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CAPACITY FOR CHANGE AND IMPLEMENTATION INSTRUMENTS IN TOURISM ARCHITECTURE DESIGN TOWARDS MORE INNOVATIVE, INTEGRATED AND SUSTAINABLE MODELS

Final Report Summary - ARQTUR_13 (CAPACITY FOR CHANGE AND IMPLEMENTATION INSTRUMENTS IN TOURISM ARCHITECTURE DESIGN TOWARDS MORE INNOVATIVE, INTEGRATED AND SUSTAINABLE MODELS.)

(A) RESULTS
• SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT’S OBJECTIVES

As described in the midterm (2015) and the last periodic report (2016), the project ARQTUR_13 has three main objectives:

1. The analysis, assessment and evolution of different types of coastal tourist architecture and transformation and repositioning processes for more competitive, sustainable tourism models.

2. Strategies for the creation and/or renovation of tourist architecture based on an intelligent, sustainable and competitive European model.

3. Instruments for public institutions and SMEs to promote integrated governance aimed at more sustainable, intelligent tourism models, within the framework of European policies.

During the first year, some deviations were made to the ARQTUR_13 project, basing it on a new approach and methodology in order to achieve the three main objectives.

• DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK PERFORMED AND RESULTS ACHIEVED

Objective 1. Analysis, assessment and evolution of different types of tourism coastal architecture and transformation and repositioning processes of more competitive and sustainable tourism models.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 18 months

• Task 1 (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Selection and taxonomy of study cases in European and third countries according to specialisation and location.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 1 month (done in 1 month)
Deviation: No

The ARQTUR_13 project produced a database of 225 case studies of representative hotels and resorts based on specialised websites, scientific literature and international architecture studios along three lines of research: innovation, integration and sustainability.
The methodology applied made use of specialised scientific literature produced and published at the Cornell Center for Hospitality Research by faculty who are experts in the fields of Innovation, Integration and Sustainability, such as Cathy A. Enz and Rohit Verma. In addition, to implement the Innovation case studies, the study used data from the TripAdvisor website in order to identify case studies that relate architectural design and the customer experience.
This first study revealed that tourist satisfaction in regard to destinations (by country) is clearly affected by the setting in which the hotel is situated (city, sea or mountains). 50% of hotels in the US and 85% in France are in cities. 56% and 80% of hotels in Spain and Greece, respectively, are on the coast. Italy is the European country with a balanced distribution of hotels in cities, by the sea and in the mountains.
Hotels in cities formed the majority of the sustainability case studies selected. The study also found that sustainable actions used technological systems to reduce energy consumption and increase interaction with customers.
Finally, environmental integration and the use of natural resources are not considered to be a common practice in the hospitality industry. The study identified only a few examples of good practices in hotels in rural and coastal environments, reaching only 20% and 28% respectively.


Task 2 (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Analysis techniques and materials used in green buildings as key elements in the design of green hotels.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 5 months (done in 5 months)
Deviation: Minor deviation

The study focused on two of the primary actions presented in the Grant Agreement Description of Work (page 3), “Adaptation of materials, geometries and green cladding and facades” and “Automation of spaces by means of intelligent systems and design”.
The study collected graphical analyses from academic architectural journals. It was found that the trends in materials, techniques and intelligent systems used in hotels are mainly being installed on hotel façades. The academic journals consulted were DETAIL - Magazine of Architecture + Construction Details (https://www.detail-online.com) and Hospitality Design Magazine (https://www.hospitalitydesign.com).
One discovery in the preceding analysis was that, before comparing green residential buildings and green hotels, the scientific and academic literature seriously lack studies of the types, geometries and spaces of hotel façade design. In order to fill this gap in hotel design, the project carried out a study focusing on identifying the elements and experiences that aid in designing façades for hotels and resorts (hereinafter called “Experiment 1”), instead of mapping and simulating green residential building and green hotels (see deviation Task 2).

The methodology used in Experiment 1 was to count the elements in order to find a type of “single element” on the façades of hotels and resorts. This research identified twenty-five elements on hospitality industry façades (see Figure 1 below). Each element has a different function from the rest: some of them are used to provide comfort inside, some provide a leisure function and others are sustainable and environmental actions.
The results identified four categories of façades for hotels and resorts (windows, windows as pattern, balcony-terrace, and pool and vegetation). Each category is composed of essential elements that relate to its identity.
The researcher finished Experiment 1 and wrote a scientific paper. After considering all the comments from the external reviewers, the researcher will submit it to the Journal of Tourism Research ARA.

Figure 1. List of some codes for four types of façade, by physical design attribute


Task 3 (Diagram Working Plan ARQTUR_13). Analysis of the spatial attributes of architecture, natural resources and urban settings, and comparative study of SMEs in the area of sustainability and tourism.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 6 months (done in 5 months)
Deviation: Minor deviation

The results of the study come from an analysis of the spatial attributes of a guest room related to the sustainable actions in LEED Certification (hereinafter called “Experiment 2”). No analysis was made of natural resources and urban settings due to the difficulty in getting data from the case studies selected in Task 1 (see deviation Task 3).

The methodology applied was based on graphical analysis and customers’ online reviews (TripAdvisor), instead of benchmarking, as described in the Grant Agreement Description of Work.

The results showed that visual perception of outside areas or other inside areas accounts for 15.62% of the total experience. This suggests that outside views are still very important to customers during their vacation. The views from the living room had 4.5%, view from the bed had 3.21% and views from the terrace had 2.3%. The highest impact was a view onto gardens, the city or landscape, with 5.64%.

According to this study, we could identify three types of user experiences of the spatial attributes of guest rooms. The experiences are based on the tangible elements of the bed as a “sleeping” experience, the bathtub jet/shower/sauna as a “relaxing/spa” experience, and the physical space of the living room as a "living/welcoming" experience (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Affective impact and engagement of environments in hotel guest rooms.


Task 4 (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Preparation and analysis of sustainability indicators (according to LEED certification) to reduce the ecological footprint of hotels and resorts.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 4 months (done in 3 months)
Deviation: Minor deviation

The results of the study of sustainable indicators of a reduced ecological footprint are part of the second analysis of “Experiment 2”. The indicators were studied according to the relationship between the LEED Certification value of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) and the customer experience.

