Delivery of sustainable supply of non-food biomass to support a “resource-efficient” Bioeconomy in Europe
Theme 1 will focus on methodological approaches, data collection and estimation of sustainable biomass potentials, resource efficient pathways and optimal logistical supply routes as well as will develop the computerized toolset.
Theme 2 will make use of the findings of Theme 1 and develop a Vision, Strategies and an R&D roadmap for the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstock at local, regional and pan European level.
Theme 3 will validate the findings from Themes 1 and 2 and ensure the project outreach
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Kerckow Birger (Mr.)
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Final Report Summary - S2BIOM (Delivery of sustainable supply of non-food biomass to support a “resource-efficient” Bioeconomy in Europe)
This S2Biom project was contracted under the Call Topic asking for:
... developing Strategies, Roadmaps and Tools (SRTs) in support of decision- making at local, regional and pan- European level with the involvement of economic, social, environmental and logistics research and building on most relevant data, projects, and scientific literature.
The project lasted 39 months and has fulfilled the requirements of the Call in all respects by achieving the following overall aim:
‘to support the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstock at local, regional and pan European level through developing Strategies, and Roadmaps that have been informed by a “computerized and easy to use” planning toolset (and respective databases) with up to date harmonized datasets for EU27, western Balkans, Turkey, Moldova and Ukraine. The spatial level of analysis both for the toolset and the databases has been NUTS1 (country), NUTS2 (regional) and NUTS3 (local level). ‘
Research work accomplished has covered the whole biomass delivery chain from primary biomass to end-use of non-food products and from logistics, pre-treatment to conversion technologies. All these aspects together have been elaborated to facilitate the integrated design and evaluation of optimal biomass delivery chains and networks at European, national, regional and local scale in order to define synergies and potential conflicts at local/ regional level of application and further support the development of strategies for best ways to realise a biobased economy.
Key to the success, cost efficiency and value for money of this project have been the utilisation of up-to-date, relevant information and data, including the following:
i. drawing upon BEE, CEUBIOM, Biomass Futures, Biomass Trade Centres, CAPRI, Sector, and Bioboost projects;
ii. selecting, interpreting and undertaking validation case studies – such as those on-going within the Logistec, INFRES and Europrunning FP7 logistics research projects; and
iii. close collaboration with key stakeholders from policy, industry and market sectors.
Project Context and Objectives:
1 S2BIOM project context and main objectives
1.1 Context of the project
The S2BIOM project was developed in response to the FP7 Call ENERGY.2013.3.7.1: Support to the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstock at local, regional and pan-European level. The focus in S2BIOM has primarily been on providing support to the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstock at local, regional and pan-European level through developing Strategies, and Roadmaps that would be informed by a “computerized and easy to use” planning toolset (and respective databases) with up to date harmonized datasets for EU27, western Balkans, Turkey, Moldova and Ukraine.
The S2BIOM project was developed in the context of several European wide ambitions of which the main are:
1) The reaching of national renewable energy (NREAP) targets 2020 as agreed in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) (2009/EC/28) and the Fuel Quality Directive ((2009/30/EC) introducing a requirement on fuel suppliers to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of energy supplied for road transport and establishes sustainability criteria that must be met by biofuels if they are to count towards the greenhouse gas intensity reduction obligation (in line with the RED).
2) The decarbonisation of the European economy, particularly the energy and transport sectors (EC, 2011)
3) The implementation of European Union and several national bioeconomy strategies which have as primary aim the development of biobased economies with efficient collaboration among the relevant sectors involved as well as biomass exploitation in a resource efficient manner.
At the time of starting the project (September 2013) there were several knowledge and data gaps that needed to be improvedin order to help reaching the above mentioned European wide ambitions. These knowledge and data gaps were the following and determined the main focus and structure of the S2BIOM project.
A.Most of the recent research work on biomass availability and supply was driven by the high demand in the bioenergy and biofuels sectors. As the biobased economy evolves to cover a wider range of markets and end products it became more important that future research and development work should carefully examine the synergies/ conflicts and interdependencies amongst the different feedstocks and develop coherent indicators for careful evaluation of their quantity, quality and sustainability attributes and costs associated with their production and collection. S2BIOM therefore focused on providing improved and higher spatial and temporal resolution estimates for EU28 and expand the regional coverage to include Western Balkans, Ukraine, Moldova and Turkey taking into account the appropriate sustainability and demand criteria. The latter are expected to become more relevant from the perspective of resource efficient use of biomass and from the perspective of novel conversion and pre-treatment technologies that aim to uptake lignocellulosic biomass.
B. Biomass conversion technologies (including bio-refineries) form the essential link between the different available lignocellulosic biomass sources with their wide range of properties and the different identified end uses and markets. The European biorefinery sector evolves continuously from established biorefinery operations for products like food, biofuels, paper and board, to a broader, more integrated sector that will include both food and non food applications. In 2030 biorefineries are expected to use a wider range of feedstocks and produce a greater variety of end-products than today. Each conversion technology has specific biomass input requirements (i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin content, moisture content, minerals like chlorine, particle size etc.), while the quality of biomass differs largely between the different biomass types, harvest and drying techniques, and pre-treatment technologies. Obviously, some biomass types can be used in many different technology options, while others are hard to process or will need extensive pre-treatment. Matching quality characteristics according to their suitability for conversion technologies has been an important gap in knowledge at the time S2Biom started.
In S2BIOM this has been successfully addressed as well. A database and method was developed to match the available non-food lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks with the most suitable conversion technologies. The method builds on the available information on the specifications from the various conversion technologies and on the biomass characteristics. The S2BIOM analytic tool that was developed enables viewing the characteristics of conversion technologies and guiding the user to find the optimal match between biomass sources of a certain quality with pre-treatment and conversion technologies.
C. At the time S2BIOM project was designed it was evident that most tools developed for the biomass sector provided understanding and support in setting up biomass delivery chains by addressing and facilitating one of the many aspects that need to be addressed when setting up a biomass delivery chain. Tools that facilitated both the design of biomass delivery chains and the assessment of the biomass delivery chain impacts in terms of spatial, environmental and economic implications were practically not developed yet and illustrated the need for integrated toolsets as planned in the S2BIOM project. S2Biom has successfully addressed this research challenge by developing an open access easy to use toolset that includes data, scientific evidence and concrete approaches for lignocellulosic biomass supply in Europe.D. At the beginning of S2Biom the sustainability of bioenergy has been a key issue in the formulation of the legally binding criteria of the RED and FQD since 2005, but the current EU legislation only addresses biofuels and liquid bioenergy carriers. Since 2008, several communications from the Commission and EU-funded projects and studies (4FCrops, BioBench, BiomassFutures, BioTop, Crops2Industry, EEA and JRC reports), as well as national (e.g. by Austria, Germany, Sweden, The Netherlands, UK) and international bodies (IEA, IEA Bioenergy, FAO, GBEP, UNEP, among others) broadened the debate to cover the sustainability of all bioenergy. Further work in the EU and beyond began addressing the sustainability of the overall biomass use for non-food purposes, i.e. including biomaterials, and biorefineries. As a part of that, significant improvement of knowledge on the sustainability issues of forest bioenergy has been achieved, but also questions such as the carbon neutrality of forest bioenergy and biodiversity impacts of intensified extraction of agricultural and forestry residues are still controversial.
S2BIOM therefore focused on developing a harmonised approach with explicit criteria and indicators on how to “frame” the sustainability of the bioeconomy, in its environmental, economic and social dimension for lignocellulosic biomass. It built on the existing knowledge available on the Member State and EU levels, integrated the JRC capabilities on the sustainability domain as well as the international domain (through IEA Bioenergy, and GBEP). Furthermore, guidelines for harmonized methodologies to measure and assess respective impacts were developed. e. at the time of developing the S2BIOM there was a clear need for a consistent economic and regulatory framework for the biobased economy in Europe, in spite of the fact that the biobased economy is considered as one of the key elements to achieve a smart and green Europe (EU 2020 Strategy; Bioeconomy Strategy to 2030). To develop a bioeconomy for energy, fuels and biobased products a number of challenges need to be addressed, e.g. the competing uses of biomass, and securing a reliable and sustainable supply of biomass feedstock. Over the last decade, various policies and economic frameworks have been put in place to tackle some of these challenges. But we also have to consider that various policies on EU, national and regional level exist (e.g. in relation to agriculture, forestry, waste, environment, energy, trade) and are playing a role in the bioeconomy. Some may be contradictory and cause confusion and market barriers, thereby prohibiting the efficient development of the bioeconomy. Furthermore, the sustainability of bioenergy has been legally addressed in the RED and FQD by establishing mandatory criteria, especially for GHG emissions, biodiversity, and carbon stocks, but these regulations are restricted to biofuels and liquid bioenergy carriers . Important other sustainability issues such as access to land and water, food security etc. are subject only to reporting requirements by economic operators, and the Commission.
In October 2012 the non EU European countries adopted the obligation to implement RED Directive through committing to the Energy Community contracting parties . However, Contracting Parties did not develop specific policies or targets for biomass yet, and there were no specific policies on sustainability of production and use of biomass as well.
S2Biom successfully addressed these gaps in the regulatory frameworks by providing a structured overview of which regulatory and economic frameworks exist in the EU, Western Balkans, Moldova, Ukraine and Turkey at different levels, to benchmark the effectiveness of different approaches and develop coherent policy guidelines to support the sustainable development of the biobased economy. For Western Balkans, Ukraine, Moldova and Turkey S2BIOM has provided evidence that can further support the development of a biomass and biofuels policy aiming to fulfilling the EU requirements and more importantly, to provide the emerging bioenergy sector with regulations required for their sustainable growth and performance.
F. At the time of developing the S2BIOM project the development of visions for the uptake of biomass in EU had recently started to be taken up primarily within the respective Technology Platforms (European Biofuels Technology Platform/ EBTP, Renewable Heating and Cooling Platform/ RHCP) and the most recent EC and industrial initiatives for the Biobased economy. Although these initiatives successfully set the path towards placing targets for energy, fuels and biobased products in Europe up to 2030, it was widely understood that the wide variety of supply & logistics value chains, the complex interactions of the key market sectors involved - and the expectations from the advanced pathways required substantial support in further specifying new, coherent and technically substantiated visions for European wide and national roadmaps.
S2BIOM therefore included a specific workplan that involves building on the above initiatives; exploit all the S2BIOM data and knowledge from the different Work Packages and develop coherent, scientifically and technically substantiated Vision with a respective R&D roadmap for the delivery of non-food sustainable biomass supply in Europe to meet the policy targets and the industrial demand for 2030.
To ensure the S2BIOM strategies and implementation plans were applicable at local level as well, the development of specific local ones were also foreseen linked to case studies.
1.2 Main objectives of the project
The overall aim of S2BIOM is:
to support the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstock at local, regional and pan-European level through developing Strategies, and Roadmaps that will be informed by a “computerized and easy to use” planning toolset (and respective databases) with up to date harmonized datasets for EU27, western Balkans, Turkey, Moldova and Ukraine. The spatial level of analysis both for the toolset and the databases will be NUTS1 (country), NUTS2 (regional) and NUTS3 (local level).
