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ERC

CogSoCoAGE Report Summary

Project ID: 636458
Funded under: H2020-EU.1.1.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - CogSoCoAGE (Tracking the cognitive basis of social communication across the life-span)

Reporting period: 2015-09-01 to 2017-02-28

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

A vital part of successful everyday social interaction is the ability to update our current knowledge using information about others (e.g. their emotions, visual perspective, and language). Indeed, the need to infer meaning during communication with others arises not just everyday, but every time we encounter another person. It is something that as healthy adults, we perform frequently and seemingly without a great deal of difficulty. However, emerging research has begun to highlight that even healthy adults experience difficulties considering another person’s point of view when that view conflicts with their own. Further, research on healthy ageing reports specific impairments in these abilities with increasing age, which raises three important questions: what is the cognitive basis of social communication, how does this change across the life-span, and can training these underlying cognitive skills enhance impaired social skills?

Typically, children develop the necessary skills for social communication between the ages of 2 and 7 years old (Wellman et al., 2001). A key component of this developmental trajectory is the ability to understand and predict events in terms of other peoples’ mental states, such as their intentions, beliefs and desires (termed Theory of Mind, ToM). Interestingly, this marked improvement in ToM coincides with children’s development of more general cognitive skills, called Executive Functions (EF). EF is a commonly used ‘umbrella term’ to describe the processes that are responsible for higher-level action control (e.g. planning, inhibition, coordination and control of behaviours), and are necessary to maintain specific goals and resist distraction from alternatives. Linking ToM and EF makes sense given that successful social cognition requires one to hold in mind multiple perspectives (i.e. working memory), suppress irrelevant perspectives (i.e. inhibitory control), and switch between these two perspectives depending on context (i.e. cognitive flexibility). Research has demonstrated that these EF skills decline in older age (65+ years), but no studies to date have examined the degree to which this age-related EF decline is responsible for changes in ToM ability across the age-span, or whether training EFs could lead to enhanced ToM use. In contrast to previous work (which has targeted ToM as a single entity), the proposed research aims to dissect the component mechanisms of ToM, and evaluate how EFs facilitate successful social communication across the life-span.

The programme of research is organised into three complementary objectives. Within the scope of the broader questions defined above, Objective 1 explores the degree to which variations in ToM ability across the life-span (from 10 to 80+ years old) can be accounted for by changes in EF skills. Objective 2 uses a longitudinal approach (i.e. test-retest of the same participants) to track the changes in ToM ability and EF skill over time in different age groups in order to establish when key developmental changes occur, while limiting the effects of individual differences between participants. Finally, Objective 3 tests whether ToM ability, and hence social communication, can be enhanced through training specific EF skills, and how these training effects might differ across the life-span. The research within each of these objectives will employ cutting-edge combinations of techniques (e.g. eye-tracking and EEG) and paradigms to assess several key components of social communication, including emotional states, visual perspective-taking, and high-level inferences about others’ minds. Each of these objectives will be analysed using advanced statistical modelling techniques to provide highly valuable insights into social communication, its link with EF, and how this relationship operates across the life-span. In addition, we will gain a unique and significantly richer understanding of these processes by examining emerging findings alongside a battery of measures that test general social and cognitive skills (eg. IQ, language), which will enable fine-grained analyses within and between individuals. This research will open up new horizons in ToM research by developing an intervention programme to enhance the quality of social communication in older adults (thus improving their mental health and well-being), which has the potential to be applied in other individuals with social communication deficits (eg. autism).

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

Research Progress:
Objective 1 (months 1-36) proposed to conduct a comprehensive analysis to assess the degree to which variations in Theory of Mind (ToM) ability across the life-span can be accounted for by executive function (EF) skills. The position of PDRA-1 was originally to be filled by Dr James Cane, however due to personal reasons, he was unable to take on this position. Thus, the position was advertised externally and was filled by Dr Victoria Brunsdon. The position of PDRA-2 was advertised and filled by Dr Elisabeth Bradford.

Work on this objective has largely progressed as planned in Annex 1, though we now use an even larger battery of assessments to test a broader range of ToM, EFs and other social/cognitive skills. Specifically, we use eight different tasks, alongside behavioural methods (measuring explicit responses) and highly-sensitive eye-tracking and electroencephalography (EEG/ERP) techniques, to observe ToM use across numerous domains (i.e. emotional states, imitation, visual perspective-taking, and high-level mental reasoning). In addition, four tasks assess individuals’ EF skills in planning, working memory, inhibition, and mental flexibility, and their IQ is estimated using the Weschler Abbreviated Scale for Intelligence. Finally, a detailed questionnaire measures self- (and other) reported mood, media and tech use, social skills and participation, empathy, loneliness, physical activity, and demographic information for each participant. This entire battery takes 4-5 hours to complete per participant.

