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OSCAR Résumé de rapport

Project ID: EVK4-CT-2002-00083
Financé au titre de: FP5-EESD
Pays: Spain

Measurement of air quality, meteorology and traffic data in Madrid

There is an extensive network of air quality monitoring stations in Madrid but data from the following stations has been used for OSCAR project. The Madrid air quality-monitoring network follows the EU Directives for the location of air pollution stations in respect of the distance to the traffic and roads. Additional meteorological and traffic data is also available from these air quality sites as shown below.

Madrid City has also a meteorological monitoring network, which is managed by several organisations such as:
-Madrid Community,
-SICE, Madrid City,
-Spanish Meteorological Institute
This network is formed by classical meteorological stations with measurement of meteorological variables at 3.5 m in height such as:
1)wind speed,
2)wind direction,
3)temperature (aspirated),
4)dew point,
5)atmospheric pressure,
6)solar radiation,
7)cloud cover

Not all stations are measuring all these meteorological variables. In addition to this, Madrid City has also a SODAR/RASS system, which measures the vertical meteorological variables such as horizontal wind speed components and temperature at different vertical spatial resolution and with a high temporal resolution. The Madrid Community meteorological stations provide measurements at 2.5 m in height.
The meteorological information has been used in OSCAR in the modelling exercises for different historical periods of time in the past. In addition to this measured the modelled information has also been used.

The different monitoring devices have different data acquisition time intervals depending on the technique used for measurement. All the meteorological instruments for wind speed and wind direction are low response instrumentation. UPM under various European Projects in DGXII in the 4th FP has performed several campaigns a few years ago with fast response instrumentation. Deposition velocities of several pollutants (O3, NOx, SO2, NH3) have been measured with laboratory fast response techniques in real time. In addition a GILL sonic anemometer was also set up to measure several turbulent parameters such as friction velocity, u*, scale temperature, and L, Monin-Obukhov Length, in addition to the turbulent fluxes such as sensible and latent heat fluxes.

The monitored meteorological data is collected using a classical protocol provided by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to assure the quality of the gathered data. The data stored after passing the WMO QA/QC protocol is used in OSCAR. The data is officially available from the different Institutions mentioned above. The spatial and temporal representative ness of the data follows the recommendations of the WMO for urban meteorological stations.

The data from three stations from the network of air quality monitoring stations in Madrid has been included for the analysis. These three stations are: Casa de Campo (urban background), Plaza de España (open road) and Luca de Tena (street canyon). At the roadside sites the annual concentrations of PM and CO have decreased from 2003 to 2004 and it is suggested that this decrease is partly due to stricter implementation of the legislation. The PM10 concentrations at the open road and background sites are comparable in fact these are higher at background site for 2004. This indicates the influence of sources of PM10 other than traffic such as construction or resuspension at the background site.

The monthly variations show that generally CO and NOX concentrations are higher in colder months and PM10 concentrations are higher in warmer months. The increase in CO and NOX concentrations during colder months can be attributed partly to increased emissions and partly to poor dispersion. The increase in PM10 during warmer months can be associated with enhanced re- suspension.

The average daily traffic flows at Luca de Tena and Plaza de España are 30480 and 22362 respectively. This increase is reflected in ~50 higher NOX and ~26% and ~46% increase in PM10 concentration for 2003 and 2004 respectively. Both sites show a reasonably clear diurnal pattern in traffic flows. The traffic starts to pick up, sharply from 6 am till 9 am and then remains similarly high till 9 pm. There are some dips in the middle of this high period that can be associated with closure of many businesses (shops) during hot afternoon hours.

The hourly variation in PM10 and NO at both roadside sites show a diurnal pattern a sharper peak at morning rush hours (9-11 am) and a smaller peak in the evening (9-10 pm), which reasonably coincides with the hourly traffic pattern.

The exceedances statistics shows a particular problem with NO2 standards as the annual limit value has exceeded at both the roadside sites for both the years in Madrid. The results also indicate that the limit value for PM10 may be exceeded at the street canyon sites under poor meteorological conditions.

Informations connexes


Roberto SAN JOSE, (Professor)
Tél.: +34+91-3367465
Fax: +34-91-3367412