Research work in the S2BIOM covers the whole biomass delivery chain from primary biomass to end-use of non-food products and from logistics, pre-treatment to conversion technologies. All these aspects together were elaborated to facilitate the integrated design and evaluation of optimal biomass delivery chains and networks at European, national, regional and local scale in order to define synergies and potential conflicts at local/ regional level of application and further support the development of strategies for best ways to realise a biobased economy.
The S2BIOM project is organised in 10 work packages (WPs). Every WP has its specific objectives which together ensure the realisation of the overall objective of the project as discussed above.
The key objectives of WP1 were to:
1) Design and populate a database with latest available and improved
state-of the art data on current and future sustainable lignocellulosic biomass costs and supply (domestic and from imports) in EU28; Western Balkans, Ukraine and Turkey and Moldavia at regional, national and European wide scale.
2) develop an approach for biomass crop selection and estimation of future biomass crop potential
3) Developing best practice guidelines and a concept for long term utilisation and regular updates of the data Ton biomass cost supply
The main products developed in WP 1 include an integrated database and an atlas of sustainable non-food lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks at NUTS3 level for EU28, western Balkans, Turkey, Moldova and Ukraine.
The key objective of WP2 was to:
1) Identify and characterise industrial conversion pathways for use of existing and future non-food biomass. Use these pathways to assess regional /national bio-based development opportunities. Draw upon pilot and demonstration projects considered by stakeholders to be of notable success, in terms of industrial development, awareness and innovation.
The main products developed in WP2 include an extensive database of biomass conversion technologies currently commercial and expected to be commercial in the near future (up to 2030) and a method and tool with indicators to assist decision makers in matching biomass types with the optimal conversion technologies.
The key objectives of WP3 were to:
1) To identify and characterise the main logistical components as storage, pre-treatment and transportation technologies.
2) To identify and assess existing and develop new logistical concepts (e.g. hubs and optimal transportation routes) to optimize sustainable non-food biomass feedstock delivery chains.
3) To translate theoretical logistical concepts to specific cases, and design the most promising logistic supply-chains for cases at local, regional and pan-European level.
The main products developed in WP3 include an extensive database including all relevant commercial and pre-commercial logistical componenent and a tool to evaluate promising logistics supply chains at local, regional and pan- European levels that will further inform the elaboration of implementation plans.
The main objective of WP4 was to:
1) Develop a user friendly computerised tool enabling easy access and integrated use of the SRT material developed in this project
The main product developed in WP4 with input from all other WPs is a computerised toolset. This toolset integrates data and methodologies from the above described work and will be given to the public as an interactive and updatable tool which will facilitate the integrated design and evaluation of optimal biomass delivery chains (infrastructures needed- transport modes- flows of feedstock) at European, national, regional and local scale in order to support the development of strategies for best ways to realise a biobased economy.
The main objectives of WP5 were to:
1) adapt of the life cycle-based European Commission Environmental Footprint methods in order to develop a complementary methodology specific to non-food biomass value chains
2) to identify of sustainability criteria and indicators (C&I) for non-food biomass value chains, gap analysis of respective legislation, regulation and voluntary schemes at international, European and MS level, the compilation of consistent sustainability C&I for the short- and medium-term bioeconomy, and an outlook for long-term developments
3) develop guidelines for the evaluation of the environmental performance with the toolset developed in WP4 of all lignocellulosic feedstocks for the various industrial routes, building on existing tools, and extending to bio-based products (chemicals; materials, etc.), and their interrelations.
The main product developed in WP 5 is a harmonized sustainability requirements for bioeconomy value chains, including guidelines for methodologies to determine sustainability performance of bioeconomy value chains.
The main objectives of WP6 were to:
1) Provide a structured overview of all elements of economic and regulatory frameworks that relate to the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass at different levels of governance across Europe (i.e. local, regional and pan-European),
2) to develop coherent policy guidelines (with a set of indicators) that will allow policy makers from the respective levels of policy determination to quickly appreciate the support frameworks that exist and the most efficient ways to apply them for the future use of biomass in a sustainable manner.
The main product delivered by WP6 is a a database on EU and national level, for all 37 counties European countries, and policy guidelines in relation to the mobilization of sustainable non-food biomass for the biobased economy.
The main objective of WP7 was to:
1) Define the optimal pathways (by employing the RESOLVE model ) towards a low-carbon bio-based economy that focuses on stimulating the prioritised biomass applications from 2020 up to 2030.
The main product delivered by WP7 includes a full quantification and specification of biomass consumption levels in different scenarios for the bioeconomy development towards 2030.
The main objective of WP8 was to:
1) Develop a vision, strategies, implementation plans and an R&D roadmap for the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstocks at pan-European level.
The main products delivered by WP8 are strategies to achieve the Vision Statement including the goals, identifying policy and regulatory priorities in the short, medium and longer term as well as appropriate implementation plans at Pan European and regional level. The strategies & the implementation plans are tailored to different levels of governance (including regional and specific local ones linked to a set of case studies) and industrial sectors.
The main objectives of WP 9 were to:
1) engage stakeholders and implement a set of representative case studies to ensure that the Strategies, Roadmaps and the S2BIOM Toolset (SRT) will be offered to Member States, Associated and neighbouring countries in a sufficient number of regions for testing and validation
2) validate the Strategies, Roadmaps and the Toolset from the users’ point of view (i.e. Member States, Associates and neighbouring countries, regional authorities, industries),
3) gather further factual data from case studies and countries for WPs 1,3, and 6 and to support the ex-ante impact assessment
The main objectives of WP 10 were to:
1) Ensure effective cooperation with existing initiatives, design and perform an appropriate information campaign for the wide dissemination of the project activities and outputs among stakeholders
2) exploit project results
The main objectives of WP 11 were to:
1) To lead, facilitate, coordinate and ensure the execution of the project in close and positive cooperation between the project partners to achieve the project goals, outputs and deliverables. FNR as consortium leader is the responsible body and contact point with the European Commission and Imperial College, as the Scientific Coordinator will provide the scientific capacity, knowledge and quality assurance.
2) Formalise the project cooperation, to conclude a consortium agreement and to govern the Grant Agreement
a. Ensure internal communication and coordination
b. supervise financial accounting an subcontracting
c. ensure scientific coordination of human resources, approaches, modelling and tools
d. provide project reporting to the European Commission
1 S2BIOM main results beyond the state of the art
In this chapter the main results of the project are presented. They are presented according to the same structure the project has. First Theme 1 results on data and tools are discussed. This is then followed by theme 2 results on strategies and roadmaps produced using the findings of Theme 1 to develop a Vision, Strategies and an R&D roadmap for the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstock at local, regional and pan European level. The last sections discuss the theme 3 results that focusses on validation and project outreach. This was done through selected case studies which captured the different scales of applications for biomass supply chains in more than 15 regions across the Europe.
1.2 Main results achieved in Theme 1 on data and tools for the delivery and sustainable use of lignocellulosic biomass in Europe
1.3 Atlas & databases for sustainable biomass cost supply in Europe
1.3.1 Aim of S2Biom research:
• Validate, update and improve the recent (2010-2012) datasets of BEE and Biomass Futures projects on types and quantities of sustainable lignocellulosic biomass potentials at NUTS2 disaggregation level for EU.
• Use BEE harmonised methodological approach for biomass assessments to update respective information for EU and further estimate consistent data for the Western Balkans, Moldova, Ukraine and Turkey.
• Use and further develop CEUBIOM & BEE methodologies to generate spatially explicit data on biomass supply on large scale and by integrating LIDAR data on local scale.
Key output: Provision of comprehensive biomass cost supply data across fifty (50) lignocellulosic feedstock types from forestry, agriculture and wastes for 37 countries at NUTS2 & NUTS 3 geographic disaggregation levels.
More information on:
The first time users start using the toolset they have to create their own user account by clicking on the top right tab ‘Sign in’ and in the next menu on the tab ‘Create Account’. The account name and password is automatically created and all users creating an account are automatically registered in a registry database in the tool.
People can also use the following default sign-in details:
(can be downloaded in www.biomass-tools.eu click in menu ‘S2BOM Report downloads’)
• D1.1 Roadmap for regional end-users on how to collect, process, store and maintain biomass supply data
• D1.2 Draft of geoforced database
• D1.3 Draft of overview and description of relevant projects, sources and tools on biomass cost supply
• D1.4 Draft atlas with regional cost supply biomass potentials
• D1.5 Fully populated georeferenced database
• D1.6 Overview and description of relevant projects, sources and tools on biomass cost supply
• D1.7 Best practice guidelines on the maintenance and regular up-date of all the cost supply data
• D1.8 Atlas with regional (NUTS2/3) cost supply biomass potentials for EU; Western Balkans, Ukraine, Turkey and Moldova.
The report providing the most extensive description of how the cost supply data was assessed in S2BIOM per biomass type is D1.6 An overview of all cost-supply data results is presented in the S2BIOM Atlas D1.8. All data generated on cost-supply can be viewed in the S2BIOM toolset (www.biomass-tools.eu) in the biomass supply and cost supply viewing tools described in section 3.6 on computerized toolset.
1.3.2 Baseline from which the project started
Up to now, most of the recent research work on biomass availability and supply data has been driven by the high demand in the bioenergy and biofuels sectors. As the biobased economy evolves to cover a wider range of markets and end products it is important that future research and development work should carefully examine the synergies/ conflicts and interdependencies amongst the different feedstocks and develop coherent indicators for careful evaluation of their quantity and quality attributes and costs associated with their production/ collection.
Approach for biomass potentials: The most recent attempt to harmonise assumptions and provide a coherent methodology for biomass assessments in Europe has been in the framework of the Biomass Energy Europe (BEE) project (www.eu-bee.com/ ), which resulted (2010) in a set of harmonised methodologies for biomass resource assessments for energy purposes in Europe and its neighbouring countries in order to improve consistency, accuracy and reliability as well as serve the future planning towards a transition to renewable energy in the European Union itself.
Atlas on biomass feedstocks: The Biomass Futures project (http://www.biomassfutures.eu/ ) resulted (2012) in a coherent Atlas of sustainable biomass cost supply in EU27 with disaggregated data at NUTS2 level, for a variety of feedstocks including all lignocellulosic biomass types (from agriculture, forestry and waste sectors- including residual and cropped options). For the Atlas in combination with EEA (ETC-SIA) an assessment was also made of the sustainable potential and production cost for perennial biomass crops for EU-27. It estimated the potential on released land (assessed with the CAPRI model) in different scenarios taking account of sustainability criteria regarding no-go areas and minimal mitigation thresholds. This assessment was however only done using a limited suit of perennial crops (3 grassy crops and SRC willow) based on a limited number of EU wide field observations of attainable yields and costs.
Cost estimates: Estimates of biomass cost-supply for current and for different scenario situations in EU27 have been done in several projects of which an extensive inventory was made as part of BEE. In Biomass Futures, a further quantification of both cost and supply for current, 2020 and 2030 situation was also made from primary, secondary and tertiary resources from waste, forest and agriculture sector was made taking account of environmental constraints. As to the forest potential the Biomass Futures project build on the results from the EU-Wood project , but for the other sectors new quantified assessments were made. Also in the Bioboost (www.BioBoost.eu ) project costs of lignocellulosic biomass sources in EU have been determined.