In this 18 month reporting period, significant progress has been made on Objective 1. Specifically, I have recruited and trained the research team, and together we have applied for ethical approval for all our studies (including data collection with adults and children), programmed and piloted all experimental tasks, advertised the CogSoCoAGE project and recruited participants from the community to take part, collected data, begun data processing and analysis, disseminated the emerging findings at national and international conferences, and we are preparing manuscripts for peer review. To date, we have collected data from a total of 185 participants, spanning an age range between 10 and 86 years old. This represents over half of the planned sample size for Objective 1 (N=350), thus I am confident in meeting our target within the planned timeframe.

Objective 3 (months 13-48) planned to assess whether individuals across the life-span can benefit from training of executive functions to improve ToM ability and hence social communication. Work on this objective began in September 2016 when the PhD student, Martina De Lillo, joined the team following interviews in Spring 2016. Work has largely progressed as planned in Annex 1, however we have revised the choice of the four training tasks, and extended the length of the training protocol (from 5 days to 3 weeks) to better fit emerging findings on successful cognitive training. Thus, in this first 6 months, the PhD student has prepared an up to date literature review on EF training, applied for ethical approval, programmed assessments and online training protocols for EFs, and is currently running a pilot study to validate (and modify as needed) the four training protocols in the cognitive domain (no ToM is tested yet). Pilot testing is due to be completed in June 2017, and we anticipate starting the main ToM training phase across a wide age group in Summer 2017. Thus, though some minor delays have appeared in this objective due to changes in the tasks and training protocols, we are confident that research on this objective will fit the aniticipated timeframe.

As well as the planned research under Objectives 1 and 3, the research team have conducted additional research, not specified in the grant proposal. This work has included an ERP study on the effect of age of avatar in level 1 visual perspective-taking (currently being prepared for peer-review), two behavioural studies on vestibular stimulation and perspective-taking (presented at Psychonomics conference in 2016), and a behavioural study examining false belief tracking in adults with autism spectrum disorder (additional funding awarded from a University of Kent faculty research grant).

Publications:
Nieuwland, M.S., Politzer-Ahles, S., Heyselaar, E., Segaert, K., Darley, E., Kazanina, N., Von Grebmer Zu Wolfsthurn, S., Bartolozzi, F., Kogan V., Ito, A., Mézière, D., Barr, D.J., Rousselet, G., Ferguson, H.J., Busch-Moreno, S., Fu, X., Tuomainen, J., Kulakova, E., Husband, E.M., Donaldson, D.I., Kohút, Z., Rueschemeyer, S., & Huettig, F. (submitted). Limits on prediction in language comprehension: A 9-lab failure to replicate a landmark study on phonological prediction. Nature Neuroscience.

Conference Presentations:
Bradford, E.E.F., Brunsdon, V.E.A., & Ferguson, H.J. (2017). The Relationship Between Theory of Mind and Executive Functions in Older and Younger Adults. Presented at the European Association of Social Psychology Annual Meeting, in Granada, Spain.
Bradford, E.E.F., Brunsdon, V.E.A., & Ferguson, H.J. (2017). An EEG study examining how ageing influences false-belief reasoning abilities. Presented at the British Neuroscience Association Annual Meeting, in Birmingham, UK.
Brunsdon, V.E.A., Bradford, E.E.F., & Ferguson, H.J. (2017). An EEG study to investigate the human mirror neuron system and its relationship to social abilities in healthy ageing. Presented at the British Neuroscience Association Annual Meeting, in Birmingham, UK.
Bradford, E.E.F., Brunsdon, V.E.A., & Ferguson, H.J. (2017). The effects of ageing on false-belief reasoning abilities: an EEG study with older and younger adults. Presented at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, in San Francisco, USA.
Brunsdon, V.E.A., Bradford, E.E.F., & Ferguson, H.J. (2017). The aging mirror neuron system: EEG activation during biological motion observation. Presented at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, in San Francisco, USA.
Brunsdon, V.E.A., Bradford, E.E.F., & Ferguson, H.J. (2017). Age and the role of executive function in perspective-taking. Presented at the Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, in Los Angeles, USA.
Bradford, E.E.F., Brunsdon, V.E.A., & Ferguson, H.J. (2017). The relationship between theory of mind and executive functioning across the lifespan. Presented at the Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, in Los Angeles, USA.
Bradford, E.E.F., Brunsdon, V.E.A., & Ferguson, H.J. (2017). The neural basis of social cognition: using EEG measures to explore false-belief processing across the lifespan. Presented at the Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, in Los Angeles, USA.
Brunsdon, V.E.A., Bradford, E.E.F., & Ferguson, H.J. (2017). The mirror neuron system across the lifespan and its role in social cognition. Presented at the Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, in Los Angeles, USA.
Brunsdon, V.E.A., Bradford, E.E.F., & Ferguson, H.J. (2017). Age-related differences in visual perspective-taking. Presented at the Experimental Psychology Society Conference in London, UK.
Bradford, E.E.F., Brunsdon, V.E.A., & Ferguson, H.J. (2016). Mapping the relationship between Theory of Mind and executive functioning in adulthood. Presented at the Psychonomic Society Annual Meeting, in Boston, USA.
Brunsdon, V.E.A., Bradford, E.E.F., & Ferguson, H.J. (2016). Age-related differences in visual perspective-taking. Presented at the Psychonomic Society Annual Meeting in Boston, USA.
Bradford, E.E.F., Brunsdon, V.E.A., & Ferguson, H.J. (2016). Differences in Theory of Mind processes in older and younger adults. Presented at a UK-China Research Links Workshop in Beijing, China.
Brunsdon, V.E.A., Bradford, E.E.F., & Ferguson, H.J. (2016). Age-related differences in perspective-taking during a referential communication task. Presented at a UK-China Research Links Workshop in Beijing, China.

