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Studying at high energies the dynamical and non-thermal processes in astrophysical outflows

Final Report Summary - ASTFLOW (Studying at high energies the dynamical and non-thermal processes in astrophysical outflows)

State of the art

Presently, the field of studying sources of outflows presenting high-energy phenomena has been moving towards a more accurate treatment of modelling of the emission coupled with improved or better-aimed observational tools/strategies. Therefore, there is a general trend that converges nowadays with the approach adopted in the research project. In this way, the project is timely, although it is possibly one of the most comprehensive projects regarding the diverse theoretical tools adopted, and the broad types of sources embraced. In addition, the project has put much stress in the effects of the environment on the high-energy processes taking place in astrophysical outflows, with an intensity that is probably not yet common in the field.

Scientific progress/Results

The finished project has aimed at characterizing in a comprehensive way, using theoretical and observational tools, the properties of, and processes taking place at, powerful outflows by means of studying their gamma-ray emission. The main goal has been to make a step farther in the theoretical side accounting also for forthcoming gamma-ray instrumentation, which has implied a significant improvement in the data quality. This step farther has been meant to be of qualitative nature, and could only be done using a more comprehensive approach to the study of nonthermal outflows: generating a strong synergy between semi-analytical modelling of observations, numerical calculations of flow dynamics and radiation transport, deepening in basic theoretical aspects, and planning new observations. Looking back once the project has been finished, we consider that the planned objectives have been fully fulfilled. As planned, the work done has effectively combined analytical and semi-analytical modelling with numerical calculations, like relativistic hydrodynamics and hydrodynamics and radiation coupling, and observations in radio, optical, X- and gamma rays. The main result of the project could be very briefly summarized as manifesting the importance of an accurate account of the physical elements at work in astrophysical outflows: environment, hydrodynamics, particle acceleration, and radiation processes. Perhaps the most remarkable consequence of the project research, beside providing with a starting point of the problems tackled, may be to expand the awareness in the high-energy astrophysics community with respect to the structured and complex environments of astrophysical jets and winds. More in detail, the project has lead to the following results for the different tasks:

*Accepted or published (in international first-rate specialized journals) works:
1.Star-Jet Interactions and Gamma-Ray Outbursts from 3C454.3 (radiation and hydrodynamics)
2.Studying the non-thermal lobes of IRAS 16547-4247 through a multi-wavelength approach (radiation plus X-ray observations)
3.Clumpy stellar winds and high-energy emission in high-mass binaries hosting a young pulsar (radiation and hydrodynamics)
4.Deep GMRT radio observations and a multi-wavelength study of the region around HESS J1858+020 (interpretation and multi-wavelength observations)
5.Optical Photometric Monitoring of LS i +61 303 (interpretation and optical observations)
6.Formation of large-scale magnetic structures associated with the Fermi bubbles (magnetohydrodynamics and interpretation of gamma-ray observations)
7.Simulations of an inhomogeneous stellar wind interacting with a pulsar wind in a binary system (relativistic hydrodynamics)
8.Non-thermal emission from standing relativistic shocks: an application to red giant winds interacting with AGN jets (relativistic hydrodynamics and its coupling with radiation)
9.Gamma-ray binaries beyond one-zone models: an application to LS 5039 (radiation and multiwavelength data intepretation)
10.Evidence of coupling between the thermal and nonthermal emission in the gamma-ray binary LS I +61 303 (interpretation and optical observations)
11.Orbital evolution of colliding star and pulsar winds in 2D and 3D (relativistic hydrodynamics)
12.The origin of the X-ray-emitting object moving away from PSR B1259-63 (hydrodynamics)
13.The effects of the stellar wind and orbital motion on the jets of high-mass microquasars (hydrodynamics)
14.Coupling hydrodynamics and radiation calculations for star-jet interactions in active galactic nuclei (radiation coupled to hydrodynamics)
15.A model for the non-thermal emission of the very massive colliding-wind binary HD 93129A (hydrodynamics and radiation)
16.Gamma rays detected from Cygnus X-1 with likely jet origin (gamma-ray observations)
17.Non-thermal radiation from a pulsar wind interacting with an inhomogeneous stellar wind (radiation coupled to hydrodynamics)
18.Gamma rays from clumpy wind-jet interactions in high-mass microquasars (radiation coupled to hydrodynamics)
19.Collective non-thermal emission from an extragalactic jet interacting with stars I (radiation)
20.A model for the repeating FRB 121102 in the AGN scenario (radiation)
*Finished works:
21.Search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-1 with the MAGIC telescopes (gamma-ray observations)
22.Long-term optical observations of the gamma-ray binary LS I +61 303 (interpretation and optical observations)
23.The impact of red giant/AGB winds on AGN jet propagation (hydrodynamics)
24.A Galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies (radio observations)
*On-going works (offspring of the reported project):
25.Fast radio bursts in gamma rays (gamma-ray observations)
26.The dynamical and radiative impact of clouds in the broad line region in the jets of powerful active galactic nuclei (hydrodynamics and radiation)
27.Interactions of supernova explosions with estragalactic jets: dynamical and radiative effects (hydrodynamics and radiation)
28.X-ray observations of the very massive colliding-wind binary HD 93129A (X-ray observations)
29.The interaction stellar wind bubbles with extragalactic jets: dynamical and radiative effects (hydrodynamics and radiation)
30.Colliding wind simulations in high-mass binary systems hosting a powerful pulsar (hydrodynamics)
31.Collective non-thermal emission from an extragalactic jet interacting with stars II (radiation)

Prospects of research career development and (re-)integration

The prospects of research career development are very good. The project, together with the tenure-track-type position, and the beneficial influence of the hosting group and scientist, have allowed the main researcher to build a group that is being successful in its research and formation of new researchers. In addition, the prospects for integration in the host institution, the Barcelona University, are very good, as the main researcher will become permanent during the second half of 2017. The PhD student has succesfully acquired his PhD at the of April 2017.