Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

3D Simulation and calculation code for fire and smoke spread in tunnels etc.

The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model produced represents well the spread of fire and smoke in tunnels or underground spaces such as stations. Individual tunnel designs and fire conditions are simulated; the computed results help in understanding the development of dangerous heat and smoke conditions within tunnels when fires occur. Computer simulation allows scenarios to be investigated where experimental study would be too dangerous, destructive or costly. It also aids comparison between alternative designs of tunnel geometry or ventilation system.

The model is based on the commercial CFD program STAR-CD. It simulates, in three dimensions and with variation in time, the development of a tunnel fire and smoke transport within the tunnel air flow. Technical work, tailored to this application, includes the identification and application of the most appropriate up-to-date methods of modelling: combustion; anisotropic turbulence; smoke characterisation; radiative heat exchange between smoke and surfaces; and convective heat transfer at surfaces.

The model has been validated by simulating results of experimental tests performed within the OSIS project and elsewhere.

An automatic link has been developed between the 3D CFD model and the 1D network model so that the fire effects and the air flows within a whole tunnel system interact.

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WS Atkins Consultants Limited
Woodcote Grove, Ashley Road
KT18 5BW Epsom
United Kingdom
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