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Enhanced GNSS-BF-INS Solution for Un-manned Vehicle Control

Final Report Summary - GINSEC (Enhanced GNSS-BF-INS Solution for Un-manned Vehicle Control)

Executive Summary:
The goal of GINSEC is to build a pre-commercial prototype of a low-cost, accurate and reliable navigation system for professional drone market.
Consumer-type navigation systems work quite well in general use despite the many practical problems that still affect them. Most noticeable in vehicle navigation are the slow time to first fix (up to a few minutes), poor or no availability (outages in tunnels or dense cities), slow dynamics and poor accuracy (enough to occasionally miss an exit) and lack of a heading indication. If these problems can be annoying to an occasional user, they may be critical to professional ones, especially if operating under emergency conditions (ambulance services, fire brigades).
GINSEC aims at developing a navigation system that should solve these problems with various sensor configuration and fusion approaches:
1. Redundant low-cost inertial units to improve dynamics and availability of navigation, possibly using a tightly coupled approach.
2. Antenna arrays, to obtain heading estimation and beamforming to attenuate multi-path and interferers.
3. Map-assisted navigation: map database is actively used in the navigation filter to improve accuracy over traditional (e.g. stay on road) approaches.
The GINSEC consortium consists of SMEs and RTD performers that are active in the GNSS/INS market. RTDs will mainly study and develop the data fusion algorithms for navigation, while the SMEs will develop, manufacture and test the prototype navigation system. The challenge is to implement and integrate all above technologies in the frame of limited size, weight and cost imposed by the drone market requirements. Through their collaboration, the partners aim to develop a navigation solution directly exploitable on various kinds of drones.
Project Context and Objectives:
The goal of GINSEC is to build a pre-commercial prototype of a low-cost, accurate and reliable navigation system, based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and map-based aiding, for the professional drone market.
The main objective of the GINSEC project is to implement navigation techniques, currently found only in the aerospace and military fields, on a system with size, weight and especially cost compatible with the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) market. Achieving this goal is not just a matter of buying low-cost sensors and using them instead of their high-end tactical-grade equivalents. The drifts and sensitivity to the environment of sensors compatible with our target are much larger than those of the high-end units typically used in the aerospace field, and therefore much higher than usual degree of care will be required.
GINSEC is a project motivated by a clear need (what is needed to overcome a specific problem?), addressed through a technology approach (what can be done?). The project will apply modern models for Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry techniques co-developed by a project partner (CTTC), as well as Stochastic Modelling and Solution of Time Dependent Networks as building blocks for professional unmanned flying vehicles. These systems belong to a growing market gap (what can be bought?) between the current situation and the coming requirements. This market gap requires solutions with precise, accurate and reliable navigation and attitude determination capability at a fair price.
The consortium team planned an approach based on the implementation of hybrid technology for the localization and trim control of the UA. The reason to implement such technology for the control of UAS is clear if we shortly analyse how IMU works. The standard functionality of a high performing IMU is for instance like that of the current product of a project partner (LNAV).
The objectives of the GINSEC project range from research and development, prototype design and validation to construction of a near-to-market system with the aim of market exploitation. The main GINSEC objectives can be summarized as the following:

Objective 1: Development of the GINSEC system
The first objective is the investigation, development and performance evaluation of localization techniques based on the joint use of antenna array techniques and IMU measurements aiming at enhancing significantly the attitude control and the localization capability of the current GNSS navigation systems in difficult environments. In order to compute an accurate and robust PVT and attitude solution used both by the beamformer and the application layer, GINSEC will handle and process all the targeted sources of information in a unified extended navigation engine. This navigation engine will therefore combine:
- GNSS raw measurements (TOT, Doppler and RTK corrections);
- IMU measurements (accelerometer, gyroscope; possibly using a tightly coupled approach);
- Redundant IMU configurations;
- Multiple GNSS antenna techniques and algorithms for attitude determination;
- Map matching with reference point for the drone mission.

