WALCYNG- Final Summary Report
How to enhance WALking and CYcliNG instead of shorter car trips and to make these modes safer
01.03.96 â 08.31.97
1. Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering, Lund University (co-ordinator)
2. FACTUM Chaloupka, Praschl & Risser OHG (full partner)
3. Franco Gnavi and Carlo Bonanni (full partner)
4. City of Helsinki, City Planning Office (full partner)
5. Institute of Transport Economics (full partner)
6. Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki (full partner)
7. Instituto de TrÃ¡fico y Seguridad Vial (INTRAS), University of Valencia (full partner)
8. TransportTechnologie-Consult Karlsruhe GmbH (full partner)
9. Dutch Pedestrian Association 'De Voetgangersvereniging' (full partner)
10. Chalmers University of Technology AB (subcontractor)
1. Information policy: One has to collect information about potential and practising custom- ers so that the preconditions for the behaviour they should choose could be made attractive.
2. Product and distribution policy: Adequate and attractive technical solutions are worked out, and considered thoroughly so that they will meet customers" and potential customers" needs.
3. Incentive and pricing policy: One also has to provide incentives given by the society, institutions, companies, etc., on all levels, both to encourage walking and cycling and to dis- courage the use of car for short trips.
4. Communication policy: Users and potential users have to be informed that their needs and interests are taken into consideration, on the product and distribution side, as well as on the incentive side. The product has to be displayed and has to be given a positive image.
The project outcome aims both at road users who could replace their short car trips, employ- ers who could support and benefit from a modal change among their employees, and authori- ties and decision makers who can influence on modal split by changing frame conditions.
Basic results from the eleven work packages
Many car trips are quite short; a change from car to walking or cycling for trips shorter than 3-5 km, could replace half of all car trips in many European cities. Trip chains could only explain some of the car use on short trips. Important differences are found between men and women, young and old, car-owners and people without a car, workers and non-workers.
Work Package 2:
'Products and efforts for pedestrians and cyclists'
Work Package 3:
'General problems of pedestrians and cyclists'
Work Package 4:
'Safety Problems of pedestrians and cyclists'.
2/ How could results of WP 1 through 4 be used in WALCYNG?
Work Package 5:
A synthesis with regard to products and efforts
3/ How could preconditions for walcyng be assessed?
Work Package 6: Interviews, attitude analyses, stated preferences There are a lot of benefits associated with walcyng: Health aspects are important benefits of walcyng. For walking environmental aspects and getting fresh air are additional important benefits. Surprisingly, environmental aspects are not mentioned as positive aspects of cycling very often. Cycling is fun, gives you good exercise and is very convenient. Even though there are many benefits involved in walking and cycling, walcers meet a lot of barriers or obsta- cles.
Lack of ability to transport heavy things are among the important barriers of walking. Envi- ronmental and geographical barriers, like the hillyness, bad weather, polluted the air are im- portant negative aspects of cycling. Also infrastructure barriers such as insufficient road cy- cle network, unsafe crossings, parked cars on the pavements and high curb stones are impor- tant negative aspects of cycling.
A Norwegian Stated Preference-study indicates that the trips to work and to sports and exer- cise are easiest replaceable by bicycle. Grocery shopping trips could easiest be replaced by walking. Short trips by car where you deliver or fetch someone are very difficult to replace by walcyng.
4/ What incentives and disincentives should be provided for car drivers to make them walk and cycle instead of using the car for short distances?
Work Package 8:
Incentive strategies should play a more important role in the future, both providing a wal- cyng-friendly infrastructure and atmosphere and economical incentives in order to make wal- cyng more competitive compared with using the car. Examples on successful strategies from private companies and public authorities are displayed in the report.
5/ How good is communication with the target groups and how can it be im- proved?
Work Package 9:
6/ How should researchers and practitioners prepare themselves for the struc- tural difficulties they will meet with a topic that so far considered of inferior importance?