The analysis showed us how it can be possible to think of a new indicator for sustainable actions and customer experiences. The results found that the design of sustainable actions and the customer’s satisfaction had a relationship between them in LEED hotels located in Europe and in the U.S. Natural light and views are two essential elements for obtaining an LEED certificate in the IEQ category of high visual impact. Views to the outside in bathrooms represented 9.1% and natural light represented 9.7%. The percentages for bedrooms are higher, with the view at 15.65% and natural light at 20.4% for customers. The IEQ category in LEED certification establishes two criteria for views and natural light, which are EQc8.1 Daylight and views - daylight 75% of spaces and EQc8.2 Daylight and views - views for 90% of spaces. Both criteria provide building occupants with a connection between indoor spaces and the outdoors through the introduction of daylight and views.

The methodology applied was again based on graphical analysis and customers’ online reviews (TripAdvisor), instead of geo-referenced data, using GIS (Geographic Information System) software, as described in the Grant Agreement Description of Work (see deviation Task 4). A territorial scale of analysis was supplied by an architectural scale for analysing sustainable indicators (see deviation Task 4). Statistical analysis was used to perform the study in Experiment 2.


Task 5 (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Graphic and mapping simulations of key factors for designing a Green Hotel based on the technological innovation of room services and building systems and materials used in the building.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 7 months (done in 3 months)
Deviation: No

The results of the study of key factors for designing green hotels based on technological innovation are part of the third analysis of “Experiment 2” and “Experiment 6”.

The results from Experiment 2 indicated that in the design of guest rooms with an LEED sustainability certificate, technology has a low visual impact on the customer experience. The study revealed that 3.3% of the total visual impact is focused on technology.
Experiment 6 was conducted in order to look in greater depth at technology as a key design factor.
The researcher studied 4 guest room environments (2 economy and 2 luxury guestrooms), with “technological design” as the independent variable, and perception of luxury as the dependent variable. The results reveal that there are significant differences in perception of luxury when technology levels change between the four stimuli: ‘Economy Low Technology – Luxury Low Technology’ (t[39]=7.247 p < 0.05); and ‘Economy Low Technology – Luxury High Technology’ (t[39] 7.464 p < 0.05).

In addition, the case studies selected for the task also showed a trend that accounts for 68% of the cases in the implementation of new technologies for customer service: they are concentrated in urban contexts, compared to only 23% in beach hotels.


*Common results in tasks 3-5 (experiment 2). The researcher finished all the statistical analysis, wrote a scientific paper and submitted it to the Journal of Tourism Research ARA. The paper was published in the scientific journal ARA.
Álvarez León, I. (2016). An approach to environmental design in LEED hotels by comparing visual and verbal experiences. Journal of Tourism Research ARA. 6,1, pp 79-84.


Task 6 (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Optimisation of natural resources in the tourism architecture through geospatial analysis (GIS).
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 4 months (done in 4 months)
Deviation: No

The study analysed how natural resources can be affected by tourist architecture using a geospatial data analysis of the coastal area of Sardinia (Italy).
In Sardinia the results of the geospatial analysis found building for a tourist activity exerts a high pressure on natural resources on the coast. Agriculture, pasture and forestry are the land uses affected by tourist architecture. The study discovered that tourist architecture located on the second line from the coast with a remarkable natural landscape featuring intensive agriculture often preserves traces of this agriculture and its resources. However, in forested areas, the anthropic impact of tourist architecture prevails over natural resources, such as the natural hydraulic system (see Figure 3). The study also revealed that 60.69% of vacation homes are concentrated within one kilometre of the coast, 12.86% between one and two kilometres, and 8.56 between two and three kilometres, while the remaining 17.89% is located over three kilometres from the coast. These results highlight the fact that the greatest impact on natural resources takes place within one kilometre of the coast.

Figure 3. Impact of tourism architecture (second homes) in the North-West of Sardinia. On the left forested area, and on the right natural hydraulic system.


Task 7 (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Design of utility programmes to enhance the relationship between tourism architecture and public space.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 4 months (done in 4 months)
Deviation: Minor deviation

The results of the study to design utility programmes that will enhance the relationship between hotels and public spaces focused on how emotional valence impacts the customer’s experience of public spaces (hereinafter called “Experiment 5”). The study selected three types of public spaces, the pool area, garden area and terrace area of a hotel (see Figure 5).

Experiment 5 discovered that privacy in the public spaces of a hotel has an impact on our emotional and restorative experience. The experiment assessed three single environments (water, nature and built) and also highlighted that TIME is an important variable in the emotional and restorative experience in public spaces of hotels / resorts with a 2 (perception of privacy) within the subject design.

Highlighted results of the 5th experiment.

a. The participants felt significantly more emotional (valence) in the three environments selected with a perception of privacy compared to settings with no privacy at different moments of the one-minute experience (t[38] =8.288; p <.01).
b. In green environments with a perception of privacy, participants felt significantly more emotional (valence) compared to the setting with no privacy at different times of the one-minute stimuli (t[36] =4.940; p <.05), and at the end of the stimuli (range of time, 55 to 60 seconds) (t[36] =4.152; p <.05).
c. In green environments with a perception of privacy, the participants felt significantly more arousal compared to the setting with no privacy in the middle of an experience (range of time: 25 to 30 seconds) with a duration of one minute (t[36] =10.233; p <.01), and after watching the whole stimulus (range of time, 0 to 60 seconds) (t[36] =6.279; p <.05).
d. In settings with privacy, participants felt significantly more happy in an environment with water than in a green environment (t[36] =6.366; p <.05).

The results of 5th experiment are based on the analysis of Identification of emotional valence and arousal intensity by facial expression recognition using FaceReader software (see Figure 4) and not in graphical analysis as was described in the Description of Work of the Grant Agreement (see deviation Task 7).

Figure 4. Analysis of facial expression recognition in participants with high perception of privacy in the 5th experiment while they watch the stimuli of green, water and built tourist environments.

Figure 5. Design of stimuli of green, water and built tourist environments.


Task 8-9 (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). (8) Selection and evaluation of sustainable performance parameters for the hospitality sector based on SMEs; (9) Sustainable indicators evaluation and LEED evaluation systems.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 4 (8) and 5 (9) months (done in 4 months)
Deviation: No

The tasks were carried out by collecting graphical information on all sustainable actions developed in American hotels with an LEED Certification, and also how LEED indicators and systems could be applied in European hotels.
The researcher visited the Hotel Skyler (Syracuse, New York State) and the Bardessono Hotel, two of the three hotels in the U.S. with the highest sustainability certificate (LEED Platinum), in order to collect pictures and interview the general manager.