Objective 2: Scientific exploration
This objective is mainly related to the investigation by the GINSEC Research and Technological Development (RTD) performers of the research domains that are necessary for the development of the GINSEC solution.

Objective 3: Real field validation and measurements in different environments
A demonstration platform that validates the good functionality of the GINSEC solution will be elaborated. Further to its laboratory validation, real-field testing and measurements will be performed in different environments in order to evaluate the performance of the GINSEC solution and defined user requirements' fulfillment.

Objective 4: Near-to-market prototype and exploitation strategy
A near-to-market system prototype that incorporates the GINSEC navigation solution will be prepared, opening the doors to an immediate exploitation by the SMEs of the consortium (licensing, industrialization in specific products, etc.). Considering the innovative aspects of the GINSEC project, adequate dissemination activities are also a very important outcome of the project at both product and scientific level.
Project Results:
The GINSEC performed work and obtained results reporting can be described as follows:
- Investigation of the GINSEC related State of The Art (SoTA) and derivation of technological roadmaps:
The GINSEC project proposes to efficiently use two complementary technologies, the GNSS and the IMU ones in order to solve the problems and limitations that are faced in the civil UAS domain. The first part of the project activities extensively investigated the UAS SoTA aspect and highlighted how it can impact the GINSEC use cases that can be considered. The GINSEC framework was defined in more details at the level of applications and use cases, technical limitations to be solved and characteristics of the propagation environment in which the GINSEC system will be used.
- Analysis of the targeted GINSEC market, description of application scenarios and use cases:
This project activity focused on the investigation of a market survey dealing with the main players in the UAV domain where description of the main UAV products and their main features were investigated. Even if there are already solutions on the market that are competitive to the GINSEC envisaged one, the main feature differing the GINSEC system from other commercial solutions is its capability to jointly and efficiently exploit the navigation and inertial technologies, were determined. As such, the market opportunities that can be explored by the GINSEC solution were identified. This analysis process started with a general description of candidate market segments and associated applications. It then explained the consortium strategy and vision towards the GINSEC concept, reviewing the targeted market that was originally evocated into the GINSEC Description of Work (DoW). It also included a detailed description of targeted application scenarios.
- Description of the GINSEC system architecture and specifications of its subsystems and interfaces:
The GINSEC consortium partners described the envisaged GINSEC solution architecture and then focused on the GINSEC solution specification and design.
- Specifications of the GINSEC antenna design:
The sensors currently installed on drones (in particular magnetometer) do not always provide its exact heading. This problem could be overcome by radio tracking techniques, able to provide the necessary parameters with accuracy during the flight.
- Definition of test scenarios for the GINSEC system
In order to verify and validate GINSEC's system development, seven acquisition scenarios were considered. Starting from the friendliest one and ending in real drone environments. The scenarios include acquisitions with no motion (laboratory), low-dynamics motion (trolley), medium-dynamics motion (van) and high-dynamics motion (drone). Since multipath and magnetic fields are the main problems when flying UAV's, there will be a set of acquisitions devoted to verify that the system properly manage these issues.
- Development of a GINSEC application software and generation of high quality data for the UAV photogrammetric and mapping domain:
GINSEC constitutes an ideal platform for mapping applications which generally have navigation requirements and sensor (e.g. camera) orientation requirements. Navigation requirements have to do with the convenience to generate regular blocks of images with similar scale and similar overlap due to the stability of the drone that carries the camera. The more regular the block is the more accurate are the results. For orientation (and positioning) requirements it is possible to fuse and post process the logged data (GNSS, IMU) from the GINSEC platform for sensor orientation or as an input to a self-calibrating procedure of the camera (detecting focal length, principal point, etc.). Thus, the quality of the final results (orthophotos, Digital Elevation Models-DEM, etc.) depends on both real time navigation performance of the drone platform and on the data that are logged for post processing. GINSEC platform offers the possibility of a high quality real time navigation, and high quality aerial control data for post processing.
- Antenna development that is matched to the GINSEC solution:
After some exhaustive studies about the drone heading and the system receiver, it was decided to embrace the multi-antenna architecture with 2 or 3 GNSS receivers. The project consortium explored the adequate estimation method that should be used for the GINSEC system by analyzing some different setup well described in the literature, such as single and double differencing with their accuracy. Also some multi-antenna scenario candidates that can be used for the GINSEC solution were investigated by performing simulations using the related Matlab toolboxes: This allowed determining conclusions about what may be the magnitude orders of the accuracy of the attitude parameters. Further, the GINSEC preferred architecture for the attitude determination was studied and showed some key choices that the GINSEC demonstrator used as main board computer, the raw measurement data structure and the GNSS receiver candidates. Then, a field tests were performed in Lugano downtown, Switzerland in order to analyze the proposed system performance.
- Successful integration and testing of the GINSEC system, and conduction of envisaged field trials:
After the successful integration and testing of the GINSEC system, the main experimental achievements have been:
* The demonstration of the GNSS/IMU positioning unit, enabling to obtain from inertial measurements reliable position data at higher frequency (10 Hz) smoothly interlaced with GNSS updates (released at 1Hz)
* The demonstration of a compact, low cost heading sensor able to measure the azimuth of a fixed base on a small drone with respect to geographic North, even when the vehicle is hovering with zero or small translational speed.
*The demonstration of a powerful software platform which, accepting the raw data logs generated by GINSEC and associated to a series of aero-photogrammetric shots, allow a post processing of the latter enabling to achieve high quality mapping of terrain by equipment order of magnitude less costly than that used in traditional photogrammetic surveying.
The results confirmed the initial goals of the GINSEC project and allowed to foresee the exploitation of the technology in several areas of mini-UAV applications.
The GINSEC technology has proven to be a reality, and thanks to the effective solutions to several critical design issues the final tests have led to the demonstration of a practical embodiment able to provide precise positioning and heading information also to flying vehicles (e.g. quadcopters) which a fixed position in the air for long times. Remarkably, the heading unit, based on GNSS phase carrier measurements, is totally insensitive to magnetic disturbances and allows the control of a drone even in proximity of large iron masses or intensive magnetic fields from large current. The partners in charge of the development of the application software have shown how the precision of the collected data is sufficient for photogrammetric mapping and crops health control. GINSEC opens therefore a first route towards low-cost photogrammetric applications which could enable the development of new markets (cadastral control, urban mapping, automatized agriculture etc.) overcoming the cost constraints that make unfeasible the use of the said techniques when implemented by standard means, as e.g. by the use of specially-equipped aircraft for photogrammetric surveying.
- Elaboration of a business plan for the GINSEC solution exploration: A significant effort was dedicated for identifying the market framework, competence, present barriers and opportunities; and planning the necessary tools to make the GINSEC solution fruitful and profitable, according to the business case defined. In addition, exploitation plans for the SMEs partners were introduced to demonstrate the viability and validity of the results obtained. In this regard, a set of steps were followed for a full understanding of the project environment, a market study has been prepared, covering key aspects as Localization accurate and reliable navigation system, barriers and existing competence. Once completed the current framework analysis, different business models were elaborated, completely aligned with the desired GINSEC business case. The last step, in order to close the loop of making the project profitable, has been the confection of an optimal exploitation plan for the variety of GINSEC solution and services.

The WPs specific main S&T results/foregrounds can be described as follows.

WP1: Management
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- WP1 Activity Type: MGT
- WP1 Leader: EXYS
- WP1 Total Effort: 10PM
- WP1 Starting Date: M01
- WP1 Ending Date: M24
- WP1 main S&T results/foregrounds: The GINSEC management objectives can be enumerated as follows:
* Organise the consortium meeting (phone conferences, physical meeting...) according to what was agreed in the project DoW;
* Define and follow-up procedures for internal acceptance of deliverables, publications, etc;
* Set-up the GINSEC handbook for day-to-day follow-up of the project;
* Elaborate, update and maintain the project website;
* Maintain the measurements of success factors and risk factors;
* Deliver the reports as contractual obligated.
* Lead the dissemination activities for the GINSEC project.

