, (R&D Manager Characterization)
Tel.: +49 441 99906 316
E-mail
Record Number: 197100 / Last updated on: 2017-04-10
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