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Task Force

INPHORMM-Final Summary Report

Information and Publicity Helping the Objective of Reducing Motorised Mobility

Project Co-ordinator:

Transport Studies Group, University of Westminster, UK

Full Partners:

Socialdata, Institut fur Verkehrs-und-Infrastrukturforschung
GmbH, Germany
Environment, Transport and Planning, Spain
T.E. Marknadskommunikation, Sweden
Primaria Municipiului Chisinau, Moldova

Associated Partners:

Hampshire County Council, UK
Hertfordshire County Council, UK
Azienda Consorzio Trasporti Veneziano, Italy
Ayuntamiento De Donostia, San Sebastian, Spain



1. Partnership
Name Contact
35 Marylebone Road
London NW1 5LS, UK
Lucy Hamer
Peter Jones
Tel. +44 171 911 5834/5073
Fax. +44 171 911 5057
Email. (email removed)
Hans-Grassel-Weg 1,
81375 Munchen,
Werner Brog
Erhard Erl
Rainer Cohrs
Tel. +4989/71 08-1
Fax. +49 89 716420
Email. (email removed)
Transport &

C/General Pardinas
112-Bis 1A 28006,
Madrid, SPAIN
Julia Perez-Cerezo Flores
Ramon Constantino Gonzalez
Miguel G. Portal
Tel. +34 9411 23 11
Fax. +34 91 563 27 99
Email: (email removed)
Svartbacksgatan 7-11
753 20 Uppsala, SWEDEN
Torbjorn Eriksson
Marie Lindvall
Tel.+46 18 69 22 30
Fax.+46 70 6149152
Email. (email removed)
Primaria Municipiului,

277012, municipiul Chisinau,
bd. Stefan cel Mare, 83,
Chisinau,Republica Moldova
Arthur Lungu Tel. +373 2 223145
Fax. +373 2 223145
(email removed)
UK consultant to Chisinau Peter Warman Tel. 01923 265258
Fax. 01923 443251
Email. (email removed)
Hampshire County
The Castle, Winchester,

SO23 8UD, U.K
Tony Ciaburro Tel. +44 (0)1962 846891
Fax. +44 (0)1962 847055
Email. (email removed)
Hertfordshire County
County Hall, Hertford,
SG13 8DN, UK
John Sykes Tel. +44 (0)1992 556117
Fax. +44 (0)1992 556169
Email. (email removed)
Azienda Consorzio
Trasporti Veneziano
Servizi Informativi, Via Genova,
4 30170 Mestre, Venezia, ITALY
Elio Zaggia
Massimo Diana
Tel. +39 41 27 22869
Fax. +39 41 272 2815
Email. (email removed)
Ayuntamiento De
Donostia, San Sebastian
13 C/Urdaneta, Donostia,
San Sebastian, 20006 SPAIN
Josu Benaito Tel. +34 943 481354
Fax. +34 943 481328
Email. (email removed)

2. Objectives

INPHORMM is a research project funded by the European Commission (DGVII - transport directorate), which investigated how transport information and publicity campaigns can influence peoples' awareness, attitudes and travel behaviour - and encourage cycling, walking and the use of public transport. The project objectives were as follows:

  1. To provide a generic classification of information and publicity tools that can be used in a transport context to influence travel behaviour
  2. To identify key target groups and the ways in which travel behaviour might be influenced by information and publicity initiatives
  3. To provide a comprehensive review of different kinds of information and publicity campaigns, and the policy objectives they are seeking to achieve
  4. To identify and describe a range of case studies demonstrating good ( and bad) practice
  5. To develop a general model setting out relationships between objectives, information and publicity strategies, use of specific tools and likely outcomes
  6. To develop a number of 'concept campaigns' to illustrate how the principles derived might be applied in selected situations
  7. To ensure widespread dissemination of the findings among relevant public and private sector organisations.