Notable results from the information collected are:

a. Hotels occupy more than 450 billion square feet of space in the US, with 5 million rooms and nearly $4 billion in annual energy usage (USGBC). Larger rooms and more facilities are two reasons why hotels now have twice as much consumption per night as 50 years ago. Between 1960 and 1970, room consumption was 12.2kg of CO2; in 2010 it was 21.5kg of CO2.
b. An analysis of sustainability indicators in the hotels showed that a guest room produces three types of consumption: water (218 gallons/room/day); energy (5€/room/day); and waste (13 kg/room/day). In a room, electricity accounts for 60-70% of the total cost, and up to 25% is because of lights.
c. Sustainable parameters designed for a prototype hotel studied by the hotel chain Courtyard (see Figure 6): Saving energy by using white material on the ceiling to reflect heat; low-flow plumbing fixtures and accessories (Kohler); low power consumption by using LED lighting and manual controllers (Philips); saltwater pool to reduce the number of chemicals used to treat the pool; an electric car charging station.
d. LEED Platinum evaluation was studied for two hotels located in the U.S. The sustainable system applied in these hotels was: (1. sustainable place) A minimum of 50% of the area has been restored using native plants, to minimise soil erosion; (2. energy and atmosphere) solar energy: with non-visible solar panels installed on the flat roofs of the buildings; geothermal energy: geothermal wells to heat and cool the rooms and heat the domestic water; (3. efficiency of water consumption) low-flow water installations, double flushing toilets and waterless urinals; black water is treated and recycled to irrigate gardens in the city; (4. materials & resources) recycling of construction debris; construction materials should come from local enterprises, building materials made of recycled materials, and local artists to design guest room furniture and accessories; (5. Indoor Environmental Quality) Daylight and views - daylight in 75% of spaces and views for 90% of spaces.

Figure 6. Elements designed for a prototype sustainable room for the Courtyard hotel chain.

Objective 2. Strategies for the creation and/or renovation of the tourism architecture based on an intelligent, sustainable and competitive European model.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 9 months


Task 10 (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Assessment of satisfaction over comfort systems by means of on-line surveys to customers
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 3 months (done in 5 months)
Deviation: No

The results of the study of satisfaction with comfort systems are part of the third analysis of “Experiment 2”. Satisfaction was studied taking an emotional approach by analysing all the photographs and eWOM (electronic word-of-mouth marketing) uploaded by customers onto a online platform. The researcher designed a database of 217 users who took a total of 553 pictures. From the customer’s eWOM comments, the study created a second database with a total of 303 reviews. All photographs and comments were coded, in order to find out the emotional codes associated with the pictures and eWOM.
One of the results was that satisfaction is represented by tangible and intangible elements and by spatial relationships (visual and physical). The study found out 32 elements in the bedroom and bathroom.
The results for the bathroom revealed that 63.7% of the photographs taken by customers showed that the tangible elements had a higher visual impact, and the three tangible elements with the highest visual impact are the bathtub, mirror and vanity. The study also brought out two strong connections between the elements based on the photographs taken by customers. The first is the mirror (tangible element) and the artificial light (intangible element) with 62% and the second is the bathtub and outside views and natural light (visual relationship) with 77%. Regarding the eWOM results, in bathrooms, the clients get a memorable experience level when they bathe or shower in a bathtub with jets. 19.6% of comments regarding the bathtub used adjectives like amazing, relaxing or wonderful. The second highest positive emotion was connected to the views of attractive places (port, mountain, sea or city), which accounted for 19.6% of the customer emotions in bathrooms. Finally, the third positive emotion was the perception of the bathtub's size. 13% of customers considered the soaking tub as "huge" when it had dimensions of a “Champagne Bath Tub/Spa” (e.g. 6ft l x 36ins w x 25ins h). If we compare the results for the elements of visual impact and customers’ comments, we can conclude that the bathtub or soaking tub and the views to the outside are the elements to consider in the design of a bathroom that will most likely result in a memorable customer experience.
The results for the bedroom revealed that the furniture was the tangible code most photographed, comprising 20.3% of the total photographs taken. The bed and living room are the elements most photographed, with 13.7% and 7.6% respectively, after the furniture. Comparatively, the eWOM results for the bedroom show that the elements were beds, views to the outside, furniture and the living room area (see Figure 7). The visual relationship was the code group most commented on by customers for bedrooms. The "views" accounted for the customers’ most positive emotions. However, even though the bed was the element most commented on, with 41.4% of the total, its percentage of memorable adjectives (fantastic, incredible, etc.) was not higher than the "views" codes. 28.7% of customers think that a view to the outside from the bed or the living room (see table 8) is necessary for creating a positive emotion. The bed, with 17.7%, was the second element most commented on that was connected to a positive emotion. The reason for positivity was an especially high level of comfort. The bed's size and normal conditions of comfort each resulted in 9.9% for creating a positive emotion.

Figure 7. Visual Impact of the bathroom according to the photographs taken.


Task 11. (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Staff and experts assessment by quantitative and qualitative techniques on the improvement of service through technology.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 3 months (done in 3 months)
Deviation: Minor deviation

This task used qualitative techniques to assess technology-related services.
The study analysed 303 reviews in which technological aspects were mentioned by customers. Technological services account for 3.33% of the impact on customer experience in a guest room and is represented by 15 elements (Experiment 2).
The results highlight 7 technological elements for assessing service in rooms, such as: (1) motion sensor; (2) flat-screen TV; (3) TV in the mirror; (4) screens with ambient scenes and sounds; (5) stereo for ipad; (6) free wireless Internet; (7) curtains that open and close automatically. The study also identified verbal behaviour patterns regarding technology. These patterns were codified into three categories: emotional, qualitative and functional/spatial. The results brought out how technology is related to emotional impact, qualitative experience and perception of dimensions. A huge flat-screen television in the bedroom and a television reflected in the bathroom mirror are the two elements with the highest impact on customers.
The project also collected information about two prototypes of guest rooms based on technology to improve customer service and experience. The ITH GateRoom prototype uses the Flynnkey app with an interactive screen for interaction with social media by smartphone, domotic systems (light and sound), and virtual reality room service. The second prototype focuses on the customer experience by designing six experiential zones (hall, work, sleep, bathroom, vanity and spa). The prototype has four types of technology (screen, home, connected and savvy) in each of the six zones. As screen technologies, a flat-screen TV (wl968), interactive mirror, multi-touch transparent screen and interactive floor were installed. As home technologies, a Bang-Olufsen playmaker, Bang-Olufsen Beolabs and Videoconferencing were installed. In the Connected category, PayTouch automatic payment, a surface interface and NFC access control were designed. Finally, as Savvy technology, an Innova radio mirror, guardian glass and electro opacity glass were added.
A minor deviation was applied to the subject studied (see deviation Task 11).


