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Religious Discrimination of Muslims in the European Union: experience of injustice, fight for recognition and implementation of equality in a plural society


Religious Discrimination of Muslims in the European Union: Experience of Injustice, Fight for Recognition, and Implementation of Equality in a Plural Society (DISCRIMUSMIN) aims at comparing the situation of Muslim populations and Islam as worship by focusing on religious discrimination in four member states of the European Union (France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom). In every national context, Muslim believers and citizens are experiencing various situations, depending upon the national history of the relationships between State and Religion, the existence of a colonial past, the openness of the nationality law, etc.

The "discrimination" argument, a newcomer in the public discussion on Islam and Muslims in the European Union, may serve as an analytical too l to distinguish between different levels of interpretation of religious freedom, both as a collective and individual right, in contexts that manage very differently Islam as worship and Muslims as citizens. DISCRIMUSMIN will address religious discrimination experienced by Muslims in a larger perspective questioning religious pluralism in the EU.

It will more particularly concentrate on the various interpretations and uses of the European anti-discrimination provisions made by Muslim actors in the four select ed contexts. The central hypothesis relies on the idea that the formulation of claims by Muslims regarding their equal treatment that is using the discrimination frame allows them to find new opportunities for expression, deliberation and access to public participation. Indeed, a cross-European process of "juridizisation" of the public discussion on Islam as worship and Muslims as citizens with limited rights to express their religious belonging in the public spaces seems to be emerging. What types of socia l dynamics are therefore being carried out by an implementation of equality that relies on court and trials as main sites for its construction?

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