3. Technical Description

Summary of the INPHORMM Project work February 1997 - February 1999

  • A review of the types of organisations involved in producing transport information or running publicity/marketing campaigns in the field of travel awareness. This included their objectives, target audiences or settings, key messages, instruments and methods used, timing and phases of campaigns, monitoring and evaluation and their outcomes or impact.
  • Case studies dealing specifically with single/multi-modal campaigns, public transport information, campaigns targeting groups or settings and those linked to health and environmental programmes.
  • An integration and assessment of current practice through the preparation of a comprehensive summary of findings and examples of good/bad practice( from the review).
  • The development of a general model showing which information and publicity strategies and tools are most effective at achieving given objectives through influencing the attitudes and behaviour of specific target groups.
  • A number of 'model campaigns' showing how these general principles can be applied to specific situations: Public awareness campaigns, Campaigns to targeted groups and settings and Individualised Campaigns.
  • The development of guidelines for different types of organisations on the use of communication tools, including: local authorities, public transport operators, sites and institutions and environmental, cycling and walking groups.
  • Communication and administrative tasks , including the publicity for the project, production of reports and the dissemination of the findings and overall project management.
  • A Demonstration project on the development of a public transport information strategy in Chisinau, Moldova

    Summary of the research process

  • The first stage of the project involved a review of the types of organisations involved in producing transport information or running publicity/marketing campaigns to encourage people to reduce their car use or use more sustainable modes. Over 150 organisations were included in the review, from Austria, Germany, Scandinavia, Spain and the UK. They provided information on more than 120 campaigns and programmes, most of which have taken place in the last five years.

    Examples of the work of public and voluntary organisations, passenger transport operators, businesses and environmental groups in each of the partner's countries were included. The review examined which organisations are involved in promoting sustainable transport, and their motives for doing so - such as environmental, economic, health-related, or to promote leisure or tourism. It also identified which groups or people or settings (such as workplaces and schools) are being targeted and the key messages and methods used to communicate them. The review also asked organisations about the monitoring and evaluation techniques they are using and any results which demonstrate the impacts of their programmes. Some publicity/marketing campaigns from health promotion and environmental campaigns were also included -to provide additional evidence about effective approaches to changing behaviours.

  • In the second part of the review, approx. 30 case studies were identified and examined in more depth. The chosen studies included projects, campaigns and programmes from some of the INPHORMM partners, plus a range of other organisations, identified during the review. They were grouped into five categories according to their broad approach, main target group or target setting:

  • General awareness campaigns - multi-modal
  • General awareness campaigns - single mode (cycling, walking, public transport or car-sharing)
  • Campaigns and programmes targeting key settings (workplace and schools)
  • Campaigns and programmes targeting key groups and individuals
  • Transport Information programmes
  • Examples from health and environmental campaigns

    The review work also included some examples of campaigns from the USA and Australia. The case studies were used to identify the critical factors for producing effective transport information and running publicity/marketing campaign, as the first step to developing the general model and good practice guidelines.

  • The underlying theories and concepts being used to understand the process of changing travel behaviour were identified from the case studies and are outlined in the review report. These were then analysed as the basis for developing the general model for changing travel behaviour. The model is a framework, describing the principles of mobility and communication; the strategy for changing travel behaviour across an area (such as a city) and the implementation process (creating a campaign or programme or campaigns and projects). This included a summary for 'co-ordinating a city-wide programme'.

  • A set of 'concept' or 'model' campaigns were then developed to illustrate the types of campaigns that could be implemented. Three broad types were identified:

  • Public awareness campaigns
  • Campaigns to targeted groups and settings
  • Individualised Campaigns.

    Each of these describes the aims of the campaign, the strategy to follow, the implementation process and the market research and evaluation needed.

  • From this, it was possible to then develop the guidelines for different types of organisations, illustrating how they could use the model and the different campaign plans to promote sustainable transport in their own spheres. Guidance has been written for:

  • Local authorities and administrations
  • Public transport operators
  • Institutions and sites
  • Environmental, cycling and walking groups.

    The Resource Pack for Sustainable Transport is a complete set of the INPHORMM reports produced in an easy-to-read style and format. It contains four guides within a folder: An Introductory Guide (with sections aimed at different types of organisations); A Review of Current Practice, A Model for Changing Travel Attitudes and Behaviour and 'Ideas for Campaign Plans - Developing a Communications Strategy'.

  • The project completed a pilot study in Chisinau, Moldova with the City Council, the Technical University and the Public Transport Authority, supported by a UK transport consultant. This demonstration project has resulted in the production of a public transport information strategy, which includes a number of development stages. The first few stages were taken forward as part of the study and have led to the formation of a new public transport information and marketing unit in the Public Transport Authority and the printing of a city map for Chisinau - of the city landmarks and the public transport network.

    4. Results

    The results demonstrate that an ever-increasing number of organisations and agencies are developing campaigns and programmes to promote alternatives to the car or marketing their policies to reduce car use.