The management achievements in the first reporting project period can be summarized as follows:
* In terms of administrative management, the activities during the fifth three months of implementation have mainly involved the work needed to finish the reporting to the Research Executive Agency (REA) and also the performing of the following activities:
- Overall Management of the GINSEC project
- Provision of strategic guidance mechanism to GINSEC
- Provision of the structure for efficient and effective technical decision-making and progression of GINSEC
- Monitor and maintain the awareness of project progress of partners
- Perform the administrative coordination of GINSEC(secretariat and financial coordination)
- Assure the communication inside and outside the consortium
- Documentation management
- Progress monitoring and promotion
- Completion of EC requirements.
- The project website (https://GINSEC.eclexys.com/) was continuously updated and maintained during this second period of the GINSEC project.
- All the WP1 management deliverables were submitted in time to the EC REA.
- All the consortium partners received their advance payment as originally scheduled.
- Quarterly Management Meetings, Project Steering Committee (PSC) meetings and workpackage meetings took place. The PSC approved the minutes from all meetings.
- Maintain the relation with the REA.

* On the technical part, EXYS has mainly performed the activities needed to maintain coherence over the developments being carried out in WP4 and WP5 and the rescheduling of its activities due to the fact that further time was necessary in order to perform its work. In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D1.1 'Project management guide',
- D1.2 'GINSEC intranet portal for documentation and file exchange',
- D1.3-8 'Quarterly Management Reports',
- D1.9 'Consortium agreement'.

- WP1 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP1 respected what was planned originally by the GINSEC Description of Work (DoW): EXYS dedicated to the WP1 work at least what he planned in the DoW.

WP2: System specification and architecture
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- WP2 Activity Type: RTD
- WP2 Leader: EXYS
- WP2 Total Effort: 15.5PM
- WP2 Starting Date: M01
- WP2 Ending Date: M04
- WP2 Progress Description: The WP2 started its implementation at October 1, 2013, along with the start of the project itself and being the first technical WP to be implemented. During the first three months, this WP has developed the first technical deliverable, 'D2.1 Consolidation of the SoA and use cases for the GINSEC project'. This deliverable comprises the definition of the framework in which the GINSEC solution will behave, the state of the market related to the GINSEC solution and the requirements derived from both previous visions. Within the implementation of this WP, the development of the deliverable 'D2.3 Market study and preliminary business plan' has also been started. This deliverable, in a development state at the time of issue of the present document, will define and specify the technical solution that will be further developed in WP3. During the second three months period, this WP has completed two technical deliverables D2.2 ' 'Preliminary datasheet of the system', which reports the specifications of the GINSEC technical solution and the system architecture of the devices that will be developed in the following periods. The development of the deliverable D2.3 - 'Market study and preliminary business plan', which was started during the first quarterly period, has been finalized for WP2 in the second project three-month period. In addition to this deliverable, which defines and specifies the technical solution that is further developed in WP3, another deliverable D3.1 'Market research report' was also completed (see the section that is dealing with the project deliverables).

In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D2.1 'Consolidation of the SoA and use cases for the GINSEC project',
- D2.2 'Preliminary datasheet of the system',
- D2.3 'Market study and preliminary business plan'.

In terms of fulfilled milestones, the following ones were reached:
- MS1 'Completion of the system's specifications',
- MS2 'Evaluation of the target markets and their potential'.

- WP2 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP2 respected what was planned originally by the GINSEC Description of Work (DoW): each partners dedicated to the WP2 work at least what he planned in the DoW. The same keeps valid for the equipment, consumables and travel.