Regional coverage: The most recent datasets for lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks include only detailed analysis for the EU Member States. Still even the EU related assessments for lignocellulosic energy crop species were still fragmented and included only a limited number of species. Additionally, for the other countries covered in S2Biom (Western Balkans, Moldova, Ukraine and Turkey) only fragmented efforts and studies existed that do not of course use the most recent methodological concepts and tools.
Baseline from which the S2BIOM project started: S2BIOM has built on biomass assessments that have been performed in Biomass Futures project which produced a coherent Atlas of sustainable biomass cost supply in EU with disaggregated data at NUTS2. It also took the BEE harmonised methodology for biomass resource assessments for energy purposes in Europe as a starting point for the analysis.
1.3.3 Progress beyond the state of the art
Atlas for biomass in Europe: The Biomass Futures Atlas has been refined as follows: a) it took full account of the BEE harmonised methodology and b) it included a higher number of lignocellulosic perennial crop species assessed for their suitability in the different agro-ecological zones of Europe and c) it has higher resolution level (NUTS3) for all lignocellulosic feedstocks under study, d) it used the most recent and at highest resolution available statistical sources from forest inventories and agricultural and waste statistics as a starting point for the biomass supply assessments and it used the most up-dated models and scenarios (CAPRI reference run and EFISCEN) to generate biomass supply estimates for future years (2020 and 2030). S2Biom focused on non-food lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks and provided improved and higher spatial and temporal resolution estimates for EU28 and expanded the regional coverage to include Western Balkans, Ukraine, Moldova and Turkey considering the appropriate sustainability and demand criteria. The latter are more relevant from the perspective of resource efficient use of biomass and from the perspective of novel conversion and pre-treatment technologies. Collaboration with recent FAO in the non-EU region (Western Balkans, Moldova, Ukraine and Turkey) took place by i) inclusion in the partnership of a representative range of partners and national experts as well as CEI which represents most of these countries at policy level, ii) building on the recent research work in the region in the field of biomass resource assessments performed by the Scientific coordinator, Imperial College and University of Freiburg, iii) direct involvement in the Policy and Industrial Advisory Committee of the FAO responsible for the forest research work in the region and iv) extensive stakeholder consultations.
Remote sensing and spatial analysis: Furthermore, the project developed new approaches to making more accurate and spatially detailed estimates of biomass resources especially from forests. Attention has been paid to gap filling of biomass resources for which accurate estimates have not been produced until now.
The involvement of integrated spatial assessment techniques and crop growth simulation, activity based costing models and environmental impact models combining statistical, economic, bio-physical and environmental information. This innovative approach facilitated the development of optimal land allocation maps (GIS) for lignocellulosic crops and enabled prioritization at regional level.
1.4 Industrial conversion pathways for lignocellulosic biomass in Europe
1.4.1 Aim of S2Biom research
• To identify and extensively characterize existing and future non-food biomass conversion technologies for energy and bio-based products.
• To develop a standardized methodology according to which the different lignocellulosic biomass categories need to be characterized.
• To assess the optimal match of biomass categories of different quality with the existing and future non-food biomass conversion technologies.
1.4.2 Key outputs
• A conversion technology database was developed with, describing the characteristics of fifty two (52) key biomass conversion technologies in detail.
• A biomass characteristics database was developed, describing the characteristics of fifty five (55) key lignocellulosic biomass types in detail.
• A methodology was developed to find the optimal match between different types of biomass and conversion technologies, based on both their characteristics.
• This methodology was implemented in the Bio2Match tool, by which a user can establish which technologies match with which types of biomass, based on the collected information (databases) and the matching methodology.
1.4.3 Key deliverables
• D2.1: A method for standardized biomass characterization and minimal biomass quality requirement for each biomass conversion technology.
• D2.2: A selection method to match biomass types with the best conversion technologies.
• D2.3: Database of conversion technologies.
• D2.4: Database for standardized biomass characterization.
The technologies covered in the database D2.4 can be classified in 6 main categories: treatment in subcritical water, syngas platform, gasification technologies, fast pyrolysis, direct combustion of solid biomass, chemical pretreatment, biochemical hydrolisis and fermentation and anearobic digestion. A further description of the biomass conversion technologies database is given in D2.3. The method developed in S2BIOM for minimal biomass quality requirement for each biomass conversion technology is described in D2.1 and D2.2.
In the underneath table an overview is provided of all technologies included in the conversion technologies database. To access the detailed technology characterization sheets in de database click on the technology number in the last column of the table. To return to the overview table again click on the return arrow.
The data included in the D2.4 database are not only feeding the Bio2Match tool (See also Section 3.6) but also the BeWhere and the LocaGIStics tools (see Section 3.5 and 3.6).
1.4.4 Baseline from which the project started
Biomass conversion technologies (including bio-refineries) form the essential link between the different available lignocellulosic biomass sources with their wide range of properties and the different identified end uses and markets. The European biorefinery sector will evolve from established biorefinery operations for products like food, biofuels, paper and board, to a broader, more mature sector. In 2030 biorefineries will use a wider range of feedstocks and will produce a greater variety of end-products than today.
Each conversion technology has specific biomass input requirements (i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin content, moisture content, minerals like chlorine, particle size etc.), while the quality of biomass differs largely between the different biomass types, harvest and drying techniques, and pre-treatment technologies. Obviously, some biomass types can be used in many different technology options, while others are hard to process or will need extensive pre-treatment. In Bio2Match tool the user can easily obtain this information for every biomass conversion technology combination included.
The project describes the state of art of a wide range of existing and future (up to 2030) conversion technologies and build among others on EU projects like EMPYRO, Supra-Bio, SuperMethanol, BioCoup, Bioliquids-CHP, BioSynergy, Optima, Sector, BioBoost, etc.
In the process of creating the database it was ensured to take up the technologies relevant for producing the products described in the product market combinations (WP7) and that were the basis for assessing 2020 and 2030 biomass demand and consumption levels (see Section 3.10). Much attention was also paid in evaluating all technologies to the technology readiness levels and the current and expected market situation for these products.
1.4.5 Progress beyond the state of the art
In this project a database and method was developed to match the available non-food lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks with the most suitable conversion technologies, considering the pyramid of end use applications (materials, chemicals, fuels, energy). The method was built on the available information on the specifications from the various conversion technologies and on the biomass characteristics. An analytic tool was developed (Bio2Match) for viewing the characteristics of conversion technologies and guiding the user to find the optimal match between biomass sources of a certain quality with pre-treatment and conversion technologies.
By implementing the use of a “value chain” concept, a key gap that was covered is the systems integration of different technologies with different functions across the value chain such as densification, pre-processing, intermediates production and production and use of final energy vectors. Without such a representation, technologies are considered in isolation and it is very hard to identify the most promising technologies without understanding their role in the overall bio-based system.
European projects R&D and demonstration projects have investigated a wide variety of conversion pathways including those of heat & power, advanced (lignocellulosic) biofuels, biorefinery and bio-based products. Many of these projects have concluded that the techno-economic viability and/or sustainability could not be achieved yet. Important arguments were among others the difficulty to gather larger amounts of suitable and sustainable feedstock, at the envisaged location for acceptable cost. A variety of concepts like supply of energy crops, biomass hubs at central locations or several decentral pre-treatment plants towards an high energy density energy carrier which is then transported to a large scale facility for final processing have been developed. Common to all of them is the targeting of single issues in the supply chain.
In the case of biofuels both essential conversion technologies towards advanced biofuels like the fermentation of lignocellulosic feedstock to alcohols or gasification followed by synthesis to gasoline, DME or diesel demand large scale processing plants which are difficult to supply with feedstock of acceptable costs and good environmental performance from local or regional sources. Year-round availability, feedstock quality, flexibility and variability of the processes are further important issues not sufficiently solved yet. Similar gaps are associated to cofiring plants, the supply of CHP`s or biorefineries.
The information that was brought together by the S2Biom partners in both this work package and in work packages 1, 2 and 3 on biomass availability, conversion technologies and logistics are readily accessible in the form of tools and direct database access. In this way a stakeholder in the bioeconomy can easily obtain crucial information about the entire value chain that he or she envisages. The biomass characteristics and conversion technology information that was collected and made available in this work package (easily accessible via databases and the Bio2Match tool) provides a central and indispensable part of these potential value chains.
In this way S2Biom provides tools that allow for an optimized exploitation of existing feedstock sources across borders and frontiers as well as allowing local communities to identify domestic sustainable feedstocks and opportunities for their local conversion with added value for the local communities in form of jobs, income and secure renewable energy provision.
1.5 Tools to evaluate promising logistics supply chains at local, regional and pan- European levels that will further inform the elaboration of implementation plans.
1.5.1 Aim of S2Biom research
The efficiency at which lignocellulosic biomass feedstock can be used for producing biobased (including bioenergy) services is very important. In this respect biomass feedstock poses a real logistical challenge as the quality and handling characteristics, and often also moisture content of biomass often restrict the available options for efficient logistics and of efficient conversion into bio-energy, biofuels, biochemicals and biobased products. The various factors that affect biomass feedstock quality for thermal and biochemical conversion need to be optimized through the optimal design of sustainable biomass feedstock supply chains.
1.5.2 Key outputs
An integrated logistical toolset was built and applied to design and assess the logistics of lignocellulosic biomass values chains. This toolset is based on i) a newly designed logistical component database, ii) a formal description of logistical concepts that were identified in various EU-projects (like Bioboost, Biomass Trade Centers, LogistEC, Europruning and INFRES) and iii) both new and existing logistical assessment models (BeWhere, LocaGIStics and Witness Truck Transport Logistics). The integrated toolset was used to perform three regional case studies (Burgundy, Aragon and the Province of Central Finland) aimed at optimizing the logistics. Furthermore, an analysis was performed mainly with the BeWhere model to assess logistics on the national and EU level. These case studies show the importance of applying a variety of logistical concepts like an optimal combination of biomass types, multi-assortment collection systems, densification (pelletizing), biocommodities, intermediate collection points and small-scale versus large-scale conversion. However, it is recommended to always perform a dedicated regional assessment when setting up new projects, since there are many regional differences that influence the optimal set-up of a logistical chain.
1.5.3 Key deliverables
• D3.1 & D3.3 Database containing a description of about 230 logistical components.
• D3.2 Theoretical description of 6 main logistical concepts combining these logistical components.
• D3.5 A stepwise approach using an integrated toolset containing:
o a new tool to assess regional logistical biomass chains, called LocaGIStics;
o an existing tool, called BeWhere, aimed at the national and EU-level;
o a new detailed simulation model for woody biomass chains, called Witness Truck Transport Logistics;
• D3.4 & D3.6 Three regional case studies assessing various logistical concepts.