Task 12. (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Assessment of customer and staff satisfaction and experience boosting through new programs.

Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 3 months (done in 4 months)
Deviation: Minor deviation

The results of the study to assess customer and staff satisfaction with new programmes were based on the lobby as a public space. The study focused on how the height of the ceiling in a lobby has an emotional impact on the customer experience was conducted as an experiment (hereinafter called “Experiment 4”). The experiment analysed lobbies with a 2 (height) in the subject design as independent variables. The time of emotional valence was also studied as a variable in this experiment.
Experiment 4 also found that TIME is an important variable in the emotional impact lobbies with a 2 (height) in the subject design.

Highlighted results for the physical attribute of Height in a lobby.

a. After an experience of five seconds in a hotel lobby with a higher ceiling, the participants felt significantly more emotional (valence) compared to settings with a low ceiling (t[39] =7.066; p <.05).
b. During the first five seconds of experience in a hotel lobby with a high ceiling, the participants feel significantly more happiness (intensity) compared to settings with a low ceiling (t[39] =4.524; p <.05).

Some of the results of Experiment 4 were presented at the “Cornell Hospitality Health and Design Symposium 2016” (8-11 October 2016. Ithaca NY, United States). The presentation was entitled “Restorative and emotional experience in a tourist environment”.


Task 13. (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Strategic approaches for the specialisation of tourism SMEs through SWOT techniques
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 4 months (done in 4 months)
Deviation: Minor deviation

The study analysed how a SME can specialise through an intangible attribute, in order to enhance the customer experience (hereinafter called “Experiment 7”). Experiment 7 was conducted during a congress in a hotel using smelling (odours) as the strategy for specialisation to make an emotional impact on customers and their loyalty and willingness to pay (dependent variables).

Results of the intangible attribute of smelling at a congress as a strategy for specialisation.

a. After an experience of fifteen seconds in a guest room with an odour (lavender), females felt significantly more emotional (valence) compared to settings with no odour (t[29] =6.984; p <.05). There was no significance in the emotional valence for men. This result shows that hotels specialising in male-dominated congresses could apply odours in guest rooms where the customers are mainly females as a strategy for affecting their emotional experience. No significance was found for loyalty and willingness to pay.

A minor deviation was applied to the methodology (see deviation Task 13).


Task 14. (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Strategic integration approaches between natural landscape and architecture through SWOT techniques
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 4 months (done in 6 months)
Deviation: Minor deviation

The results of the study are part of Experiment 4 and another experiment (hereinafter called “Experiment 3”). The results for Experiment 4 are related to how the presence of nature in a lobby impact on our emotions and reduce stress (regenerative environments). The results for Experiment 3 results showed that the experience of looking out at the landscape from inside a guestroom has an emotional impact on customers.

Highlighted results for the presence of nature in a lobby (Experiment 4).
Experiment 4 found that TIME is an important variable in the emotional impact of lobbies with a 2 (nature) in the subject design.

a. After an experience of one minute in a hotel lobby with a high presence of nature, the participants felt significantly more emotional (valence) compared to settings with less vegetation (t[38] =4.246; p <.05).
b. During the first five seconds of experience in a hotel lobby with a high presence of nature, the participants felt significantly more happy (intensity) compared to settings with less vegetation (t[39] =4.618; p <.05).
c. Settings with more natural elements are assessed by participants as significantly more pleasant compared to settings with less vegetation (t[37] =-5.700; p <.001) (see figure 8-Left).
d. Settings with more natural elements are assessed by participants as significantly preferable compared to settings with less vegetation (t[37] =-7.054; p <.001) (see figure 8-Right).
e. Participants reported that they would feel significantly more regenerated in settings with more natural elements compared to settings with less vegetation (t[37] =-6.059; p <.001).

Figure 8 (Left). Affective responses of participants, by level of nature in a hotel lobby. (Right). Approach intentions of participants, by level of nature in a hotel lobby.

Highlighted results for nature as a visual experience from inside a guest room (Experiment 3).

The ANOVA analysis of emotion intensities showed that only ‘Scared’ presents significant differences (F (1,60) = 4.29 p < 0.05) between both groups (watching or not to the landscape outside the guest room).
The gender analysis showed that in the interior of the guestroom, the only emotion that presented significant differences were ‘Sadness’ (F (1,29) = 12.49 p < 0.01) and also for the stimulus “views to outside” (F (1,29) = 5.98 p < 0.05). In both cases females triggered a higher emotional intensity than males.

The results of experiment 3 were presented at the “Smart Tourism Congress Barcelona” (9-11 November 2016. Barcelona, Spain). The paper received the Best Research Paper Award. Its title was Identifying customers’ emotional responses to guest-room design by using facial expression recognition, in a hotel’s virtual and real environments. The paper was selected in the section “Cutting-edge technology in tourist destinations and companies”.
The experiment 3 was also presented at the “8ª conferencia latinoamericana de diseño de interacción, tecnología e innovación” (8th Latin American conference on interaction design, technology and innovation) (3-5 November 2016, Santiago de Chile).

Task 15. (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). Calculation of CO2 values in microclimates created in tourism buildings through UPCO2.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 4 months (done in 4 months)
Deviation: Major deviation

The second objective of ARQTUR_13 focused on the customer experience and sustainable design. Due to the impact and success of previous experiments based on emotional experience, this task calculated how microclimates created in tourist buildings affect emotional valence and arousal level, instead of analysing CO2 levels in tourism architecture (see deviation Task 15).
The results of this study were a continuation of Experiment 3 and the pilot study made using this approach (hereinafter called “Experiment 8”). Due to the impact of new technologies on the hospitality industry, the study calculated emotional impact by looking at promotional micro-environments (experiment 8), and the differences in customer experience between 3 real micro-environments (see Figure 9) and 3 virtual micro-environments (see Figure 10).

Highlighted results for real and virtual microenvironments (Experiment 3).

The research looked at the impact of emotional responses to these environments using facial expressions. The results showed low overall mean intensity values for each emotion in both virtual and real environments. Nevertheless, significant differences in the maximum peak intensity values were found between virtual and real environments, with the intensity being higher in the real guestroom.