Work Package 10: Inoculation
2. economical/political arguments (e.g. the economic argument, the bad customer argument)
3. "democratic and communication" arguments (e.g. minority and competition arguments)
7/ How to raise and sustain the importance of walcyng as transport modes
Work Package 11:
One main goal of WALCYNG was to produce an evaluation scheme; the Walcyng Quality Scheme (WQS). It should allow an assessment of different policy activities in the area. The scope of the WQS is presented in the frame of Work Package 7.
The WQS is designed as an interactive software that can be used for obtaining and evaluating information about the preconditions for walcyng in a certain area of interest (a target group, a type of product, a route, a neighbourhood, a city, a country, etc.). The WQS should on the one hand remind the compilers of all relevant aspects to be considered both when assessing given preconditions for walcyng, and when developing measures. In this respect, the WQS resembles a checklist. On the other hand, the WQS has a comparative and an analytic char- acter because the quality of the aspects that should be considered has to be assessed, as well.
The person or group that use the WQS can either choose: 1/ a full version that provides an exhaustive evaluation and additional information, referring to help functions associated with criteria items, for a number of special problems. The help functions are clarifications of the items which are presented, or 2/ a module, i.e. the choice of specific parts of the WQS which best suit the sort of task one wishes to accomplish.
The WQS is still in a research phase, i.e. it is not complete with regard to all possible aspects, and it does still not provide compilers with answers on all relevant questions.
Regarding the premature status of the WQS, one important part in the exploitation of WALCYNG findings will be to communicate with potential users of the WQS in order to have them to use it and to systematise efforts so that the WQS can be completed and vali- dated with regard to its usefulness in increasing the interest for walcyng and the actual use of walcyng as a means of transport for short trips. In addition the main dissemination activities are:
Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering, Lund University. Christer Hydén ( (email removed) ), Annika Nilsson ( (email removed) ), Box 118, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden. Phone:+4646 2229125. Fax:+ 4646 123272 (Co-ordinator and leader of work package 2)
FACTUM Chaloupka, Praschl & Risser OHG, Ralf Risser ( (email removed) ), Danhausergasse 6/8, A-1040, Wien, Austria. Phone: +43 1 5041546. FaX: +43 1 5041548 (Leader package of work package 8, 10 and 11).
Franco Gnavi and Carlo Bonanni, Franco Gnavi ( (email removed) ), Roma 4818361, via Sallustiana 26, I-00187 Roma, Italy. Phone: +39 6 48889230. Fax: +39 6 48889231
City of Helsinki, City Planning Office, Eero Pasanen ( (email removed) ), Alexandergatan 26, FIN-00170 Helsingfors, Finland. Phone: +358 9 1693491. Fax: +358 9 1693778. (Leader of work package 4)
Institute of Transport Economics, Ingunn Stangeby ( (email removed) ), Postboks 6110, Etterstad, N-0602 Oslo 6, Norway. Phone: +47 22573800. Fax: +47 22570290 (Leader of work package 1 and 6).
Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki. Liisa Hakamies-Blomqvist ( (email removed) ), P.O. Box 13 (Meritullinkatu 1), FIN-00014 Univ. of Helsinki, Finland. Phone: +358 919123403. Fax: 358 919123404. (Leader of work package 3).
Instituto de TrÃ¡fico y Seguridad Vial (INTRAS), University of Valencia. Enrique J. Carbonell VayÃ¡ ( (email removed) ), Avd. Blasco IbÃ¡nez, 21, ES-46010, Valencia, Spain. Phone: +34 6 3864851. Fax: +34 6 3864822. (Leader of work package 7).
TransportTechnologie-Consult Karlsruhe GmbH. Rainer Schneider, Gerwigstrasse 53, D- 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. Phone: +49 721 62503-0, Fax: +49 721 6250333 . (Leader of work package 5).
Dutch Pedestrian Association 'De Voetgangersvereniging' . Willem Vermeulen, Emmapark 9, NL-2595 ES Den Haag, The Netherlands. Phone: +31 70 3471501, Fax: +31 70 3819654. (Leader of work package 9).
Chalmers University of Technology AB . Olof Gunnarsson ( (email removed) ), Road and Traffic Planning Dep., S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden. Phone: +46 31 7722391. Fax: +46 31 189705
|Last Updated: 20-04-1999|