    There are examples from national, regional and Local Authorities, City Councils and municipalities, public transport operators, environmental organisations, advocates of other modes such as cycling, walking and car-sharing, Health Authorities and health insurance companies, employers and sites with high volumes of traffic such as tourist attractions, airports, hospitals, universities and schools. All are involved in providing information or running campaigns/programmes to reduce car use. Many campaigns are co-ordinated by partnerships between these organisations and some are working with local community groups.

    The objectives of their campaigns and programmes are wide-ranging and often combine:

  • A general aim to achieve modal shift in favour of alternatives to the car
  • Environmental objectives to improve aspects of the quality of the environment or reduce the negative effects of traffic growth, including improving air quality, reducing energy/fuel consumption, reducing noise pollution and increasing public space for cyclists and pedestrians
  • Economic objectives to maintain or increase levels of public transport use, promote tourism, improve business efficiency or increase an organisation's membership (such as car-sharing agencies)
  • Health/social objectives to increase physical activity/exercise levels, reduce traffic accidents, reduce the negative health effects of pollution or improve accessibility and mobility for disadvantaged groups
  • Community involvement objectives; to promote public understanding of traffic reduction policies and measures or to promote participation among local people in the development of local transport plans.

    Often, organisations identify a combination of environmental, economic, health promotion and accident prevention aims which underpin their campaigns and programmes. Other secondary objectives may include improving public relations and creating a better corporate image, preparing the public for traffic restraint measures or explaining the introduction of new legislation or measures to encourage a reduction in car use.

    The target groups identified vary widely, depending on the type of organisation and their objectives. Many Local Authorities running mass media awareness campaigns target 'the general public'. However, there is a trend for these campaigns to move, over time, towards more focused campaigns targeting key settings such as schools, businesses and defined geographical areas. Individualised campaigns targeting households or individual travellers are gaining popularity among both Local Authorities and public transport operators. Some Authorities are choosing to work with community leaders and identifying 'champions' among local people such as business leaders and head-teachers in schools - through community development programmes. The media and politicians are also becoming a more important target group for statutory organisations concerned about their 'environmental' image.

    Public transport operators also target the general public, but have identified a range of specific target groups among the population, including commuters, potential park-and-ride users, off-peak travellers, tourists, shoppers and certain age groups, notably young people and elderly groups. There is a tendency for operators to focus on existing users and promote specific tickets, offers and services to increase their market share. In some countries, there is a recognition among larger operators that marketing a 'green' image and developing a corporate identity among local populations is important for the long term viability of the organisation.

    Environmental organisations and advocates of cycling, walking and car-sharing tend to target the media, policy-makers and politicians more intensively, to fulfil their objectives of achieving political as well as individual change. This is particularly the case at national level with campaigns to change transport policies as well as individuals' travel behaviour. At the local level, their campaigns target people (particularly car drivers) through the workplace, schools, local cycling and walking clubs and environmental networks. They also support their members who cycle and walk. Local Authorities' transport and environment departments are an important target for voluntary organisations who often aim to form alliances with Authorities and distribute publicity through the Authorities' networks.

    Institutions and sites (such as schools, hospitals, businesses, leisure/tourist sites) target their own employees, students, tourists and visitors to their sites. Some are building links with other local employers and sites in their neighbourhood, and seeking partnerships with public transport operators and their Local Authority - either to support promotional events at the site or to assist in their development of 'green transport plans'.

    A range of methods are used by organisations to promote their messages and to establish and maintain contact with their target groups. The review results highlight the importance of providing good quality, accessible and relevant information (on public transport, cycling or walking), as the basis for an effective campaign or programme. New technology is playing an increasingly important role in the work of operators and some Local Authorities, with electronic real-time information, CD Roms, trip-planners, the Internet and telephone/teletext services becoming popular. These are used to provide both static and dynamic transport information and for awareness-raising purposes. Computerised databases for car-sharing are being used in a few workplaces to encourage employees to join these schemes. Interactive CD Roms are used by a small number of Local Authorities to promote travel awareness in schools and with community groups.

    The traditional tools of printed leaflets, posters, timetables, maps, press advertisements, resource packs and fact sheets are commonly used by all types of organisation. Television, cinema and radio advertising tend to be confined to the large campaigns with bigger budgets, although the evidence is that these are the most effective channels for reaching a mass audience and raising awareness across the general population. In local programmes, where an organisation aims to establish a dialogue with a local community, the techniques of 'community involvement' and interactive workshops, forums and local newsletters are more popular. Some other innovative methods have also been piloted on a small scale, such as theatre in education, using drama to explore travel behaviour.

