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Insight in the toxin profiles of Alternaria isolates grown on rice, potato-dextrose-agar and carrot discs, including a relationship between severity of disease and presence of certain toxins

53 isolates of Alternaria alternata and A. radicina from carrot, parsley, celery and wild carrot were tested for their toxigenicity on rice, potato-dextrose-agar (PDA), and carrot root discs. A diverse toxigenicity of the fungi was demonstrated. A. alternata produced tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME) and altertoxin I (ATX I) in rice and PDA cultures, whereas mainly AOH and AME on carrot root discs. In any media tested, A.alternata produced neither AAL-toxins (TA1 and TA2) nor fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) which is of importance for consumers. Isolates from carrot produced AOH+AME on carrot at lower levels as compared with those from parsley and celery. A. radicina produced mainly radicinin (RAD)in rice and PDA cultures whereas mainly RAD and epi-radicinol (epi-ROH)on carrot discs. Isolates from carrot and wild carrot were more toxigenic than those from parsley and celery which may be an additional evidence for a closer relation of the fungus to Daucus carota as compared with Petroselinum hortense and Apium graveolens. Significant positive correlations between the level of RAD and TeA produced by Alternaria spp. isolates on PDA and the disease index in seedlings in the plant assay and the percentages of diseased seedlings and seeds in the germination test, respectively were found. These may indicate involvement of both toxins in the disease processes either in seedlings or at seed germination stage.

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Krystyna TYLKOWSKA
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