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Development of TaqMan quantitative PCR

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and other extracellular proteins, including growth factors and their receptors. The aberrant expression of these genes is common in most cancers. We profiled the RNA levels of every human MMP and TIMP in a variety of cell types (fibroblast, endothelial, hematopoietic, carcinoma, melanoma, and glioma) using quantitative PCR, with the aim of identifying novel expression patterns. Almost all members of the membrane-type (MT-) MMP and TIMP families were elevated in glioma lines compared to carcinomas. In clinical glioma specimens, there were positive correlations between glioma grade and RNA levels of MT-1, MT-2, and MT-6 MMP, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, and for several growth factors and receptors. These findings suggest that advanced malignant gliomas have elevated levels of membrane-associated MMPs and TIMPs, which may potentially regulate vascularization and invasion. Concurrent elevation of signaling molecules suggests potential bidirectional relationships that enhance tumor aggressiveness.

Studies have suggested that an imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) may contribute to the malignant phenotype of gliomas. In this study, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of expression of the TIMP family in normal human brain and malignant gliomas at both the mRNA and protein level. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of total RNA from surgical tumour specimens revealed unique expression patterns for the 4 members of the TIMP family, with TIMP-1 and -4 showing positive and negative correlations, respectively, with glioma malignancy. By RT-PCR, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 expression did not change with tumour grade. In situ hybridization localized TIMP-1 to glial tumour cells and also to the surrounding tumour vasculature. TIMP-4 transcripts were predominantly localized to tumour cells, though minor expression was found in vessels. Recombinant TIMP-4 reduced invasion of U251 glioma cells through Matrigel, and U87 clones overexpressing TIMP-4 showed reduced invasive capacity in vitro. TIMP-4, but not TIMP-1, blocked Membrane Type-1-MMP-mediated progelatinase-A (MMP-2) activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The differential expression and localization of individual TIMPs may contribute to the pathophysiology of human malignant gliomas, particularly with regard to tumour vascularization

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Rigshospitalet - Finsenlaboritoriet
Strandboulevarden 49
DK-2100 Copenhagen
Denmark
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