    The messages of the campaigns and programmes in the review range from negative messages about the problems associated with traffic growth, to motivational and positive messages about the benefits of alternative modes. There appears to be a trend among organisations running programmes over several years, to move from publicity which explains the problems of traffic growth, to messages with positive themes, presenting 'solutions' and providing practical advice about behaviour change. There also appears to be a move towards the use of 'fun/leisure/lifestyle' messages which try to show the ways in which reducing car use can be a positive lifestyle change. Assessing the views of target groups is identified as the first step to successful marketing - to create messages which challenge negative views of public transport, walking and cycling, but also to avoid alienating car users with overly negative messages about the car.

    The monitoring and evaluation of information and publicity/marketing campaigns is in its infancy. Many organisations do not monitor or evaluate the impact of their programmes in terms of their effects on travel behaviour. The success criteria used by different organisations depend on their original aims, and, for many, changing travel behaviour is a long term goal. There are, however, examples of evaluated campaigns which show that information and marketing campaigns and awareness programmes can lead to changes in peoples' attitudes and travel behaviour - in favour of cycling, walking or the use of public transport. The review and the case studies in this report provide examples of the following changes:

    Political change

  • Changes in politicians views of the need for sustainable transport policies and targets
  • The introduction of cycling, walking and integrated transport strategies
  • Acceptance by policy-makers of the need for improvements in information and marketing to encourage the use of sustainable modes
  • Funding authorised for campaigns, programmes and community education to change travel behaviour and for increased investment in infrastructure which supports sustainable modes

    Social and institutional change

  • Increased acceptance by institutions and businesses of their role in promoting alternatives to the car to reduce traffic growth
  • Increased membership of 'sustainable transport' networks between schools, hospitals, businesses etc
  • Increased participation by community groups, institutions and business in local transport issues and involvement in transport planning
  • Introduction of green transport/commuter plans, school transport plans and mobility management programmes in the workplace, schools and other sites to encourage individual behaviour change
  • Increased media coverage and positive reporting of campaigns and programmes to reduce car use

    Increased Knowledge and Awareness

  • Awareness of public transport services, cycling/walking/car-sharing programmes
  • Knowledge of the sources of transport information
  • Knowledge of the benefits of other modes and the choices available
  • Knowledge of the negative effects of traffic growth
  • Understanding/recognition of campaign messages in favour of traffic reduction

    Changes in Public Attitudes/Acceptance of the need for change

  • To a more positive perception of public transport operators/public transport as a mode
  • In favour of cycling/walking/car-sharing
  • In support of traffic reduction - either at local level or in terms of transport policies
  • In support of the idea that individuals can 'make a difference' to transport problems

    Environmental/Health Improvement

  • Improvements in individuals' physical/mental health (self-reported or physiological) due to increased physical activity
  • Reduction in traffic congestion at key sites, on certain routes (such as schools, entrances to sites) or at peak times in city areas
  • Reduction in cycle/pedestrian accidents involving motor vehicles
  • Improved public perception of urban environments or quality of life in city areas

    Changes in Individual Behaviour

  • 'Greener' motoring behaviour - both in driving techniques and in reductions in shorter trips/car-sharing/combining trips etc
  • Increased levels of cycling/walking (eg. to school or work)
  • Increased membership of car-sharing schemes and increased car-sharing
  • Use of public transport - increased use of specific services, tickets or for certain journeys
  • Participation in programmes to promote sustainable transport (numbers of participants in one-off events, self-help programmes etc)

    5. Key Issues

    The project also identified a number of key organisational, political, financial and cultural issues which play a crucial role in determining the success of campaigns and programmes. These include:

  • The importance of internal marketing to ensure an organisation's own employees are supportive of a campaign or programme
  • The need for campaigns and programmes to operate as an integral part of an organisation's policies and plans
  • The targeting of key actors/players among politicians, the media and administrators to build support for a public campaign and the need for change
  • The potential conflict between organisations running campaigns and programmes with different objectives, at both national and local levels
  • The need for communication between organisations to co-ordinate their campaigns, programmes and marketing to maximise their impact among the target groups
  • The need to identify local champions who can support the programme and provide access to community networks
  • The crucial step of building a dialogue with local communities to identify their needs and local transport solutions
  • The role of lifestyle images and slogans in mass media awareness raising campaigns, and the credibility of different organisations in promoting these messages
  • The importance of direct contacts with individuals and personalised information as an essential part of the process of individual change
  • The current lack of financial support to complete or evaluate programmes and campaigns
  • Failure to build in appropriate monitoring and evaluation techniques to allow the process as well as the impacts of campaigns to be assessed
  • The importance of sustained political support for a reduction in car use, to create a culture in which campaigns and programmes can be most effective.