Analysis of Real and Virtual environments. (Arousal).
Using facial expression as the methodology for measuring the arousal of people in a real vs. a virtual guest-room, the ANOVA analysis showed a significant difference between the two environments (F (1.59) = 71.951 p < 0.01) with arousal having a higher value in a real environment than in a virtual environment: 0.39 and 0.27 respectively (see Table 1).

Figure 9. Selected guestroom views (Real Environment. - spatial perception inside): (a) guestroom 1 bedroom (b) guestroom 2 bedroom (c) guestroom 6 living room

Figure 10. Selected guestroom views (V.E. - spatial perception inside): (a) guestroom 1 bedroom (b) guestroom 2 living room (c) guestroom 5 bedroom
Table 1. Level of arousal between R.E. and V.E

Analysis of Real and Virtual environments. (Peaks of Emotional valence).
The peaks of emotional intensity demonstrate that there was a significant difference in four out of seven emotions: ‘Happy’ (F (1.59) = 6.717 p < 0.05) ‘Angry’ (F (1.59) = 14.251 p < 0.001) ‘Surprised’ (F (1.59) = 30.034 p < 0.001) and ‘Disgusted’ (F (1.59) = 119.589 p < 0.001). The highest value with the maximum level of intensity was found in the real environment (see Table 2). The high values reached by positive and negative emotions (happy, surprised and anger) demonstrate that people do emotionally react to the components of a real environment, and the methodology presented is highly effective.

Table 2. Maximum mean intensity of emotions between R.E. and V.E.


Results highlighted of promotional microenvironments (experiment 8).

The pilot study is based on how tourist places can have an impact on our emotions by watching promotional microenvironments. The pilot study was conducted with a small number of participants (10). The results demonstrated that prediction models of new tourist destinations based on emotional reactions are more appropriate than prediction models based on cognitive reactions. The experiment highlighted how new environments in tourism should point out toward emotional valence to have success with potential target clients.

The result was presented at the “Consumer Behaviour in Tourism Symposium 2016: Consumer Psychology of Tourism, Hospitality, and Leisure Research Symposium 2016. Experiences, Emotions and Memories New Directions in Tourism Research” (14 17 December 2016. Brunico, Italy). The presentation was entitled “Emotion-Based Choice Models in Tourism: Forecasting demand for new tourist products”.

Objective 3. Instruments for public institutions and SMEs to promote integrated governance towards more sustainable and intelligent tourism models, within the framework of European policies.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 9 months


Task 16. (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). 16. Compilation and clarification of financial support to implement actions studied in the project.
Status: Completed
Duration in working plan: 3 months (done in 3 months)
Deviation: No

The project identified several sources of funding for continuing and implementing the actions of the ARQTUR_13 project. The funding is listed by topic (sustainability, health and emotional tourism environments), scales (architectural and urban), and the impact of the project.

TOPICS.

a. Sustainability
Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future- Cornell University
Funding. Academic Venture Fund.
The Academic Venture Fund (AVF) is an incubator for the next generation of sustainable solutions. The AVF seeds original, multidisciplinary research that is not likely to find funding elsewhere because the projects are novel, risky, need early data to establish traction, or involve new teams working together. The AVF provides over $1.5 million in funding annually.
The researcher was consulted as an expert in sustainable tourism and environment, and searcher of external partners in the industry. Applied research proposal "Building an Efficient Wetland Resort "EWR": A new research framework for coastal sustainable tourist communities". Multidisciplinary team Prof. Maria Goula (Landscape), Prof. Rebecca Schneider(Natural Resource), Prof. Max Zhang (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering). The researcher contacted with the external Partners "Corporate Social Responsibility-Melia Hotel International" and "Institut of Tourism/Habitat/Territory of Barcelona. Budget $116,490. The project research was not funded.
b. Health and tourism environments. 3RD HEALTH PROGRAMME. European Union. Horizon 2020
The researcher met Juan E. Riese. NCP, Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, European Office project-OPE (Madrid), to talk about how ARQTUR_13 could continue into the European calls of 3RD HEALTH PROGRAMME. The program identified is in SOCIETAL CHALLENGES - Health, demographic change and well-being. Some project on this topics have been funded, such as:
Blue-Health. Link https://bluehealth2020.eu/about/
Head-Shield. Link https://www.heat-shield.eu/copy-of-ipact-of-heat-waves-abstrac-1
Inherit. Link http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/199730_en.html
SCALES
c. Urban. Horizon 2020
The researcher identified a European Financial support in Horizon 2020 into the call “SOCIOECONOMIC AND CULTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION”- The collaborative economy, innovation, and the rolle of cities and regions- Innovative approaches to urban and regional development through cultural tourism (RIA/IA).
The level of development of cultural tourism between certain regions and sites is still unbalanced, with deprived remote, peripheral or deindustrialised areas lagging behind whereas high demand areas being overexploited in an unsustainable manner. There is also a significant knowledge gap in terms of availability of both quantitative and qualitative data on the phenomenon of cultural heritage tourism and on understanding its contribution towards cultural Europeanisation and economic and social development in Europe. The Commission provides over of EUR 3 million into this call.
IMPACT
The research applied to one financials support in order to complement the media impact of ARQTUR_13 project.
d. Micro Media Grants (May, 2015). EUR 500 for the production of media materials of ARQTUR_13.
Promoted by the Marie Curie Alumni. The researcher won a micro-grant to create a video to show a prototype of guest room with Corning's technology. Corning Incorporated is an American manufacturer of glass, ceramics, and related materials, primarily for industrial and scientific applications.

Task 17-18. (Diagram Working plan ARQTUR_13). (17). Costs handbook and attached graphic documentation for green design actions, energy saving systems and interventions in the hospitality services program; (18) Handbook of construction systems, materials and service implementations based on new technologies and energy saving systems needed in a hotel structure.
Status: Completed by other material of divulgation
Duration in working plan: 5 (17) and 6 (18) months (done in 10 months)
Deviation: Major deviation

Since the new approach of ARQTUR_13 focused on emotional design rather than sustainable design, tasks 17-18 involved several experiments. The cost handbook and construction system handbook were therefore replaced by designing stimuli using 3D modelling, virtual tours of public spaces and guest rooms, and setting up experiments in a number of hotels and laboratories (see deviation Tasks 17-18).

(B) CONCLUSIONS

Currently, there are several methodologies applied to the hospitality industry to collect information about customers’ preferences and their satisfaction during their stay. However, there are few studies designed to understand customers’ immediate responses to spatial environments and the physical attributes of hotels.