1.5.4 Baseline from which the project started
a) Ash content and –composition - Many biomass feedstocks contain larger amounts of inorganic components (generally referred to as ash) compared to the clean wood fuels that are currently being mobilised and used for (co-)firing. In addition, the composition of the ashes is such that the biomass fuels exhibit a poor quality for thermal combustion or gasification, as they lead to a relatively low ash melting point. It is anticipated that a larger number of biomass feedstocks will become suitable for energy conversion, if they first pass through a decentralised pre-treatment process e.g. at biomass hubs.
b) Heterogeneity of feedstocks - Many available biomass feedstocks are currently not used for energy conversion, as they are very heterogeneous in nature, which makes the large-scale conversion in energy conversion systems expensive. Thus, heterogeneous feedstocks are either not used for conversion, or they need to undergo costly pre-treatment, such as size reduction (milling), screening, and/or pelletisation. This makes the conversion of low cost biomass feedstocks often economically unfeasible.
c) Fragmented supply chains - In combination with the two previous quality aspects (ash quality, heterogeneity), the fragmented availability of many biomass feedstocks often leads to biomass feedstocks not being used for energy conversion, combustion for electricity generation. The fragmented supply results in high costs for collection and transportation, whereas it is often not feasible to develop optimized supply chain systems for every biomass feedstock. Although fragmented supply is an intrinsic quality of biomass, it is envisioned that decentral pre-treatment facilities that can accept a much wider group of biomass feedstock will also incur lower feedstock cost, for these fragmented feedstocks.
1.5.5 Progress beyond the state of the art
Logistics in an integrated value chain framework: The integration of new logistics concepts (e.g. storage and pre-treatment at intermediate biomass hubs) together with emerging near-farm pre-processing and densification technologies (e.g. pelletisation to produce bio- commodities) in an optimisation framework will facilitate the identification of new logistics systems. This will reduce the issues around trading off economies of scale in conversion with the logistics costs of feedstock supply, which have hampered the emergence of the bioenergy system to date.
A comprehensive list of properties of logistical components was drawn up based on the expert knowledge and experience of the partners in WP3 (see also D3.1). These properties were divided in the following groups: general, technical, biomass input specifications, biomass output specifications, financial and economic and other. Then an overview was given of different main categories of logistical components. For each of these main categories further subcategories were given. This way a standardised method was developed that could be used to store information about logistical components that were found in literature, in European and national projects, through a market inventory and through consultation with scientific and industrial stakeholders. After two rounds of entering logistical components in the database, a total of 230 data records were present (see D3.3). The majority of records can be found in the main category comminution (size reduction), followed by transportation and harvesting/collecting. The other main categories feedstock handling, storage, drying and compaction are only little represented.
A logistical concept is broader and more general than a specific biomass value chain. A chosen logistical concept always still needs to be further specified and translated to obtain a specific biomass value chain (specify all the components). Often several possible biomass value chains fit within that general logistical concept. Several EU research projects are dealing with the logistics of biomass value chains. Examples were described of biomass value chains that were studied in these projects and that could be relevant for description of logistical concepts within the S2BIOM project. This led to the identification of the following logistical concepts that were assessed on their advantages and disadvantages (see D3.2):
• pre-treatment (e.g. comminution and densification) integrated with harvesting/collecting versus stand-alone pre-treatment later on in the biomass value chain;
• indirect supply to the final conversion location through biomass yards (often in combination with intermediate storage and pre-treatment) versus direct supply from road-side;
• multi-modal transport (combination of different transport types) versus only one transport modality (road, water, rail);
• European/world-wide biomass value chains based on standardized biocommodities (e.g. wood pellets, ethanol or pyrolysis oil) versus regional biomass value chains based on locally sourced ‘raw’ biomass;
• ‘light’ pre-treatments (like comminution, densification, drying, etc.) and/or storage at a de-central (at road site), intermediate (at biomass yard) or central (at conversion site) location;
• ‘intensive’ pre-treatments like (catalytic-) pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonisation, torrefaction in decentral plants with feedstock capacities up to several 100,000 t/a, efficient energy carrier transport (by railway) to central plants for upgrading to final energy product;
• many small-scale conversion plants versus only one large-scale conversion plant to meet product demand.
Three logistical assessment methods have been integrated in the toolset (see also Section 3.6) for assessments in the logistical case studies (see D3.5) viz.:
• BeWhere for the European & national level;
• LocaGIStics for the Burgundy and Aragón case study at the regional level;
• Witness simulation model for the Finnish case at the regional level .
BeWhere and LocaGIStics have been closely interlinked so that LocaGIStics can further refine and detail the outcomes of the BeWhere model and the BeWhere model can use the outcome of the LocaGIStics model to modify their calculations if needed. The relationship between BeWhere and LocaGIStics in the S2Biom project is given in the figure below.
Relation between BeWhere and LocaGIStics.
The Witness simulation model was only used for the Finnish case study. The Truck Transport Logistics -simulation model was compiled in Witness simulation software and combined with an Excel-spreadsheet environment. This enabled us to study the transport logistics of timber trucks from roadside storages to end-use facilities.
The logistical cases studies in WP3 follow a practical stepwise approach for the design and implementation of optimal sustainable biomass delivery chains as was described in D3.5. The logistical stepwise approach was used as basis for the development of a set of tools within WP4. A case based approach was followed, where optimal logistical concepts or conceptual designs were matched with the specific situation in three logistical case studies in cooperation with WP9 ‘Regional adaptation & application, user integration, testing, validation and implementation planning’. The chosen advanced regional case studies are (see D3.4+D3.6):
1. Small-scale power production with straw and Miscanthus in the Burgundy region (France)
2. Large-scale power production with straw and with woody biomass in the Aragon region (Spain)
3. Advanced wood logistics in the Province of Central Finland
Data on biomass availability (WP1) and technical demand specifications (WP2) in combination with data on logistical components and concepts (WP3) have been used to provide guidelines for the case study partners in WP9 to construct relevant cases. These advanced regional case studies can be seen as an example for most regions in the EU-27.
1.6 S2Biom computerised toolset
1.6.1 Aim of S2Biom research
Develop a user friendly computerised tool enabling easy access and integrated use of the SRT material developed in this project
1.6.2 Key outputs
An open access online computerised toolset. which facilitates the evaluation of optimal biomass delivery chains at European, national, regional and local scale and informs the development of strategies for best ways to realise a biobased economy.
1.6.3 Key deliverables
D4.1 Draft structure of the database
D4.2 Draft structure of the general user interface (GUI)
D4.3 Fully populated database including all data accumulated in the project and used by the tools included in the Toolset
D4.4 Final version of data viewer, download and analysis tool for biomass cost-supply
D4.5 Final version of tool for viewing characteristics of technologies and matching biomass to pre-treatment and conversion technologies
D4.6 Final Tool for viewing market demand and policies for biomass for bioenergy and biobased products
D4.7 Validated tool for optimal design and evaluation of biomass delivery chains and network s at national and Pan-European scale
D4.8 Validated tool for optimal design and evaluation of biomass delivery chains at regional and local scale
D4.9 Comprehensive general user interface (GUI) that integrates different existing and new tools and datasets
D4.10 A full technical description of the integrated toolset, central database and general user interface developed
D4.11 A user guide for the integrated toolset, central database and general user interface (GUI)
1.6.4 Baseline from which the project started
Most tools developed till the beginning of the S2Biom project provided understanding and support in setting up biomass delivery chains by addressing and facilitating one of the many aspects that need to be addressed when setting up a biomass delivery chain. The facilitation on both the design of a biomass delivery chain and the assessment of the biomass delivery chain impacts in terms of spatial, environmental and economic implications had also already been integrated then in the BeWhere and the ME4 tools. These provide a very complete support to end-users, but are now still only applicable to a limited number of biomass delivery chains. Both tools work on a different scale as ME4 only does regional level designs and assessments and was developed for the Netherlands only and BeWhere works at national and EU wide scale.
1.6.5 Progress beyond the state of the art
In S2Biom both BeWhere and the ME4 tools have been used as a basis for further work to ensure local, regional and national level coverage options. The current tools can be applied at the moment to a limited number of conversion technologies but in the framework of the project they were further developed for covering:
• a broader territory at local, regional and national level and a wider number of conversion technologies- expanding to bio-based products
• including pre-treatment and logistical concepts such a hubs and yards taking account of the up-dated and improved biomass cost-supply (from WP1),
• sustainability constraints and resource efficient optimisation (from WP5)
• demand from markets and influenced by policies (from WP7) and
• end-user requirements (WP9) for such an integrated tool.
The S2Biom toolset provides functionalities which include:
• Display and download of all parameters contained in the databases and generated in the different WPs related to the delivery of sustainable non-food biomass feedstocks in Europe.
• Provision of selection and conversion functionality to choose and switch units/currencies, select desired biomass feedstocks, zoom in desired areas and perform simple user-weighted analyses of the sustainability of the quantities shown in a variety of units exceeding energy and related to the biobased products as well (e.g. tonnes dry mass, tonnes/ha, kJ, in €/tonne d.m. €/GJ).
• Quantified and objectively scaled sustainability performance of the biomass supply in relation to key sustainability criteria
• In addition, a general user interface (GUI) has been developed to provide easy use and access through the internet to all the strategies, roadmaps and tools developed within this project. It also enables linking the output generated by one tool as the input for the assessment of another tool.
A schematic overview of the original design of the S2Biom toolset is presented in the following figure.
Overview of Toolset developed in S2Biom
The resulting toolset GUI (General User Interface) looks as follows:
Subviews and description of content of the S2BIOM toolset are summarized in the following:
General data: Under this item the following output is included:
1) Scenarios developed in the project and information on these with links to relevant reports which are opened from the S2BIOM data directory
2) Biomass demand provides access to information in the form of text and through links which can be opened according to user selections.
3) In the Regulatory & financial frameworks information is provided in text, through links to open documents from the S2BIOM data directory and by providing access to a separate tool ‘S2Biom policy database’ which is available at an external server hosted by VITO: https://s2biom.vito.be/. It is a catalogue of policy instruments and measures, information on the regulatory and financial frameworks impacting bioeconomy development throughout Europe. For each policy measure / instrument, information is provided on a set of descriptive criteria. These are displayed in the form of factsheets.
Under the item ‘Biomass chain data’ access is provided to all data included in the central S2BIOM database and this is accessed interactively through several viewing tools (see also view above):
1) The Biomass supply viewer tool enables the user to make selections of biomass types for which data can be displayed in a map in relation to amount of biomass available per year and potential type combination. The user can select the regional level, the year and the different types of potentials. In addition the user can also choose the level entities in absolute levels (Kton dm or TJ), area weighted (Kton dm/km2 or GJ/km2) and weighted average road side cost (€/ton dm)..The viewer contains information on 56 types of biomass, at various NUTS levels and for 2 to 9 types of potentials. The biomass types are divided into 9 categories with 15 subcategories.
2) The Biomass cost-supply viewer enables the user to make selections of biomass types for which cost levels can be displayed in a cost-supply graph. The graph displays the total accumulated biomass (ordered from cheap to expensive) against the average road side cost level for the country/countries and scenario years selected. The amount of biomass is displayed on the y-axis and the road side cost level on the x-axis.
3) The Biomass cost-supply (Imports) provides cost-supply data on imports and can be viewed in this part of the toolset, and the data can also be downloaded in excel table format.
4) The Biomass properties database includes additional values per type of biomass in relation to the physical and chemical composition of the biomass and meta information on the way and sources from where the composition information is derived. The compositional data on the biomass are crucial for the biomass matching tool explained
5) Through the Conversion technologies viewing tool users can access the database on lignocellulosic biomass conversion technologies characteristics. The data included in this database are feeding the Bio2Match, the BeWhere and the LocaGIStics tools all accessible via the main menu in this toolset under 'Tools'.
