Servizio Comunitario di Informazione in materia di Ricerca e Sviluppo - CORDIS

Management recommendations based on the evaluation of epidemiological risk

The following management measures are recommended to prevent and contain the disease:
Sparus aurata
- The first preventive measures must be addressed to avoid the entry of infective stages into the cultures:
-- A strict screening of fish for enteromyxosis before introduction in the culture facilities is mandatory. The non lethal PCR assay (NL-PCR), not requiring the sacrifice of fish, is recommended to check the situation of a representative sample of suspicious stocks.

-- This strict control measure should be applied particularly when fish are to be transported between different countries and facilities. The NL-PCR assay is a rapid and accurate method and by far the most reliable developed to date for this purpose. When the fish size does not allow NL-sampling (or more accurate results are necessary), lethal sampling is recommended.

-- Water supply must be surveyed as it is an alternative access route of the parasite into the cultures. As the risk is especially high in pond facilities, the control of water quality is particularly recommended in these systems. As filtration is usually unaffordable, well water or sea intake sites from rocky bottom, as far from the coast as possible, are recommended.

-- Sea cages must be placed in non risky sites, far from land, enzootic farms and avoiding mud bottoms and coastal zones with abundant susceptible wild fish which have been proven to act as reservoirs.

- Subsequent measures deal with the adequate management to avoid the disease enhancement and spreading if infection is detected in the cultures.
-- A periodic monitoring of fish stocks is necessary to detect the presence of the infection from the very beginning. The NL-PCR diagnostic test is the recommended diagnostic routine method (when the fish are very small or a more accurate diagnosis is needed, lethal PCR should be used).

-- Sustained year-round temperatures over 20ºC should be avoided, mainly in the high-risk pond facilities.

-- Necrophagy must be reduced to a minimum, through methodical culling of symptomatic fish and removal of dead fish.

-- As prevalence generally increases with fish size, marketing of fish is preferably sooner in infected facilities.

Diplodus puntazzo
- All the general recommendations for gilthead sea bream S. aurata to avoid the entry and dispersion of the parasite are also applicable to sharpsnout sea bream D. puntazzo. The emphasis must be put in this case on surveillance of juveniles, as fish at the usual size of introduction into the sea-cages are especially susceptible to the disease.

Informazioni correlate

Reported by

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal , Ribera de Cabanes
12595 Castellón
Spain