ARQTUR_13 provides evidence of the effectiveness of applying automatic facial expression recognition methodology using FaceReader 6 in tourist environments, in order to measure emotional experience and design healthy environments.

The research project started by analysing hotel façades and found out that designing façades based on emotional design makes people get visual inputs that offer a regenerative experience (stress reduction).
After evaluating the external designs of hotels and resorts, ARQTUR_13 found out that between real and virtual hotel environments, the real environments proved to be the best context for conducting evaluations of hotel environments, as they elicit greater emotional responses in participants. The proposed methodology provides a direct way to identify and analyse the immediate emotional response triggered by the stimuli present in a particular environment.

Moreover, in a real environment, the guestroom indoors and the views of outdoor landscapes elicited the same level of emotional response in participants. Design decision makers should take this fact into consideration and implement design components that offer comfort when customers interact with both stimuli.

Taking into account the design of a guestroom with sustainable actions (LEED Certification), the results highlight that, among all LEED actions, natural light and views to the outside get higher affective responses from the customer experience in LEED certified hotels. In addition, the research reveals a group of emotional codes in terms of comfort, relaxing and visual relations between built and natural environments.
However, an experiment showed that the positive experience of clients is not significant if sustainable actions cannot be perceived visually, such as water recycling, among others.

The field of healthy environments also played a vital role in ARQTUR_13. Two experiments demonstrated and confirmed that the presence of nature and increased height in indoor environments increase human wellbeing.
The results shed light on the impact of the physical environment on restoration processes, as well as emotional responses to touristic indoor public spaces.
The study found a statistical significance in environments represented by two levels of height and nature as these offer psychological recovery and an emotional experience. People felt a significantly intense happiness in indoor environments designed with more height rather than less height. Happiness is the emotion with a statistically significant difference between the four environmental conditions studied, and in settings with both height and nature as independent variables during the first five seconds of the experience.

ARQTUR_13 analysed not only physical attributes with a normal perception of environments. One experiment found a significance in the environmental interaction between a perception of privacy and emotional experience in three types of environments (green, water and built). Green environments trigger more pleasure in the perception of privacy than no privacy during the first five seconds of emotional valence. However, in private environmental conditions, people felt happier in blue environments than green ones at the end of a one-minute experience. Significances in the intense types of emotion were also discovered during three different timeframes of experience when the perception of privacy changed in blue, green and grey environments.

ARQTUR_13 analysed how tourist environments can trigger emotions and a new method in the scientific fields of hospitality and architecture, based on spontaneous facial expressions, can be put into practice. The method was demonstrated as being a valid tool for addressing important questions regarding research into tourism, as it opens up new lines of research on tourist environments and users’ behaviour.

As the Marie Curie Fellow at Cornell University, the researcher became a member (as an architectural expert) of one of the most international hospitality consultants “Cayuga Hospitality Consultants”. The company is an independent group of consultants with multi-disciplinary hospitality expertise, all with notable industry education (from Cornell University), and hands-on experience, dedicated to providing owners, developers, operators and institutions with the highest level of sound advice and performance that results in high-impact outcomes.
The Marie Curie Fellowship gave the researcher an opportunity to win a doctoral award (UPC), prizes, and make a relevant social impact (13 newspaper articles, 1 TV news item, 4 radio interviews, and a European bulletin). ARQTUR_13 offered him the possibility to specialise in his field of research becoming a professor on his return phase at CETT School of Tourism, Hospitality and Tourism – University of Barcelona (Spain).
As the Marie Curie Fellow, the researcher managed and taught courses (BA, MD, PhD) to national and international students at several universities, all related with the new approach to design for tourist environments. Some courses were taught at the “Official Master Degree in Hotel And Restaurant Management”; “Official Master Degree in Hospitality Management”; Official Master Degree in Sustainability and Quality Management”; and “Bachelor Degree-Design for tourism facilities”, among others.
Currently, the researcher is actively working as a member of the Organising Committee (general coordination) and member of the Scientific Committee of the upcoming 1st International Congress of Transversal Tourism & Landscape. The Congress is an interdisciplinary meeting to discuss the role of landscape in the configuration, development and rehabilitation of tourist spaces.

The Marie Curie Fellowship has contributed significantly to the researcher by his becoming an expert in his scientific field, to the scientific community by his publishing scientific papers and giving presentations at congresses at prestigious universities and to the hospitality industry by involving emotions in the design of hotel spaces, and, as a result, increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty. All these variables are considered key strategies for creating a new European model of tourist architecture, in order to be more competitive, sustainable and intelligent.


(C) SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT
• TOPIC OF ARQTUR_13
The researcher behind the ARQTUR_13 project has spent over ten years researching tourist environments using multi-scale studies and an interdisciplinary approach. During his experience as a Marie Curie Fellow, the researcher studied the relationship between design, environment and people and discovered a new architectural approach based on designs that offer an emotional experience and a healthy environment. His experiments focused on tourist environments in Europe, the United States and Central America.
• FINAL RESULTS AND THEIR POTENTIAL IMPACT AND USE (INCLUDING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT AND THE WIDER SOCIETAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE PROJECT SO FAR).

The final results of the project ARQTUR_13 may have an impact on three major aspects of the hospitality industry:

A. Economic. ARQTUR_13 conducted eight experiments to discover how design can increase hotel revenue by understanding customers’ emotions and behaviours. The aim of all the experiments was to get or increase the customer experience through the design of the tourism environment. According to the results of the experiments concluded (experiments 1-5, 8) and the new approach to measuring tourist environments, ARQTUR_13 has contributed to measuring tourist environments, in terms of experience, and discovering new economic opportunities for the hospitality industry.

B. Society. The final results of the 4th and 5th experiments contributed to analysing tourist environments by adding a healthy value to the customers’ experience. According to the results of the experiments, a strong perception of privacy in open spaces, the presence of nature or a high ceiling in lobbies became design indicators for reducing stress and producing a positive experience.

C. Professionals. (Designers and architects). ARQTUR_13 offers the wide world of architects and interior designers a new tool and method for designing environments that better suit the wellbeing of society and the hospitality industry by measuring the customers’ experience. Over the last year, the researcher has been in contact with some of the most prestigious architectural offices in the world, such as WATG (http://www.watg.com) to explain the potential impact of his research on the profession. In October 2017, he will begin collaborating with them on designing a new hotel model based on an emotional hotel.

