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Economical generation of wear resistant high performance layers with laser radiation for development of light engine components

Functional surfaces designed to withstand imposed stress and strain are produced by means of laser surface treatment using additive materials. These layers are applied to new hollow steel camshafts (50% weight reduction in comparison with cast iron camshafts), to aluminium brake disks (30%-40% weight reduction in comparison with cast iron brake disks) and to extruder screws for plastic processing machines.

The results obtained in this project are:
a completely new rotary swaged steel camshaft, with weight reduction of about 50% compared to cast iron camshafts (This reduction in weight should result in a reduction in the consumption of gasoline);
a completely new technique to alloy a three dimensional part like a camshaft using a two-stage process (first: application of a carbon layer with a spraying technique, second: remelting of the layer with laser radiation);
ledeburitic layers with a thickness of 0.4 mm after finish-grinding and a hardness of 650 ± 50 HV were achieved;
production of a brake disk that was approximately 30% to 40% lighter than current cast iron brake disks (This reduction in weight should result in a reduction in the consumption of gasoline);
a new technique to alloy a brake disk using a two-stage process (first: application of a plasma sprayed layer of 75Mo 4 25Cr 0.8B 1Fe 0.2C Ni, second: remelting of the layer with laser radiation);
alloying of aluminium brake disks using CO(2) laser radiation has been achieved, delivering alloyed layers of approximately 0.5 mm thickness and hardness of 200-250 HV with a deformation less than 0.2 mm;
high Mo content layers for extruders, containing 41-63 mass% molybdenum (The wear performance of the new laser cladded layers is up to 60% better than the plasma transferred arc (PTA) layers used at the moment in production);
the cladding technique for extruders, especially the processing technique to clad tracks with a width of 12 mm and a thickness of 1 mm in one pass.

The work includes the characterization of the surface layers and the investigation of the operational properties, also in comparison with conventional processes. The layers, as well as the processing technology developed in this project, may be applied in many other industrial sectors such as for aeronautic components, machine building components, forging, dyecasting and injection tools, road and railway vehicle components.

Reported by

Fraunhofer Institut für Lasertechnik
Steinbachstraße 15
52074 Aachen
Germany
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