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Maps of Aspergillus Section Nigri distribution

The geographic area studied lies between 8.63° East and 35.66° West longitude and 31.57° and 48.09° North latitude.

The incidence of berries infected by black aspergilli was significantly correlated with geographic coordinates, both at early veraison and ripening. A positive correlation was obtained with longitude, indicating that incidence increased going from West to East, while the correlation with latitude was negative, showing a positive gradient going towards the South of Europe. Incidence of A. carbonarius was also positively correlated to longitude, both at early veraison and harvesting.

The prediction map for A. Section Nigri in 2001 showed a fungal incidence higher than 50% in southern Spain and Portugal, and in Israel. The percentage of berries colonised by black aspergilli was between 10 and 25% in Northern-central Italy, while in all the other areas it was between 25 and 50%.

Fungal incidence in the whole area monitored was lower in 2002 with respect to the previous year and it exceeded 50% only in Israel.

Section Nigri was more frequently isolated in 2003. An incidence higher than 85% was obtained in most of Israel and in southern France; these areas were surrounded by an area with incidence higher than 50% which included the border area of Italy (Piemonte), South-East of Italy (southern Puglia) and Greece.

The prediction map for A. carbonarius at harvesting in 2003 showed a gradient very similar to that for black aspergilli, even if with a lower incidence. The highest incidence, between 20 and 40%, occurred in the regions of South-East France, most of Greece and Israel, while at early veraison it was predicted only in northern Greece.

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Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Via Emilia Parmense 84
29100 PIACENZA
Italy
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