6) The logistical components viewing tool provides information on logistical components as storage, pre-treatment and transportation technologies that are available to handle biomass are accumulated in the logistics table and related tables. The related tables are domain tables to store possible values for selected attributes. There are 220 logistic components stored inside the database, but their number is still growing.
7) In the Value chain sustainability tab information is provided on the sustainability framework for criteria and indicators for biomass delivery chains elaborate in WP5 of the project.
In the ‘Tools’ tab the more integrative and advanced assessment tools developed in the project are placed.
There are 3 tools included:
1) Bio2Match tool: It provides support to users in finding the best match between a certain type of biomass with specific characteristics as specified in the cost-supply database (WP 1) and the conversion technologies (WP2). Detailed user instruction for the Bio2Match viewing tool are provided in Chapter 5 of this report. The database for the Bio2Match tool consist of the 3 databases described in the former, additional information on the physical and chemical composition of the biomass and an additional knowledge database providing the rules according to which a biomass type matches with a biomass conversion technology and/or with a pre-treatment technology to adapt the physical composition of the biomass to the requirements of a specific conversion technology.
2) BeWhere model output viewing tool: This tool supports the presentation of the assessment results performed in S2BIOM with the BeWhere model. BeWhere model supports the development of EU-wide and national strategies to design and evaluate an optimal network of biomass delivery chains. The basis of this tool is a techno-economic spatial model that enables the optimal design and allocation of biomass delivery chains (at national level) based on the minimization of the cost and emissions of the full supply chain taking account economies of scale, in order to meet certain demand (as assessed in WP 7 (see also menu ‘General data’ -→ ‘Biomass demand’.).
3) LocaGIStics tool: This tool enables the user to design and evaluate biomass delivery chains. The locaGIStics tool was developed as a results of the work done in WP3 to develop a formalised stepwise approach for the implementation of optimal logistical concepts adapted to specific regional circumstances. The LocaGIStics tool has been made operational for 2 regions in Europe: Burgundy and Spain.
In the tab ‘S2BIOM report download’ users can find and download all S2BIOM reports.
The last tab ‘Data downloads’ the user can download all data files and country reports for all 37 countries covered in the S2BIOm project. The downloads include excel files with the biomass cost-supply data at country level (Nuts 3 data) for the different potentials and years, the country specific data on policies contained in the policy database, road maps for lignocellulosic biomass and relevant policies for a biobased economy in 2030 and factsheets per country benchmarking the country policy options for long term mobilization of biomass for the biobased economy.
1.7 Main results achieved in Theme 2 on strategies and roadmaps for the sustainable delivery of lignocellulosic biomass in Europe
1.8.1 Aim of S2Biom research
Provide clarity - for industry, investors and other stakeholders - on sustainability requirements for the different value chains addressed in the project and to support the future development of an agreed methodology for the calculation of environmental footprints, e.g. using life cycle assessments
1.8.2 Key outputs
Harmonized sustainability requirements for bioeconomy value chains, including guidelines for methodologies to determine sustainability performance.
1.8.4 Key deliverables
D5.1 Report on benchmark and gap analysis of criteria and indicators (C&I) in legislation, regulations and voluntary schemes at international, European and MS level
D5.2 Report on final version of Environmental Footprint methods for non-food biomass supply chains
D5.3 Summary report on how sustainability aspects of introducing bioeconomy value chains are currently considered
D5.4 Report on consistent sustainability requirements for bioeconomy value chains, including guidelines for harmonized methodologies to determine sustainability performance
D5.5 Guidelines on assessing bioeconomy value chain sustainability performance
1.8.6 Baseline from which the project started
The sustainability of bioenergy has been a key issue in the formation of the legally binding criteria of the RED and FQD since 2005, but EU legislation at the start of S2Biom (2013) only addressed biofuels and liquid bioenergy carriers. Since 2008, several communications from the Commission and EU-funded projects and studies (4FCrops, BioBench, BiomassFutures, BioTop, Crops2Industry, EEA and JRC reports), as well as national (e.g. by Austria, Germany, Sweden, The Netherlands, UK) and international bodies (IEA, IEA Bioenergy, FAO, GBEP, UNEP, among others) broadened the view to cover the sustainability of all bioenergy, with a respective report (including possibly a proposal for regulation) of the Commission pending. Further work in the EU and beyond began addressing the sustainability of the overall biomass use for non-food purposes, i.e. including biomaterials, and biorefineries. As a part of that, significant improvement of knowledge on the sustainability issues of forest bioenergy has been achieved in various fora both within the EU, and internationally, but also questions such as the carbon neutrality of forest bioenergy and biodiversity impacts of intensified extraction of agricultural and forestry residues are still controversial.
Thus, there has been no consensus or harmonised approach on how to “frame” the sustainability of the bioeconomy, neither in its environmental nor its economic dimension, and adequate considerations of social aspects such as access to land and water, and food security are lacking, especially regarding feedstock provision impacts in developing countries.
1.8.7 Progress beyond the state of the art
S2Biom has built on the existing knowledge available on the Member State and EU levels, integrated the JRC capabilities on the sustainability domain as well as the international domain (through IEA Bioenergy, and GBEP), collected and compiled respective approaches especially regarding the broader biobased economy, and has developed integrated sustainability criteria for bioeconomy value chains based on lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, guidelines for harmonized methodologies to measure and assess respective impacts have been suggested and included in the project toolset. Emphasis has been given to the environmental and social dimensions, while economic issues will be addressed more broadly.
1.9 Economic and regulatory framework for the biobased economy in Europe
1.9.1 Aim of S2Biom research
Provide a structured overview of all elements of economic and regulatory frameworks that relate to the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass at different levels of governance across Europe (i.e. local, regional and pan-European), and to develop coherent policy guidelines (with a set of indicators) that will allow policy makers from the respective levels of policy determination to quickly appreciate the support frameworks that exist and the most efficient ways to apply them for the future use of biomass in a sustainable manner.
1.9.2 Key outputs
A database on EU and national level, for all thirty-seven (37) counties analysed in the S2Biom project, and policy guidelines in relation to the mobilization of sustainable non-food biomass for the biobased economy.
1.9.3 Key deliverables
D6.1 Database on EU level and national level regulatory and economic framework in relation to the mobilization of sustainable non-food biomass for the biobased economy.
D6.2 Report on benchmarking of country policy approaches.
D6.3 Report on policy options, with a discussion of pros, cons, points of attention and guidelines.
D6.4 Advisory document on fields of cooperation and potential synergies between countries and at international level.
1.9.5 Baseline from which the project started
The biobased economy is considered as one of the key elements to achieve a smart and green Europe (EU 2020 Strategy; Bioeconomy Strategy to 2030, etc.). To develop a bioeconomy for energy, fuels and biobased products several challenges need to be addressed, e.g. the competing uses of biomass, and securing a reliable and sustainable supply of biomass feedstock. Over the last decade, various policies in the form of regulations, financing and information provision mechanisms have been put in place to tackle some of these challenges. But we also must consider that various policies (e.g. in relation to agriculture, forestry, waste, environment, energy, trade) on EU, national and regional level exist and are also playing a role in the future implementation of bioeconomy. Some may be contradictory and cause confusion and market barriers, thereby prohibiting the efficient development of the bioeconomy.
The sustainability of bioenergy has been legally addressed in the RED and FQD by establishing mandatory criteria, especially for GHG emissions, biodiversity, and carbon stocks, but these regulations are restricted to biofuels and liquid bioenergy carriers . Important other sustainability issues such as access to land and water, food security etc. are subject only to reporting requirements by economic operators, and the Commission.
Regarding to the non-EU countries under study in the project, it is worth mentioning that in October 2012, Energy Community contracting parties adopted the obligation to implement RED Directive. However, Contracting Parties did not develop specific policies or targets for biomass yet, and there are no specific policies on sustainability of production and use of biomass as well.
1.9.6 Progress beyond the state of the art
Within the EU Member States there is a clear need to give a structured overview of which regulatory and economic frameworks exist at different levels, to benchmark the effectiveness of different approaches and develop coherent policy guidelines to support the sustainable development of the biobased economy.
At the same time, for Western Balkans, Ukraine, Moldova and Turkey it is very important to develop a biomass and biofuels policy that is aiming at fulfilling the EU requirements and more importantly, to provide the emerging bioenergy sector with regulations required for their sustainable growth and performance.
1.10 Integrated Assessment-Optimisation of biomass supply chains to satisfy the demand
1.10.1 Aim of S2Biom research
Define the optimal pathways (by employing the RESolve model ) towards a low-carbon bio-based economy that focuses on stimulating the prioritised biomass applications from 2020 up to 2030.
1.10.2 Key outputs
Integrated cross sector modelling to understand to what extent the additional biomass demand for chemicals and materials could be sufficiently significant to:
- influence lignocellulosic biomass prices and
- induce scarcity and competition issues with energy and fuel applications.
1.10.3 Key deliverables
D7.1 Extensive description of scenarios in the S2Biom project
D7.2: Market analysis for lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock for bioenergy, biobased chemicals & materials in Europe; A quantitative estimate of biomass demand in 2020 and 2030
D7.3: Integrated Assessment of biomass supply chains and conversion routes under different scenarios
1.10.4 Baseline from which the project started
Several integrated assessments on the role of biomass for energy have been conducted in the past decade or so. Integrated assessment models such as TIAM, Green-X and RESolve-Biomass have analysed the role of biomass in the future energy system in various levels of detail. However, a more in-depth system analysis of the possible role of biobased chemicals and materials, and the interactions between energy and chemical/material routes was lacking.
1.10.5 Progress beyond the state of the art
• Scenarios reflecting realistic futures for lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock for biobased economy.
• A better indication of the role that biomass demand from biobased chemicals routes can generate in the period 2020-2030, and the corresponding biomass demand.
• A better understanding of the interactions between pathways for bioenergy and biochemical/materials: to what extent do they compete for resources, to what extent does feedstock limitation influence technology optima, and to what extent do synergies occur between e.g. biofuels and biochemical
• Further understanding of the policy dilemmas for all biobased routes, including e.g. biofuels. Particularly potential ambition levels for advanced biofuels were studied further, and related insights were translated into policy recommendations.
• Based on the S2Biom research and results from the Biomass Policies project (www.biomasspolicies.eu ), the resource and technology databases of RESolve-Biomass were expanded and updated.
1.11 Vision, strategies, implementation plans and an R&D roadmap
1.11.1 Aim of S2Biom research
Develop a vision, strategies, implementation plans and an R&D roadmap for the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstocks at pan-European level.
1.11.2 Key outputs
Vision for one billion tonnes dry lignocellulosic biomass to supply the biobased economy for 2030.
Strategies to achieve the Vision Statement including the goals, identifying policy and regulatory priorities in the short, medium and longer term as well as appropriate implementation plans at Pan European and regional level.
Thirty-seven country roadmaps with policy recommendations for the development of a lignocellulosic biobased economy by 2030.