WP3: Inertial Measuring System
------------------------------
- WP3 Activity Type: RTD
- WP3 Leader: CTTC
- WP3 Total Effort: 30.50PM
- WP3 Starting Date: M02
- WP3 Ending Date: M22
- WP3 Progress Description: The implementation of WP3 started on December 2nd 2013.
Several tasks have been addressed during the Project First Period (from M1 to M9).
The first task addressed during this first period was the complete development of deliverable 'D3.1: Market research support', comprising a thorough study of the market of low-cost MEMS IMU, GNSS receiver, magnetometer and barometer sensors. This deliverable also includes a survey of GINSEC potential markets as well as the conclusions drawn from the aforementioned market studies and surveys.
Two more tasks, T3.2 'Procurement and integration of the low-cost redundant IMU system' and T3.3 'IMU functional and stochastic dynamic error modelling' were started at the beginning of the second quarter.
For Task 3.2 the work on a prototype using two Epson S4E5A0A0A1 IMUs began. The aim of this prototype, which is not using the final IMUs to be integrated, is manifold:
* To provide with a platform where the integration of several IMUs may be checked,
* that can be used to test dynamic scenarios and
* able to produce IMU data to be used as a reference to compare results with the IMUs finally selected for the project.
Work focused on a platform able to capture sensor (IMU) data with proper time synchronization. The computation of a navigation solution was postponed until this first stage of the prototype be completed.
Although not finished in quarter 2, the first working versions of such prototype made possible the realization of a static test, necessary for Task 3.3. The dual EPSON S4E5A0A0A1 IMU early prototype collected about 24 hours of data in a controlled environment, using a stabilized table.
The rationale behind this test (and the dynamic ones to be still made) was to provide with enough information to perform an Allan deviation analysis leading to the proposal of an adequate error model to calibrate the IMUs.
The preparation of the tools needed to perform the functional and stochastic dynamic error modelling of the IMUs also started (task T3.3).
During quarter 3 more effort was put to continue the work of tasks T3.2 and T3.3
The work on the prototype using two Epson S4E5A0A0A1 IMU was finished concerning the data capture / time synchronization component. A convenient platform to process the collected data to compute a navigation solution is still under evaluation
The evolution of this prototype made possible the realization of several additional tests required by task T3.3 one of these run in a dynamic environment and two more under static conditions.
For the dynamic test, a 2 hour campaign was run using a car and the aforementioned prototype including the Epson S4E5A0A0A1 IMUs and a navigation-grade IMU playing the role of reference inertial data. The two static tests used the SAPHYRION K2NAV release IMU. Both static tests collected about 15 hours of data.
The goal of the second static dynamic test was to check the quality of the oblique-to-ground axis accelerometer.
The work on the functional and stochastic dynamic error modelling of the IMUs was finished (task T3.3).
Additionally, two IMUs have been pre-selected as candidates for the final system: the Maxim MAX21100 and the InvenSense MPU9250.
During the project second period (M10 to M24 then extended to M27), the WP3 activities were addressed as described in the following.
The work on the integration of the INS mechanization equations (Task 3.4) using both the estimation models for the IMUs derived from task T3.3 as well as the model for the integration of redundant IMUs, was initiated. The output of this integration task is the software implementation of the aforementioned mechanization equation for both the NAVEGA software platform and the final prototype as well. The well proven NAVEGA software is used to validate the algorithms thus developed before porting these to the final system. The necessary test data for this validation task is provided by the CTTC's microTAG system, previously adapted to work with a multi-IMU configuration as required by the project. Additionally, work on task T3.5 'INS software validation and input to hybridization techniques', has already performed. The goal for this period was the definition of a draft of a verification and validation plan for the mechanization equations software to be installed in the final platform. Work for this period and work package has concentrated also on the following tasks:
* T3.4 'Extended INS mechanization equations and software implementation' and
* T3.5 INS software validation and input to hybridization techniques'
Activities related to task T3.4 focused on porting the navigation algorithms already tested in CTTC's NAVEGA system to the target GINSEC platform. Deliverable D3.7 'INS software Verification and Validation plan' has been the target of the activities connected to task T3.5. This plan has been devised to cover a wide range of scenarios, going from static, laboratory tests and ending with dynamic, real-flight situations where the full set of features of the GINSEC prototype will be put to the test. Work for this period also dealt with the development and testing of the modules of the GINSEC monitoring software that are responsible for plotting various IMU data (accelerometers, gyroscopes, etc). The plotting contributed to more efficient analysis of IMU error modeling. The modules of the GINSEC monitoring software that are responsible for plotting various IMU data (accelerometers, gyroscopes, etc) were developed and tested.