    Some important aspects of campaigns and programmes have been largely ignored by many organisations. This is due to the lack of a sound theoretical basis for understanding travel behaviour change and results in many campaigns failing to recognise important psychological and socio-cultural influences. 'Market research' into the views and information needs of target audiences is rarely carried out and messages are often communicated without pre-testing. Market profiles of specific target groups are rarely identified. Consequently, there is often insufficient information about their travel attitudes and behaviour from which tailored interventions can be developed. The examples of 'customised' campaigns and individualised marketing provide some examples of how this can be achieved. An understanding of the psychological stages of change and the ways in which people (and institutions) can be supported through these, is crucial and presently little researched in relation to travel behaviour.

    6. Conclusions

    On the basis of the monitoring and evaluation results found in the review, some general conclusions have been drawn which have been used to develop a general model to understand travel behaviour change and provide good practice guidelines.

  • The use of information, marketing and community education, as part of an integrated transport plan, can significantly increase levels of public awareness, influence public attitudes and enable people to make changes to their travel behaviour - to reduce car use and increase cycling, walking, car sharing and the use of public transport.

  • Public awareness of the problems caused by motorised mobility and the creation of an 'environmentally-friendly transport climate' among a community are a pre-requisite for wide-spread, sustained behaviour change.

  • Social and cultural change is most likely to be achieved through a combination of high quality information, high levels of public awareness of the impact of traffic growth, acceptance of the need for change, plus an understanding of the opportunities available to switch from the car to other modes.

  • Practical advice and ongoing support are essential if organisations and individuals are to maintain changes in travel behaviour. The evidence also suggests that complementary coercive measures to restrain traffic may also be required.

  • Among the most effective campaigns and programmes are those co-ordinated by partnerships (such as between operators and site-owners or between Local Authorities, environmental groups and operators) - where information and publicity is co-ordinated, consistent and sustained.

  • Changing cultural norms is a long-term process. There is evidence of successful cultural change in targeted sectors, which have been clearly delineated, including schools, businesses, discrete local communities and households. 'Individualised marketing' is an effective tool for combining transport information and publicity, and produces results in terms of individual behaviour change.

  • There are specific events or times of change for individuals, organisations and communities, which could be used as a trigger for encouraging travel behaviour change. This is a promising area for future programmes and includes targeting individual life events such as moving house, having children, changing jobs etc; changes in institutions and businesses such as re-developments, moving sites, personnel changes etc; and community changes such as the development of new housing areas, changes in public transport provision, regeneration of an area etc. This highlights the need for campaigns which are integrated with other policies and plans.

  • The introduction of 'new ideas for travel' are often not accepted immediately through simple promotions. Where new services, facilities or modes (such as car-pooling or park and ride) are introduced, a dialogue needs to be established with individuals and communities to understand the perceived costs and benefits of changing to the new service/mode.

  • Greater public awareness and debate is generated when several individual organisations run parallel and consistent campaigns. The co-ordination of national and local campaigns and their messages also leads to greater media coverage and contributes to the creation of a climate of change.

  • Information, marketing and community education programmes need to become an integral element of transport policy and planning - and form part of the implementation of all new systems and infrastructure, to maximise the impact of 'physical' measures.

    A Model for Changing Travel Attitudes and Behaviour

    Starting Point for Action: Why use communication tools to reduce car use?

    • The problems of increasing car use
    • The need to reduce car traffic
    • The role of 'soft policies'

    Understanding mobility behaviour

    • Defining mobility
    • The potential for change
    • Perceptions of mobility
    • Perceptions of different modes
    • The effects of small changes
    • Different trips, different modes

    Influences on attitudes and travel behaviour

    • Public opinion
    • Community culture
    • Key actors and organisations
    • Local networks
    • The organisation using 'soft policies'
    • The existing infrastructure
    • Transport policy and plans

    Principles of communication

    • The link between attitudes
      and behaviour
    • Communication as a process
    • Raising public awareness
    • Personal concern and social acceptance
    • Customised information and motivation
    • The elements of the communication process


    How can communication programmes help to encourage behaviour change?