D. Hospitality Industry. The Project has also had an impact on the hospitality industry by having several hotel chains take part in conducting the experiments in their facilities, such as Italian Hospitality Collection SPA (Italy); Bohemia Suite&hotel; Hotel Congress Alimara (Spain); and La Tourelle Hotels (USA).

• MEDIA – SOCIAL IMPACT

1. Title of news item: Hoteles bajo la presión de Google: Más experiencias y personalizados
Media: El Mundo newspaper, Economy section
Type of event: The candidate was named in a newspaper article on the conference at the 5th Tourism Summit. (IESE Business School)
Date of event: 14 December 2016
Link: .

2. Title of news item: Tv News. Viure un terratrèmol dins de l'habitació de l'hotel? Aviat
Media: BTV Notícies (between 1:23 and 2:24 min)
Type of event: TV interview
Date of event: Barcelona, 12 November 2016
Link: .

3. “Un hotel que mide las emociones”, La Provincia newspaper, p. 12, 31 July 2015.
[on line] : http://www.laprovincia.es/gran-canaria/2015/07/21/hotel-mide-emociones/727381.html
4. “El Bohemia Suites, elegido entre 10 hoteles del mundo para un estudio de satisfacción de la Universidad Cornell de Nueva York”, Maspalomas Ahora, 19 July 2015, [on line]; http://maspalomasahora.com/not/34400/el-bohemia-suites-elegido-entre-10-hoteles-del-mundo-para-un-estudio-de-satisfaccion-de-la-univeraidad-cornell-de-nueva-york/

5. “Ivan, de Marie Curie a Pancho Guerra”. La Provincia newspaper, p. 2, 2 May 2015.
[on line]; http://www.laprovincia.es/gran-canaria/2015/05/02/ivan-marie-curie-pancho-guerra/701415.html; http://pedrojosefrancolopez.blogspot.it/2015/05/ivan-alvarez-de-marie-curie-pancho.html
6. “La renovación de la planta hotelera en Canarias debe ser inminente” La Provincia newspaper, pp. 4-5, 30 April 2015.

7. “Un reclamo turístico ganador”. La Provincia newspaper, p.11 20 April 2015.

8. “Premio Pancho Guerra para Paisaje de Maspalomas”, Canarias 7 newspaper, p.27 18 April 2015.

9. News of the city Council of the city San Bartolomé de Tirajana (May 2015) https://www.maspalomas.com/index.php/not-culturayocio/5252-fallado-el-premio-del-certamen-periodistico-pancho-guerra

10. “Iván Álvarez León gana el Certamen Periodístico Pancho Guerra”. Maspalomas Ahora, 17 April 2015, [on line]; http://maspalomasahora.com/not/33408/ivan-alvarez-leon-gana-el-certamen-periodistico-pancho-guerra

11. Iván Álvarez León. “Seguimos diseñando hoteles con los mismos parámetros de hace décadas”. La Provincia newspaper. p. 43, 29 April 2014.

12. "La renovación de la planta hotelera en Canarias debe ser inminente" La Provincia newspaper, 30 April 2015.

13. Iván Álvarez León. “Un investigador del sur obtiene la primera Beca ERA en materia de renovación turística”. Newspaper online Maspalomas Ahora. Online newspaper. Maspalomas Ahora, 18 January 2014.
http://maspalomasahora.com/not/28155/un_investigador_del_sur_obtiene_la_primera_beca_era_en_materia_de_renovacion_turistica

14. Interviews IOF FELLOW 2012. Iván Alvarez León. Recerca a Europa. Polytechnic University of Catalonia. Butlletí de l’Oficina de Projectes Europeus. Centre de Transferència de Tecnologia (CTT), 1 May 2013. p. 3.

15. Radio Interview ”Talentos Canarios”. Radio El Espejo Canario (14 min), 25 April 2014. Interview by Miki Ayala. http://www.ivoox.com/miki-ayala-nuevos-talentos-canarios-25-abril-audios-mp3_rf_3055869_1.html

16. Radio Interview “Diseño emocional”. Radio Dunas 107.6 FM. (50 min.), 27 July 2015. Interview by Loli Pérez.

17. Radio Interview “ Entrevista diseño de hoteles”. Canarias Radio (5 min.), 30 July 2015. Interview by Tania Reyes.

18. 1st Prize. Journalism Prize Competition Pancho Guerra (5 May 2015).
Promoted by the City Council of the city of San Bartolomé de Tirajana (Canary Islands, Spain). The prize recognised the best journalistic report that highlighted the environmental analysis of the tourist city of Maspalomas.
19. Recognition. Researcher of the week. (24 July to 2 August 2015) Recognised by Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions. Facebook website: https://www.facebook.com/Marie.Curie.Actions

(D) DEVIATION
Summary of overall deviation
The project ARQTUR_13 has a significant deviation centring on the project’s methodology, in order to get a new approach to hotel design. However, the three main objectives of the grant have not changed, according to the working plan.
As was mentioned in the Mid-Term report (2015) and in the two periodic reports for 2016 and 2017, the ARQTUR_13 project has a new strategic objective based on emotional hotel design to obtain a more intelligent and competitive tourism model.
During the third year, the scientific goals focused on the customer experience and the design of indoor environments. ARQTUR_13 continued the experiments of the second year with sustainability and health as the dependent variables. During the third year, the researcher conducted a new experiment with an intangible environmental element, “smelling”, as the independent variable. In all experiments in the ARQTUR_13 project “emotional responses” were the dependent variable, in order to discover and conceptualise a tourist architecture based on emotional design.
Due to the new methodology applied since the first year, the method of the proposal changed from the graphical analysis of data in ARQTUR1 REPORT, ARQTUR2 REPORTS, ARQTUR1 HANDBOOK and ARQTUR2 HANDBOOK to behavioural data, designing EXPERIMENTS based on participant responses and not technical analysis. The proposal produced a total of two technical REPORTS (see Experiments 1 to 2) and six EXPERIMENTS (see Experiments 3 to 8).

Objective 1. Analysis, assessment and evolution of different types of tourism coastal architecture and transformation and repositioning processes of more competitive and sustainable tourism models.

• Task 2. Minor deviation. Due to the absence in scientific and academic literature of studies of types, geometries and spaces in designing façades for hotels. The project identified all the elements that make up the design of façades for hotels and resorts in order to compare the sustainable impact of each one and to aid in designing façades for residential buildings in future scientific studies. In this task there were deviations in the approach and the method. The method described in the Grant Agreement Description of Work is based on simulation techniques but graphical analysis was used instead.