Public Engagement:
Ongoing Advertising the research project in local media (newspapers, radio, web), Christmas card updates to all participants to date, newsletter update with results overview
2017 We showcased the CogSoCoAGE project at a University of the 3rd age (U3A) partnership event at the University of Kent.
2017 We showcased the CogSoCoAGE project as part of the National Pint of Science festival (https://pintofscience.co.uk/event/the-future-is-now-kill-or-cure-robots-forensic-face-matching-and-social-communications).
2016 We ran an information stall at Boing! family festival where we talked to visitors about the CogSoCoAGE research project, demonstrated some of our research methods in our research laboratory van, and invited people to sign up to take part.
2016 CogSoCoAGE research featured in Horizon magazine’s article, ‘Brain power: determined by nature or nurture?’ (https://horizon-magazine.eu/article/brain-power-determined-nature-or-nurture_en.html).
2016 We organised a Psychological Science open day where visitors could learn about psychology research at Kent, explore how we conduct research, and hear about the impact of our research findings.
2015 Project website launched (https://www.kent.ac.uk/psychology/CogSoCoAGE/)

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

This research is particularly important and timely given the significant negative consequences of impairments in social communication. ToM underlies nearly all aspects of successful interpersonal relations, as people need to keep track of other peoples’ knowledge, beliefs and desires to understand their actions and intended meaning. Indeed, misunderstanding another person’s meaning or intentions can occur frequently during everyday conversation, often leading to negative social implications (e.g. taking offence or restricting further interactions). Recent research has shown that age-related difficulties in ToM mediate a substantial decline in social participation in older adults, which in turn leads to isolation, loneliness and poor health (Bailey et al., 2008). Moreover, across Europe (and beyond) there is a clear shift towards an ageing population, with the median age increasing from 35.4 years to 41.2 years, and the proportion of older adults (65+ years) increasing by 3.6% over the last 20 years (Eurostat, 2011). It is projected that this proportion will rise by a further 12% by 2060, meaning that those aged over 65 will account for 29.5% of Europe’s total population. The proposed research seeks to gain a fuller understanding of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie healthy ageing and social communication, and to explore promising new protocols to improve ToM use indirectly via EF training. Establishing success using such an approach would reveal exciting opportunities for the future to apply tailored training methods to clinical populations who suffer impaired social skills (e.g. autism).

Our research is innovative in that, despite the clear importance of social communication and the negative consequences of its failure, no studies have systematically explored the cognitive basis of these abilities, how this might change across the age-span, or assessed whether performance might be enhanced through training the underlying functions. Furthermore, most previous studies have used a single task to measure just one aspect of ToM, and typically record participants’ explicit responses to questions that require an inference about a character’s mental state (e.g. “where will X look for the Y?”). Such response-based methods offer limited insights in adults since they do not provide information on the processing steps that lead to a particular response; adults typically pass these explicit tasks but show some variation in performance when more sensitive measures are used.Our research significantly improves on these response-based methods through the use of a broad range of state-of-the-art implicit methods that measure success on multiple different aspects of social communication. Using cognitive and psycholinguistic research paradigms to explore questions about social interaction will allow us to track the timecourse of social understanding and inferences about others’ mental states. In addition, we are employing sophisticated statistical analyses to break down the relative input and predictive relationships from different EF/cognitive/ social skills, which will allow us to model the multiple contributing factors that underlie ToM ability.

The research is also unusual in that it focuses on a very broad age-range of healthy individuals, from children to older adults (10 to 80+ years old). Most previous research on social communication and EF has focused on a very narrow age-range of 2-7 years old, when these skills are known to develop in typically developing children, or on clinical disorders that affect these skills (e.g. autism, schizophrenia). A growing body of research has emerged over the last few years, demonstrating that in fact social development continues through adolescence and well into our 20s (e.g. Blakemore, 2008). Therefore, it is possible that previous studies have overlooked key stages of ToM/EF development. Moreover, in recent years, ground-breaking research, including from my own lab, has begun to establish the study of social communication in healthy adults as a research topic in its own right, with important implications for ToM research in other groups, including children and patients (Apperly et al., 2009; Cane et al., 2016; Ferguson et al., 2015, 2010; Ferguson & Breheny, 2011, 2012; Keysar et al., 2000). Finally, most previous studies have focussed on a single, static age group, and even those limited studies that have assessed ToM in older age compare only two groups (‘young’ vs. ‘old’), which does not allow investigation of the developmental trajectory or reflect earlier signs of cognitive decline. The broad incremental age groups and longitudinal methods being used here will enable a valid, novel and dynamic exploration of these effects over age and time.
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