1.11.3 Key deliverables
D8.1 Overview report on the current status of biomass for bioenergy, biofuels and biomaterials in EU, Western Balkans, Ukraine, Turkey and Moldova
D8.2 Vision document for the future development of the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstock at pan-European level
D8.3 Strategies and implementation plans identifying policy & regulatory priorities in the short, medium and longer term as well as appropriate implementation plans at Pan European and regional level
D8.4 Roadmap for sustainable biomass supply at pan European level in order to promote and develop environmentally desirable bio-based materials, power and fuels.
D8.5 Report on the ex-ante assessment of the key findings and recommended strategies of the project at pan-European and regional level
1.11.5 Baseline from which the project started
The setting up of a Vision for the uptake of biomass in EU has primarily taken place within the respective Technology Platforms (European Biofuels Technology Platform/ EBTP, Renewable Heating and Cooling Platform/ RHCP) and the most recent EC (http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy /pdf/201202_ innovating_sustainable_growth.pdf ) and industrial initiatives for the Biobased economy (http://www.cepi.org/node/653 )
Though the abovementioned initiatives have successfully set the path towards placing targets for energy, fuels and biobased products in Europe up to 2030, it is widely understood that the wide variety of supply & logistics value chains, the complex interactions of the key market sectors involved - especially expanding from bioenergy and biofuels to the bio-based economy- and the expectations from the advanced pathways, which when fully commercial will facilitate the success of the policy targets, fully justifies the development of a new, coherent and technically substantiated Vision with a respective R&D roadmap.
1.11.6 Progress beyond the state of the art
The S2Biom project has built on the above initiatives; further capitalised on all the project deliverables and developed a coherent and technically substantiated Vision with a respective R&D roadmap for the delivery of non-food sustainable biomass supply in Europe to meet the policy targets and the industrial demand for 2030.
To do this the work has also capitalised on the substantial involvement of a number of partners in the Technology Platforms (FNR holds the Secretariat of EBTP and is involved in the technical groups; Imperial College is the Scientific Coordinator of the Biomass Supply and Logistics working group in EBTP and VTT is the respective Scientific Coordinator of the Biomass Supply and Logistics working group in RHCP), the contribution of CEI and JRC as strategic institutional capacities for Southeast Europe and the European Commission respectively and the PPP for Biobased industry.
To ensure the project strategies and implementation plans are applicable at local level as well, the development of specific local ones is also foreseen as follows, linked to the case studies:
• Strategies with step plan from local renewable energy targets, local biomass availability, current initiative mapping, to action plan for policy development.
• National Roadmaps with policy recommendations & local biomass occurrence mapping details as they stem out of the S2Biom cost supply tool.
Finally, to ensure appropriate regional coverage in terms of strategies and policy formation, exchange of information, stakeholder involvement and input has taken place through the participation in the respective Energy Community Ministerial and technical meetings.
1.12 Main results achieved in Theme 3 on validation of project results and outreach
Theme 3 brought together the elements from Themes 1 & 2 and provided the framework for validation of the findings as well as the project outreach throughout its duration. This has been done through the engagement of stakeholders and implementation of a set of representative case studies to ensure that the Strategies, Roadmaps and Toolbox (SRT) has been offered to Member States, Associated and neighboring countries in a sufficient number of regions for testing and validation. This activity has also ensured effective cooperation with existing initiatives, designing and performing appropriate information campaigns for the wide dissemination of the project activities and outputs among stakeholders, and exploit project results.
The Consortium envisaged to implement Toolset testing and validation in order to ensure timely rectification of occasional bugs and early promotion of the Toolset among a selected panel of qualified stakeholders from the Academia and Industry.
Initially, the Consortium envisaged to organize two iterations of in this peer-reviewing exercise, involving a panel of about 25 experts, identified in the framework of stakeholders’ engagement activities. The latter having been redesigned quite significantly, Toolset testing and validation was reformulated. This actually proved beneficial, as the Consortium multiplied testing opportunities and performed punctual validation versus the detailed data provided by strategic case studies.
1.13.2 Key outputs
The Consortium implemented a series of webinars that have been devised so to provide a broad panel of recipients detailed insight into the functionalities of the Toolset, and guidance for the testing.
Moreover, the Consortium developed a comprehensive testing and validation questionnaire that has been submitted to partners that have implemented strategic case studies in order to validate the accuracy of the data included in the Toolset, and the usability of the latter.
1.13.3 Key deliverables
D9.5 Results of testing the available Tools with stakeholders; Summary of analysis and recommendations for improvements. Presentation of implementation of improvements to the online tool
1.13.4 Baseline from which the project started
The Consortium deemed necessary to envisage some kind of quality assurance in itinere in order to facilitate fine-tuning of the Toolset and de-bugging. Even though in a format, different from what originally planned, this objective has been reached through several iterations of public testing and a comprehensive validation exercise.
1.13.5 Progress beyond the state of the art
The Consortium implemented validation of the comprehensive and wide-ranging S2BIOM Toolset versus a series of models, developed locally and often providing very detailed information. This has prospected the (potential) opportunity to upscale S2BIOM into a meta-tool/platform, capable of interacting and integrating different tools.
1.14 Case studies
In the framework of T9.3 the S2BIOM Consortium implemented a comprehensive set of case studies at different regional scales for the most promising lignocellulosic biomass supply chains in EU28, Western Balkans and Ukraine. The aim of this exercise was twofold: on the one hand, case studies fed the Toolset with additional quantitative data, while on the other they complemented Strategies and Roadmaps with bottom-up information on the framework conditions in concrete regions.
Owing to the differences in the level of development of sustainable biomass value chains in the project area, the Consortium implemented two different sets of case studies:
a) Advanced Case Studies (ACS) focused on some of most advanced regions in Europe, where lignocellulosic biomass/residues are already valorized and, in a circular economy perspective, constitute value chains per se. ACS have been designed so to allow for fine-tuning S2BIOM tools by benchmarking with existing knowledge and data (including capitalization on previous and ongoing EU-funded projects).
b) Strategic Case Studies (SCS) have been envisaged so to allow the Consortium having better insight in areas with less (or less known) information on biomass quantities and relevant logistics, with particular regards to New Member States and Accession Countries (also in the perspective of fostering the potentials of Countries of the Danube Region).
1.14.2 Key Outputs
Different assumptions originated, apparently, in different methodology and scope, with ACS more focused on detailed assessments and optimization, and SCS concentrated on cross-verification of quantitative data and regional overviews
✓ 3 Advanced Case Studies performed in Burgundy (France), Central Finland and Miajadas (Spain)
⇒ Burgundy (FR): The case that was described originally in the LogistEC project (Gabrielle et al. 2015) focuses on the biomass crop Miscanthus. The case is about the small scale local production of Miscanthus pellets and the logistics are pretty simple: feedstock Miscanthus - harvesting as bales or chips - bales stored at the farm - and then transported to the pellet plant - where they are chipped and pelletized. The case in the LogistEC project does not include the further use of the pellets (yet) e.g. in a bioenergy power plant or in other applications. So it is only about producing intermediate products (pellets). Miscanthus pellets or chips may also be used for other purposes like animal bedding. Another application could be directly (without the pelletizing step) transporting the bales to a power plant with boilers that can burn bales directly.So the focus of the Burgundy case study within S2Biom is on Miscanthus and also on straw. For these types of feedstock the BeWhere model will tell us where there is a possibility to locate the (new) biomass conversion factory specifying the type of technology and size (in this case small scale combustion power plants). The case for BeWhere is to determine best solutions for satisfying the energy demand in Bourgogne in terms of cost and GHG efficiency based on overall energy (electricity demand) and local biomass availability in different scenarios. In order to make this assessment in BeWhere there is a need for detailed biomass potentials and electricity and heat demand.LocaGIStics will then take the information on the size and type of technology and assess how the organisation of the biomass delivery chain should look like in terms of logistical concepts, specifying e.g. alternative user defined locations for a conversion plant, and for intermediate storage and pre-treatment alternatives given different types and amounts of Burgundy biomass use, etc.
⇒ Aragon (ES): The case study Aragón has been developed in close cooperation with Forestalia Group. In 2016, Forestalia started the promotion of the Monzón, Zuera and Erla power plants. These facilities are located in the Region of Aragón and they are the main target of the case study here presented. They were scoped to be fed only by means of energy crops wood, but Forestalia Group is also interested in exploring the potential role of other biomass resources. For the present case, the fuel mix targeted consists of 70% energy crops and 30% agriculture residues. The aim of the case study consists of the definition of the area of supplying nearby the plants and the determination of the biomass cost at the plant gate for each feedstock and for every supply chain concept. Within this case study LocaGIStics was used for determining the feedstock potential and the supply cost of biomass at plant gate considering the three power plants together and separately. In first place, available potential of different agricultural residues has been obtained in order to select main feedstock options. Finally, the case study has been focused on two main biomass: straw and stalk from annual crops (winter cereals, summer cereals, sunflower) and wood from olive, fruit and vineyard plantations removal, both above ground and underground biomass. Then, for each feedstock option, different supply chains have been defined.
⇒ Finland: In the Finnish case study, saw logs, pulp wood and de-limbed energy wood stems were transported to end-use facilities. In total, 25 different timber assortments were included in the supply chain of this case. Currently, each timber assortment is transported as single-assortment loads to the end-use facility. Due to the small volume of individual assortments in a roadside storage, the timber trucks often have to collect timber from several roadside storages to obtain a full load. This kind of driving between piles at different roadside storages and setup times at these piles are relatively time consuming elements in the whole transport cycle. Therefore, a scenario with a multi-assortment load option was introduced to the case study. The multi-assortment load opportunity is only available for timber assortments, which are all transported to a same end-use facility. In the Finnish case study, the Witness simulation model included four trucks operating in Central Finland and supplying timber to 12 end-use facilities being eight saw mills, two pulp mills and two train loading terminals. A simulation run covered a period of one year. Each scenario was simulated by five stochastic repetitions and the average values of these five repetitions were used for calculating the result data of a certain scenario. Two simulation scenario sets were simulated in Finnish case study. The business as usual scenario corresponded to timber transports with the single-assortment load method, whereas the multi-assortment scenario included the multi-assortment load transports. Each simulation scenario was repeated five times and the averages of the five repetitions were used for comparing scenario results.
✓ 7 Strategic Case Studies have been performed in areas with lower biomass supply and logistics development, and relatively poor availability of data. SCS address wider, more strategic aspects, focusing also on the involvement of stakeholder groups. Toolset validation has been implemented in this context and the potentials to integrate S2BIOM Toolset with locally developed tools and models has been explored. SCS contributed to create valuable dissemination opportunities as well. SCS have been performed in the following areas:
⇒ Germany – Poland: Implemented by IUNG and SYNCOM, the SCS investigated the value chain of synthetic Biofuel production from wood and agricultural residues. IUNG determined the biomass potential of the regions in study area. The data have been compared with the biomass supply data generated by the S2Biom project. The data have been used by SYNCOM to run a value chain model developed by Fachhochschule Oberöstereich within a previous EU project.
