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Official Journal Reference

L 112 of 1993-05-06

Legislative Reference

93/246/EEC of 1993-04-29
To promote the development of the higher education systems in countries of Central/Eastern Europe and the Republics of the former Soviet Union, designated as eligible for economic aid, through as balanced a cooperation as possible with partners from all the Member States of the Community.


Training has been identified as one of the priority areas for cooperation within the overall programme of Community aid for economic restructuring of Central and Eastern Europe. In this context, TEMPUS was designed as a response to the particular needs of these countries in parallel to, but distinct from, existing higher education programmes of the Community such as COMETT, ERASMUS or LINGUA.

The results of the evaluation of the first year and a half of the pilot phase have confirmed that, for each country concerned, the objectives of TEMPUS should be more clearly targeted, whether on the long-term reform of higher education or on the shorter term needs of economic restructuring.

This second phase of the TEMPUS programme seeks to help the higher education systems of the eligible countries to address the following:
- Issues of curriculum development and overhaul in priority areas;
- The reform of higher education structures and institutions and their management;
- The development of skill-related training to address specific higher and advanced level skill shortages during economic reform, in particular through improved and extended links with industry.

Within TEMPUS, as in the related Community programmes mentioned above, the term "university" denotes all types of post-secondary educational and vocational training establishments which offer university-level qualifications or diplomas. The terms "industry" and "enterprise" cover all types of economic activity, whatever their legal status, public and local authorities, independent economic organizations, chambers of commerce and industry and/or their equivalents, professional associations, organizations representing employers and employees, and training bodies of the above-mentioned institutions and organizations.


Three actions:

- Joint European Projects (JEPs):
These must involve at least one university from an eligible country, one university from a Member State and one partner institution (university or enterprise) from another Member State. The projects should be linked, where possible, to existing networks, particularly those under the ERASMUS, COMETT and LINGUA programmes.
JEP grants may be awarded for a wide range of activities, including: cooperative education and training actions; measures for reform and development of higher education; development of universities' capacities to cooperate with industry and cooperative university/industry training actions; necessary equipment for the implementation of a JEP; development of student and staff mobility; activities involving two or more eligible countries;

- Individual grants and complementary activities:
. Short visits of one week to two months to a Member State or eligible country designed to prepare JEPs, prepare teaching materials, collect and disseminate information or exchange expert advice;
. One week to one year teaching/training assignments in universities;
. One month to one year practical placements in enterprises or education authorities;
. One week to one year retraining and updating in the Community for university staff from the eligible countries;
. Grants to enable eligible countries' participation in the activities of European associations;
. Support to facilitate publications and other information activities;
. Support for activities designed to assist in the reform and development of higher education and training systems in the eligible countries;
. Limited support for projects involving youth activities;

- Support activities:
. Technical assistance including monitoring of the implementation of the scheme;
. Support for external evaluation of the scheme.


The Commission is responsible for the implementation of the programme on the basis of detailed guidelines to be adopted annually and following the detailed objectives and priorities agreed with the competent authorities in each eligible country. The objectives and priorities shall be in accordance with the overall objectives of the PHARE programme and with the overall objectives of the TACIS programme, with particular reference to its sectoral focus. The Commission will be assisted by a committee composed of two representatives appointed by each Member State and chaired by the Commission representative. The members of the committee may be assisted by experts or advisers.

The Commission is responsible for ensuring consistency and, when necessary, complementarity with other actions at Community level, both within the Community and in assistance to the eligible countries, with particular reference to the European Training Foundation. The Commission also ensures coordination with actions in the same field as TEMPUS II, including, where appropriate, participation in TEMPUS II projects, developed by countries which are not members of the Community or by universities and enterprises in these countries. The Commission will cooperate with coordinating agencies set up in each of the eligible countries and with the relevant national bodies designated by the Member States.

The Commission establishes arrangements for the monitoring and evaluation of the scheme and submits an annual report to the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the participating countries. An interim report is to be submitted before 30 April 1996 and a final report by 30 June 1999.

The programme will concern the countries of Central and Eastern Europe designated as eligible for economic aid by Regulation (EEC) No 3906/89 (PHARE programme, Official Journal No L 375 of 23.12.1989) last amended by Regulation (EEC) No 2334/92 (Official Journal No L 227 of 11.8.1992), and the Republics of the former Soviet Union as defined in Regulation (EEC, Euratom) No 2157/91 (TACIS programme, Official Journal No L 201 of 24.7.1991).


Regulation 96/663/EC of 21/11/1996 (OJ L306 of 28/11/96 extended the programme until 30 June 2000.
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