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  • Definition of the characteristics of raw materials provided by the SMEs: quality of the rice and corn flour and starches (aspect, texture, baking-ability), physico-chemical properties

Definition of the characteristics of raw materials provided by the SMEs: quality of the rice and corn flour and starches (aspect, texture, baking-ability), physico-chemical properties

A range of raw materials from rice (rice flour, pre-gelatinised rice flour, whole rice flour, parboiled rice flour) and corn flour was selected and analysed their properties as potential ingredients for making gluten free products. The gluten free raw materials studied contain a low amount of proteins, a circumstance that is even more pronounced in the case of corn flour, which shows the lowest protein content. Whole rice and parboiled rice show the highest ash content due to the presence of bran. Concerning a- and b-amylase activities, whole rice exhibits higher a-amylase activity than the other raw materials, but they were similar to the ones usually measured in wheat. Therefore, those raw materials would contain enough a-amylase activity for obtaining fermentable sugars during any bread-making process. However, the b-amylase activity was really low compared to the values often found for wheat flour, thus the b-amylase activity would limit the production of fermentable sugars during proofing and baking. Sugar analysis profile during proofing revealed that the production of fermentable sugars is rather limited when those raw materials are used, due to a deficiency of b-amylase activity and/or the lack of damaged starch. Therefore endogenous sugars are not enough for the breadmaking process and some extra addition of fermentable sugars are necessary.

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