⇒ Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia: Implemented by the Faculty of Technical Sciences of the University of Novi Sad (FTN), was designed so to provide in-depth insight in the potentials of lignocellulosic biomass in Vojvodina (Serbia), including an assessment of supply chains and logistics. Representing a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of a bio-ethanol plant in the region, this SCS has been used as a model to tailor the validation exercise. This assignment has been subcontracted to FTN owing to their thorough knowledge of the actual situation in the region and the extremely good connection with local stakeholders.
⇒ South-East Europe and Turkey: The SCS, implemented by CERTH, focused on the possibilities of implementing agrobiomass co-firing in existing and upcoming lignite-fired plants. It includes a regional overview of potentials, indicative costs for delivery for different supply chains, cost comparisons with alternative bioenergy options.
⇒ Slovenia: The SCS, implemented by SFI, aimed at assessing the availability of woody biomass to feed a district heating plant in the second largest city of Slovenia, Maribor. Besides the definition of the capture area and cost-supply, the SCS included the development of recommendations and interaction with the policymaking level.
⇒ Romania: Implemented by the Romanian Sustainable Energy Cluster (ROSENC), the SCS focused on the assessment of most promising types of biomass in the Western Romania. The assessment based on statistical data provided by Romania’s State Statistics Service, and previous studies, and it has been used to validate S2BIOM Toolset (less than 5% discrepancy). The SCS as well investigated solutions to promote access to the energy market. Notably, ROSEC is not a project partner and participated in this exercise on voluntary basis owing to the interest in developing synergies between an own developed optimization tool and S2BIOM Toolset.
⇒ Croatia: Implemented by SDEWES, the SCS investigated the potentials of biomass production on unused agricultural land for further utilization in CHP plants. The study pointed out that SRC could be a cost competitive option for the valorization of over 1mln ha unused agricultural land, with beneficial impact on emission reduction and job creation.
⇒ Ukraine: The SCS, implemented by REA, provides an assessment of most promising residues at country level, including primary and secondary agricultural residues, woody biomass, and energy crops. The SCS as well assesses existing barriers to the access of non-food biomass feedstock to the energy market, and suggests measures to foster mobilization and delivery at the local and national level.
Figure 1 Areas where S2BIOM implemented advanced and strategic case studies
1.14.3 Key deliverables
D9.4 and D9.5: In order to rationalize the reporting on activities implemented in Task 9.2 the Consortium opted for merging D9.4 “Results of testing the available Tools with stakeholders; Summary analysis of recommendations for improvements. Presentation of implementation improvements to the online tool. Report on stakeholder meeting” [interim] and D9.5 “Results of testing the available Tools with stakeholders; Summary analysis of recommendations for improvements. Presentation of implementation improvements to the online tool. Report on stakeholder meeting” [final].
The delivery of both reports has been postponed owing to the restructuring of stakeholder engagement activities, as agreed with the EC project officer. Moreover, the rescheduling allowed including the results of the testing and validation performed in case study areas, thus further broadening the scope of the report” D9.7 Summary analysis report of all case studies.
Similarly, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of the results of case study exercise, the Consortium opted for merging D9.6 “Compilation of all reports on the performance of case studies” and D9.7 “Summary analysis report of all case studies”, as agreed with the EC project officer during the final project meeting held in Bratislava on November 30, 2016.
While ensuring the same level of information and overall quality and completeness of the reporting, this rationalisation reduces overlapping and facilitates the appreciation of results achieved in the framework of T9.3.
1.14.4 Baseline from which the project started
The extension of the project area throughout the EU and beyond (Western Balkans, Ukraine, Moldova and Turkey) entailed considering very different levels of development in the area of biomass valorisation, and in particular concerning agricultural residues. Few leading regions in Europe clearly represent best practices, but there is a majority of areas where biomass use is erratic, sometimes insufficiently regulated and very often underestimated in its socio-economic potentials.
In addition to that, the Consortium was aware of the fact that it would have to compensate different levels of accuracy in available data, and - in particular, in the case of non-EU countries - different methodologies and units used for agricultural statistics. This made essential gaining local experts’ insight and support.
On the other hand, several previous and ongoing projects (EU-funded, bilateral and national) active in the same domain have produced valuable knowledge and data, on which S2BIOM capitalized to move research a step forward. This is particularly relevant in the case of advanced cases study regions, and for the population of databases that feed the Toolset.
1.14.5 Progress beyond the state of the art
Advanced case studies allowed gathering additional quantitative data from areas that had not so detailed coverage. Moreover, they fed Theme 2 with information on policy frameworks and development strategies. Owing to the collaboration with leading local specialists and research institutions, the Consortium developed rather detailed knowledge on biomass availability, main constraints and hurdles to its deployment, as well as insight in concurrent uses and development perspectives.
Strategic case studies allowed capitalizing on the experience accrued within S2Biom and in previous EU-funded projects by feeding the Toolset with detailed quantitative data and qualitative information. This allowed developing very detailed assessments of the territorial distribution of lignocellulosic biomass, its current and projected availability, as well as to build credible cost-supply scenarios.
The rather long “incubation” that preceded the implementation of case studies (the activity has been anticipated from M19 to M15, and has run until the end of the project life) proved useful not only in the operational perspective, but also because it allowed developing a more constructive and forward-looking interaction with stakeholders that implemented the case studies (and, particularly, the Strategic Case Studies). As a result, the Consortium had the opportunity to explore the interoperability of S2BIOM Toolset with locally developed instruments, thus setting the grounds for further investigating the feasibility of a Sustainable Biomass Assessment and Optimization Platform. In addition, the Consortium used case studies to test and validate the Toolset, consequently collecting valuable information on the accuracy and usability of the S2BIOM Toolset.
Remarkably, each case study report represents a valuable and independent scientific work that synthesizes the state-of-the-art in biomass availability and related issues (current and perspective uses, techno-economic implications, bottlenecks, etc.) in the selected areas, on which further research could be built.
1 S2BIOM main impacts
S2Biom has been designed to address the main objective of the FP7 ENERGY Call Topic: “to develop Strategies, Roadmaps and Tools (SRT) in support of decision-making at local, regional and Pan-European level. This will involve economic, social, environmental and logistics research building on most relevant data and projects”.
The specific call addressed by S2Biom is Topic ENERGY.2013.3.7.1: Support to the sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstock at local, regional and pan-European level.
The impact of this project will enhance the development and sustainable use of biomass and in doing so reduce CO2 emissions and enhance employment especially in the rural economy.
The impact of this project is already large given that many stakeholders have been involved in the implementation of the project and there were many workshops where S2BIOM results have been shared with industrial and policy stakeholders in all part of Europe, particularly in the non-EU countries under analysis.
Alongside CEI, a broad representation from the Western Balkans, Moldova, Ukraine and Turkey has also been included through the capacity of SWEWES international committee (which includes national key experts from Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Moldova, FYROM, and Montenegro) as well as with the Serbian (University of Belgrade) and the Ukrainian (REA) partners.
S2Biom has addressed the urgent need for science- based evidence and online available information for sustainable delivery of non-food biomass feedstock by:
• capitalising on the long- term and up-to-date expertise within the consortium, background information, available data sets and related tools of the participating institutes;
• advancing the science through a context-specific and integrated approach (complete value chain assessments and applying most recent EU27 approaches to Western Balkans, Moldova, Ukraine and Turkey);
• developing information that can be used by all levels of governance (local, regional, national, pan European) to support the EU’s responsibilities in the context of RED and the Biobased Economy to 2030 under changing climatic and socio-economic conditions ;
• supporting further development and implementation of European policies related to sustainable biomass exploitation for energy, fuels and biobased products;
• providing easy access to information for stakeholders at appropriate levels in EU Member States to assess non-food biomass supply and design local regional, national and pan-European strategies and implementation plans.
The project, starting from data, tools and information from the recent and on-going projects like BEE, CEUBIOM, Biomass Futures, Biomass Trade Centre, Bioboost, Crops2Industry and Sector, has built up a concise knowledge base with open access. This was achieved through a toolset both for the sustainable non-food biomass supply (quantities, costs, technological pathway options for the 2020- 2030 timeframe and respective logistics for both small decentralized and large scale centralized units) and the development of roadmaps, strategies and guides to support the development of a “resource efficient” Bioeconomy for Europe.
1.2 Scientific innovation
S2Biom will contribute to the advancement of biomass cost supply and value chain assessments science in different ways. These can be summarised according to the five components below. For details, we refer to Section 1 of the proposal.
• First, by developing a set of integrated methodologies for the assessment of sustainable non-food lignocellulosic biomass potentials, the optimal conversion pathways for energy, fuels and biomaterials and the estimation of appropriate logistics, it will provide a framework to connect the current patchwork of methods, metrics and other tools that have been developed at the national and international level. In that regard, a harmonised set of criteria and indicators for sustainable supply and use of lignocellulosic biomass for all bioeconomy sectors will be developed and integrated in the tools of the project.
• Second, it will systematically strengthen the link between the available methods, metrics and other tools and the key decision domains, or policy needs, in consultation with envisaged users, and make the information available via a common platform and easy to use computerised tool. In this way, science will be better matched with the societal bioenergy, biofuels, climate change and bioeconomy agenda.
• Third, by critically reflecting on available and improved methods and metrics for sustainable non- food lignocellulosic biomass supply, logistics and value chain assessments and collating this to an integrated toolset that directly addresses stakeholder demands for such information, the project will strengthen the degree of robustness with which strategic decisions currently can be informed.
• Fourth, the project developed in detail the respective sets of methodologies, criteria, indicators, tools and databases and expand their coherent and harmonised application from EU28 to the pan-European scale (including Western Balkans, Moldova, Ukraine and Turkey), involving both science-based and value-based trade-off analysis with continuous stakeholder involvement.
• Fifth, the project has developed innovative demand-supply scenarios to project desired “sustainable biomass” futures and to identify pathways to reach them and exploit innovative Road- mapping techniques. Based on them the project has evaluated the role biomass can play in all the heat, electricity, biofuels, and biobased product sectors in a comparative assessment accounting for competition issues and international trade potentials. The analysis included details per region, resource type, geography, impacts and interactions with the rest of the energy system and bio- based markets.
The project focused on integration, consolidation, harmonisation, improvement and dissemination of methods, metrics and tools. By compiling the toolset in relationship with the decision domains, gaps can be identified which can inform the programming of future research. The consortium of institutions in general and the project team in particular have been composed to include a large number of experts in the area of interdisciplinary biomass and value chain assessments, backed up by more fundamental disciplinary knowledge in their institutions. Results will be presented not only through S2Biom reports and papers envisaged for peer-reviewed journals, but also from regular contributions during the implementation of the project of intermediate findings and through an exchange of views with the broader scientific community.
1.3 Cross-connections with other EU-projects
The consortium partners have been involved in many recent and on-going projects related to the call topic (e.g. BEE, CEUBIOM, Biomass Futures, Biomass Trade Centers, Bioboost, Crops2Industry, Sector, Logit’EC, Europrunning; Infres; BioBench, BAPDriver, etc.) which guarantees that state-of-the-art know-how will be used by S2Biom to deliver best available scientific understanding. In addition, partners are engaged in multiple ongoing international and national projects, from which various synergies are expected.