• Task 3. Minor deviation. Due to the difficulty in obtaining a geo-referenced database of natural resources in the tourist areas selected for task 1, the study carried out an analysis focusing on the spatial attributes of architecture (guest rooms). The method described in the Grant Agreement Description of Work is based on benchmarking but graphical analysis and customers’ online reviews were used instead.

• Task 4. Minor deviation. The study analysed sustainable indicators of architectural scale instead of territorial scale at submitted in the Description of Work. So, the project ARQTUR_13 moved to analysing a new approach focusing on design and experience. A minor deviation is the scale of the analysis and using customers’ online reviews (architectural scale) instead of geo-referenced data (territorial scale).

• Task 7. Minor deviation. The study, which analysed the affective experience of customers in public spaces, added a new approach and a new methodological aim to this task, based on collecting emotional responses through behavioural data (facial expression recognition) second by second, instead of graphical analysis as described in the Grant Agreement Description of Work.

Objective 2. Strategies for the creation and/or renovation of tourist architecture based on an intelligent, sustainable and competitive European model.

• Task 11. Minor deviation. A minor deviation was applied to the subject studied. The study analysed service as evaluated by customers rather than staff and experts.

• Task 12. Minor deviation. A minor deviation was applied to the program designed for this task. The study analysed a hotel program (lobby) by manipulating the height of the ceiling. Therefore, conventional hotel programs would be designed using an innovative approach based on emotional experience. A minor deviation was also applied to the methodology by collecting emotional responses using facial expression recognition rather than qualitative interviews.

• Task 13. Minor deviation. The study analysed the specialisation of a SME (a hotel chain in Barcelona) that affected emotional experience. Experiment 7 selected odour as independent variable. A minor deviation was applied to the methodology used to obtain the data. Experiment 7 collected emotional responses through behavioural data (facial expression recognition) second by second, instead of SWOT methodology.

• Task 14. Minor deviation. The study collected emotional responses through behavioural data (facial expression recognition) second by second, instead of SWOT techniques.

• Task 15. Major deviation. Due to the success of the previous experiment focusing on emotional valence by looking at tourist environments, the project decided to change the approach and methodology to micro-environments created in tourist buildings. The approach was emotional experience and psychological arousal, instead of CO2 reduction. The methodology used was the recognition of emotion by automatic facial expression recognition rather than a geo-database of energy saving and graphics.

Objective 3. Instruments for public institutions and SMEs to promote integrated governance towards more sustainable and intelligent tourism models, within the framework of European policies.

• Task 17-18. Major deviation. The design and edition of the handbooks (tasks 17-18) in ARQTUR_13 were intended to present to academia and the hospitality industry all the sustainable actions and indicators brought out by the project. The new approach, based on the emotional design of hotels, has affected all the dissemination actions and material for academics and professionals has been produced in several formats (video, papers, conferences, lectures, congress). The most successful dissemination and impact of the two manuals came at the 5th Tourism Summit - IESE Business School (1st place by the Financial Times) attended by the most prestigious academics and professionals in the world. Also, the WATG architecture office (http://www.watg.com) considered the most important hotel design office in the world (Singapore office), is very interested in the methodology focusing on emotional hotel design.


(E) ETHICS SECTION
• What the experiments consisted of:
1st and 2nd Experiment (technical studies). Tasks 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11.
The studies did not involve any participants.
3rd Experiment. (Indoor environment). Tasks 14, 15
The study focused on identifying the customer’s emotional responses to guest-room design by using facial expression recognition in virtual and real hotel environments. The real environments chosen were SMEs in the hospitality industry (three hotels and one tourist resort).

4th Experiment (outdoor environments). Tasks 12, 14

The study focused on privacy in three environments, in order to get an emotional and regenerative experience in public spaces. The study measured emotional valence and arousal intensity through facial expression recognition using FaceReader technology for the experiment in three types of public spaces in hotels, such as pools (water), gardens (green) and terraces (grey).

5th Experiment (indoor environment). Task 7
The study was of the physical attributes of ceiling height and the presence of nature in an indoor environment (hotel lobby), for offering an emotional and regenerative experience, a “healthy experience”. The study measured emotional valence and arousal intensity through facial expression recognition using FaceReader technology.

6th Experiment (indoor environment). Task 5
The study measured two levels of perception of technology and sustainability as independent variables, in order to measure the emotional responses, arousal level and willingness to pay for a guest room designed with those variables. The study measured emotional valence and arousal intensity through facial expressions recognition using Face Reader technology. To measure the dependent variable of willingness, all participants filled out a self-report after watching the stimuli.

7th Experiment (smelling in an indoor environment). Task 13
The study was based on how smelling in an indoor environments (guest room) can have an impact on the customers’ experience, loyalty and increase in the willingness to pay. The dependent variable "experience" was measured by analysing the facial expressions of the participants. Loyalty and willingness to pay were studied by subjective data collected in self-reports.

8th Experiment–Pilot study (Tourist Promotional Environments). Task 15
The pilot study was based on how tourist places can have an impact on our emotions by watching promotional videos of those places. This study uncovered our emotional responses to promotional videos of tourism places.

• How many subjects took part:
Experiment 3 (61 participants); Experiment 4 (39 participants); Experiment 5 (39 participants); Experiment 6 (39 participants); Experiment 7 (108 participants); Experiment 8 (10 participants).

• Where the experiments were conducted (also with reference to the outbound or return phase):
Outbound Phase.
Experiment 3 (Hotel La Tourelle- US; Hotel Bohemia-Spain; Hotel H10-Spain; Hotel Bahia Sardinia-Italy). The experiment was conducted in one guest room at each hotel.
Experiment 4. Cornell University (In a Design and Environmental Analysis laboratory). The United States.
Experiment 5. Cornell University (In a Design and Environmental Analysis laboratory). The United States.
Return Phase.
Experiment 6. In the Civic Centre of Drassanes, Barcelona (Spain) and at Cornell University (in a Design and Environmental Analysis laboratory - US).
Experiment 7. Hotel Alimara in Barcelona (Spain). The experiment was conducted in two guest rooms.
Experiment 8. In a laboratory at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. (Spain)
• What permits were requested and received:
Institutional Review Board for Human Participants (Cornell University Office of Research Integrity and Assurance).
Approved. June 5, 2015 to June 2, 2016 (Protocol 1502005367)
Approved. April 06, 2016, 2015 to April 5, 2017 (Protocol 1603006191)
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