    • The importance of 'soft policies'
    • Linking hard and soft transport policies
    • Changing the image of sustainable transport

    A Framework for Planning

    • Adapting to public opinion
    • Using transport plans and other policies
    • Setting goals for achievable change
    • Planning phased communications (step-by-step)
    • Campaigning for the campaign
    • Targeting audiences and settings
    • Joining forces with other organisations
    • Using different media & methods
    • Challenging opposition to change

    A Platform for Action

    • Key messages or themes
    • Building interest and understanding
    • Useful facts and figures
    • Encouraging new thinking
    • The arguments for change
    • The influence of others mobility ('passive mobility')
    • Community values
    • Empowering the majority

    Monitoring and Evaluation

    • Reasons to evaluate
    • Options for evaluation
    • Process measures
    • Outcome measures
    • Mobility indicators
    • Measuring success


    Co-ordinating programmes
    Objectives and Goals
    Themes and Messages
    Communication tools

    Co-ordinating a city-wide programme

    An overview of a co-ordinated programme
    Changing travel behaviour across a city or town, requires action at several levels:
    Levels of Influence
    • Influencing political opinion and the media
    • Influencing the opinion of the general public
    • Influencing the behaviour of organisations and institutions
    • Influencing individual travellers and households
    Broad approaches
    • Marketing sustainable transport and individual modes (cycling, walking, public transport, car-sharing)
    • Lobbying and agenda-setting for changes in policy
    • Improving transport information systems
    • Community development projects to develop local solutions
    Types of campaigns
    • Public awareness campaigns
    • Campaigns to targeted groups and settings
    • Individualised Campaigns

    The co-ordination of campaigns can be planned at several levels:

    • Co-ordinating individual campaign and projects into a communications programme
    • Co-ordinating a communications programme as part of a broader traffic reduction strategy
    • Co-ordinating communication programmes across an area, city, region - between different organisations (such as health, education and sustainable development)

    Links to other measures

    In addition to the main types of campaigns above, a co-ordinated programme to change travel behaviour, can link to the following activities:

    • Promotion of new legislation/policy on transport, health or the environment
    • Consultation on or promotion of local transport plans
    • Marketing new public transport systems, cycling, walking or car-sharing facilities/services
    • Health promotion campaigns promoting physical activity, or aiming to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease or asthma
    • National/international events and conferences on transport, health and environment
    • Local transport accidents/issues and news stories
    • Other community involvement programmes locally - such as Local Agenda 21 projects

    The INPHORMM Co-ordinated Programme Plan for a City/Region

    A Phased Approach
    Campaigns to
    Raise public awareness

    Campaigns to targeted groups
    and settings (eg. schools, business
    and leisure sites)
    Campaigns with individuals
    and households
    Ongoing Action

    Public relations and lobbying to community leaders, politicians and the media

    Internal campaigns within organisations to build staff support for the programme

    Improving transport information systems

    Marketing sustainable transport modes - cycling, walking, car-sharing and public Transport Studies Group

    Developing community networks and partnerships

    Promotions linked to new infrastructure

    The Process of Change
    The process is a cycle of behaviour change for individuals, communities or organisations .

    7. Dissemination of the project results

    The major dissemination event for INPHORMM was an international conference 'Wheels of Change' which attracted over 260 delegates to London for two days of presentations and workshops, including over 50 speakers. A report on the conference is included in the INPHORMM Final Report. The main presentations given at conferences and events are listed in the Final Report appendix.

    List of INPHORMM reports
    Report name and number Status and source
    General Review of Transport Information
    Provision and Publicity & Marketing Campaigns
    (D1 report)
    Restricted - summary found in D3 report,
    resource pack and final report.
    Case Studies of transport information and
    publicity/marketing campaigns to reduce car use
    and promote cycling, walking and public transport
    (D2 report)
    Restricted - summary found in D3 report,
    resource pack and final report
    A Review and Analysis of Transport Information Provision, Publicity and Marketing Campaigns to reduce car use in Europe (D3 report) Public - copies from the co-ordinator
    Reducing Car Use- Practical Issues for Successful Soft policies (D4 report) Internal working paper - information used in the resource pack and final report
    A General Model for Changing Travel Attitudes and Behaviour (D5 report) Public - Included in the resource pack
    A Resource Pack for Promoting Sustainable Transport (D6 reports) Public- copies available from the co-ordinator
    Promoting sustainable transport - principles and practice (D7 final report) Public - copies available from the EC and the co-ordinator

    Some general information about the project is also available on the INPHORMM website at

    Considerable interest has been shown in the project by national and local governments in a number of countries. There is potential and many opportunities to develop the INPHORMM work further through pilot projects and trials of different campaigns and programmes. Further work will be developed in the TAPESTRY project - a research project in the 5th Framework research programme, starting in early 2000.

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