Key to the success, cost efficiency and value for money of this project has been the utilisation of up-to-date, relevant information and data, including the following:
i. drawing upon BEE, CEUBIOM, Biomass Futures, Biomass Trade Centres, CAPRI, Sector, and Bioboost projects;
ii. selecting, interpreting and undertaking validation case studies – such as those on-going within the Logistec, INFRES and Europrunning FP7 logistics research projects; and
iii. close collaboration with key stakeholders from policy, industry and market sectors.
Input from the other projects How has it been used in the S2Biom research?
BEE (Biomass Energy Europe): This FP7 project focused on a methodological harmonization of the assessment of biomass for energy by analysing both existing available assessments, methodologies and input data as well as gaps and divergences in these three domains resulting in a methods hand book, a data handbook, a test of the methods described in a set of test cases and in recommendations for future improvements. BEE results in form of the hand books have been used as a baseline for the assessment of the potential biomass supply both in form of statistics but as well as in form of maps for EU27 and Western Balkans, Moldova, Ukraine and Turkey. Methodologies described there have been further developed regarding the gaps and development priorities identified by BEE. Moreover, they were integrated in data preparation tools in order to simplify future updates of supply data.
CEUBIOM (Classification on European Biomass Potential for Bioenergy using Terrestrial and Earth Observations): This FP7 project was a parallel project to the BEE project which complemented BEE research by focusing on the development of methods for gathering information on biomass potential by combining terrestrial and earth observations and disseminating information, best practices and methodology on using earth observations in the assessment of biomass potential. CEUBIOM results are especially relevant for application in areas with extensive coverage with terrestrial data and / or LIDAR data. Parts of the developments of the S2Biom project have been based on methods resulting from CEUBIOM. As key partners of S2Biom also cooperated in the CEUBIOM project, they have provided input on methodological developments (e.g. pre-processing methods, methods for validation, estimation based on combined terrestrial / EO data) as well as terrestrial data and EO data for selected test sites.
Biomass Futures: The Intelligent Energy Project, Biomass Futures (2009- 2012) estimated the role biomass can play to meet the 2020 RED targets at EU27 and MS through a demand-supply analysis and extensive consultation with stakeholders across Europe. To do so it developed a systematic Biomass cost supply Atlas for EU27 and the RESolve model to address the competition of biomass supply in the three energy markets (heat, electricity and transport). Furthermore, a set of sustainability criteria and indicators for bioenergy was developed which goes beyond the RED to address all bioenergy. S2Biom has built on this and i) refined the cost supply Atlas for EU27 and increased the energy crop species included ii) extended the RESolve modelling capacity to include all the energy and biobased product markets (through biorefining) so that the role of biomass in the future bioeconomy can be estimated for different regional and temporal scales, and iii) extended the sustainability criteria and indicators to cover all lignocellulose biomass use.
Biomass Trade Centers: IEE Project Biomass trade centre II (2011-2014): »Development of biomass trade and logistics centres for sustainable mobilisation of local wood biomass resources« aims at increasing the production and the use of energy from wood biomass by organising motivation events that will engage identified target groups to invest in biomass business and biomass logistic and trade centres (BLTC) in 9 EU countries (Austria, Croatia, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain), by presenting clear, integrated and market orientated information to potential investors: farmers and forest owners, forest entrepreneurs, wood energy contractors and other stakeholders regarding business opportunities to produce and sell energy products and services to the market. It will also foster wood energy contracting between biomass providers and potential users. (www.biomasstradecentre2.eu ). In the frame of S2Biom project feasibility studies for selected cases have been prepared, taking in to account potentials in the regions, present users of biomass and all economical aspects. Input information has also been used in the S2biom logistics research work.
Bioboost: In the currently on-going Bioboost (www.BioBoost.eu) project costs of lignocellulosic biomass sources in EU-27 will be determined. These data have been taken into account within the research work in S2Biom.
1.4 Policy impact
S2Biom addressed several European policies and its findings will contribute methods, assessments and recommendations for future policy development in support of the:
• Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. This Directive will in the remainder of the proposal be referred to as the ‘Renewable Energy Directive’ or ‘RED’. We will take into account potential updates such as the proposal to reduce the climate change impact for biofuels or the proposal to implement sustainability criteria for solid and gaseous biomass (report of the EC to be expected early 2013).
• Bioeconomy Strategy and Action Plan (2012): Innovating for Sustainable Growth: A Bioeconomy for Europe (COM(2012) 60)
• European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development (European Council Decision June 2006)
• The European Commission's White Paper ‘Adapting to climate change– Towards a European framework for action’ (COM(2009) 147)
• Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
• Post-Kyoto climate protection policy
• Biodiversity conservation policy (Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010)
By developing assessments of biomass supply and delivery under visions of desired future land use, sustainable resource use will be supported, in line with the European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development (European Council Decision June 2006). The sustainable use of Europe’s natural resources continues to be a major foundation for Europe’s economy and the wellbeing of its citizens, as postulated in the Lisbon and Gothenburg agendas of the EU.
The European Commission's White Paper ‘Adapting to climate change– Towards a European framework for action’ (COM (2009) 147) stated that “A comprehensive and integrated approach towards the maintenance and enhancement of ecosystems and the goods and services they provide is needed.” The integrated non- food lignocellulosic biomass delivery Vision, Strategies, Roadmap and respective implementation plans developed in S2Biom will provide such an approach and will offer a strategy directly addressing the White Paper: “The challenge for policy-makers is to understand these climate change impacts and to develop and implement policies to ensure an optimal level of adaptation. Strategies focused on managing and conserving water, land and biological resources to maintain and restore healthy, effectively functioning and climate change-resilient ecosystems are one way to deal with the impact and can also contribute to the prevention of disaster [...].” The preceding Adaptation Green Paper (COM(2007) 354) called for an action pillar „Involving European society, business and public sector in the preparation of coordinated and comprehensive adaptation strategies“. S2Biom findings have directly contributed to this action pillar through its targeted stakeholder involvement and the selected case studies for delivering sustainable biomass at pan European level.
Related to the Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, modelling and trade-off analyses in S2biom has assessed the viability of current and future bioenergy policies in Europe, with a focus on side-effects on agriculture, food, and other land uses.
The research work in S2Biom has provided the concentrated capacity (human resources and modelling tools, databases) efforts that are needed to mobilize sustainable resources and prioritise resource efficient biomass value chains by developing balanced biomass policy frameworks which interrelate energy, economy, agriculture, climate change, nature conservation and ecosystem services, i.e. provide sustainable pathways.
1.5 Decision maker involvement in national, regional and local delivery of sustainable non- food lignocellulosic biomass supply
One of the key challenges of the assessment of the techno-economic, environmental and societal implications of the delivery of sustainable non- food lignocellulosic biomass supply is that observations of the wide range of relevant indicators will require a combination of different geographic and administrative levels of scales. Eventually, most biomass supply and delivery management action has to be implemented through the local level agents, but decisions on many other levels strongly affect local decision-making (e.g. agricultural subsidies, prices of agricultural products and energy, regulation, tariffs, spatial planning, etc.).
The main contribution of S2Biom to national, regional and local assessments of land transformation has been through the following mechanisms:
• Case study based scrutiny of the range of driving forces and their relative importance in various regional and temporal settings;
• Validated European datasets on patterns and dynamics of the biomass value chain system (including land use changes and socioeconomic and ecological drivers, typologies, syndromes of change, geographic and time analogues of change);
• Generic tools that can be further developed and adjusted to match local demands;
• An integrated methodology that facilitates local researchers, consultants and decision makers to find meaningful tools for the policy problem they want to address;
S2Biom has included stakeholders throughout the project to ensure that all major policy aspects and stakeholder concerns are appropriately considered: stakeholder interaction took place for:
• Consultation to evaluate current cost levels for different ligno-cellulosic feedstocks.
• Consultation with scientific and industrial stakeholders to identify and characterise existing and novel non-food biomass delivery pathways
• Consultation with scientific and industrial stakeholders to identify and characterise the main pre-treatment technologies
• Consultation with scientific and policy experts to discuss potential policy options, and what are really the policies and approaches that could make a difference.
• Consultation of the end-user requirement for the Decision Support Tool
• Consultation for the development of the Vision, Strategies, Roadmap and Implementation Plans
A well-structured and well-functioning system for communication and knowledge sharing between the individual partners, the PMT, and the Stakeholder Engagement was essential for the success of the project. The main objective was to facilitate a strong interaction between the scientific parts of the project and the stakeholder dialogue. By doing so, the management team ensured that the research questions and project methods were tuned as much as possible to meet the expectations and demands of the stakeholders, and to have these expectations and demands reflect what is technically feasible and overall desirable. To underline the importance of this strategic aspect, the necessary communication activities were brought together in a separate stakeholder communication Task in WP9 (Task 9.1). Besides, also in Task 9.3: Case studies stakeholder interaction is essential. Finally, the WP10 on Dissemination has supported these activities, providing adequate materials and outreach. The management and exchange of knowledge, new insights and information between the project and the ‘outside world’, such as expert groups, relevant stakeholders and policy- makers across European policy arenas and in national Agencies and relevant Ministries, has been supported through the inclusion of important (inter)national organisations and representatives in the Policy and Industry Advisory Committee (PIAC) and through involvement of the relevant stakeholder groups in the series of workshops throughout the project.
1.6 European dimension
The project addressed the issues raised in the Call at the European level, using a strongly integrated approach. The European Member States are characterised by contrasting climate, diverse ecosystems, specific regional gradients in management intensities and diverging historic dynamics of the land systems. The proposed challenge to develop Strategies, Roadmaps and Tools (SRT) in support of decision-making at local, regional and Pan-European level could only be tackled at European level by linking process understanding and model-based assessments. We would not be able to propose such an ambitious work programme without the consortium already having existing long-standing expertise, models, data and ongoing research in this area as well as consortium members being excellently networked within Europe and globally. The project brought together expertise, data and models from complementary communities (e.g. geography, forestry, agriculture, economics, sustainability, spatial analysis, energy modelling) in a balanced way, alongside with a variety of tools and approaches (e.g. empirical data generation and analysis, experiments, modelling, socio-economic scenarios) to address the Call challenges.
1.7 International dimension
Through various team members, S2Biom had involvement in international research and policy development programmes such as the FAO, GBEP, IEA Bioenergy, IPCC and the OECD. Project results were presented at international conferences e.g. organised by the IEA Bioenergy, and the European Bioenergy Conference series.
The applicability of S2Biom results outside the EU region were discussed with the FAO, GBEP and OECD secretariats. S2Biom has contributed to the future research needs identified by the IPCC, notably Working Group II on Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. The S2Biom project can particularly contribute to one of the knowledge gaps identified by the IPCC, regarding biomass supply and delivery.
List of Websites:
Grant agreement ID: 608622
1 September 2013
30 November 2016
€ 5 161 511,08
€ 3 999 629
FACHAGENTUR NACHWACHSENDE ROHSTOFFE EV
Deliverables not available
Grant agreement ID: 608622
1 September 2013
30 November 2016
€ 5 161 511,08
€ 3 999 629
FACHAGENTUR NACHWACHSENDE ROHSTOFFE EV
Grant agreement ID: 608622
1 September 2013
30 November 2016
€ 5 161 511,08
€ 3 999 629
FACHAGENTUR NACHWACHSENDE ROHSTOFFE EV