In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D3.1 'Market research report',
- D3.2 'Integrated redundant IMU system',
- D3.3 'IMU error modelling report (initial)',
- D3.4 'IMU error modelling report (final)',
- D3.5 'Extended INS mechanization equations software (initial)',
- D3.6 'Extended INS mechanization equations software (final)',
- D3.7 'INS software Verification and Validation Plan'.

In terms of fulfilled milestones, the following ones were reached:
- MS3 'Initial IMU performance review',
- MS4 'Final IMU performance review'.

- WP3 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP3 respected what was planned originally by the GINSEC DoW: each partners dedicated to the WP3 work at least what he planned in the DoW. The same keeps valid for the equipment, consumables and travel.

WP4: Advanced GNSS navigation system
------------------------------------
- WP4 Activity Type: RTD
- WP4 Leader: SPH
- WP4 Total Effort: 21.50PM
- WP4 Starting Date: M04
- WP4 Ending Date: M14
- WP4 Progress Description: During the First Project Period (from M1 to M9); the WP4 activities spanned three main issues. At the concept level research towards adaptive beamforming and nulling algorithms started, while at the implementation level the activities addressed the development of the testing setup for the INS as well as the required for a tight coupling of the INS with GNSS.

During the project second period (M10 to M24 then extended to M27), the WP4 activities were addressed as described in the following.
The technical partners concentrated their efforts for WP4 on the definition and completion of the theoretical and algorithmic-oriented deliverables D4.3 'Data fusion design report' and D4.4 'EBPU definition and performance report'. The D4.4 dealing with the mathematical and algorithmic aspects of the attitude determination using a multi-antenna array, was successfully completed and submitted. The D4.3 dealing with map matching and routing algorithms, and with the efficient fusion of information coming from sensors for the improvement of the position accuracy,
The multi-antenna simulations were best tuned and applied on the real system baselines. The antenna algorithms was used to the heading estimation for the envisaged drone. Some investigations that were originally envisaged for this deliverable D4.4 were realigned to better meet the requests that were identified in the second period of the GINSEC project. The major revision involved the antenna system, in fact after some exhaustive studies about the drone heading and the system receiver, it was decided to embrace the multi-antenna architecture with 2 or 3 GNSS receivers. The research studies performed about multi-antenna techniques, explored the adequate estimation method that should be used for the GINSEC system by analyzing some different setups well described in the literature, such as single and double differencing with their accuracy. Also the consortium explored some multi-antenna scenario candidates that can be used for the GINSEC solution by performing simulations using the related Matlab toolboxes: This simulations investigation allowed to determine conclusions about what may be the magnitude orders of the accuracy of the attitude parameters. Also the Deliverable D4.4 studied the GINSEC preferred architecture for the attitude determination and showed some key choices that the GINSEC demonstrator used as main board computer, the raw measurement data structure and the GNSS receiver candidates. Then, field tests have been performed in Lugano downtown in Switzerland in order to analyze the proposed system performance.
At another level, the GINSEC application that will be demonstrate and validate the GINSEC solution and will be based on post processing fusion of raw GNSS and IMU flight data, was identified. This application is related to mapping for precision agriculture and was described in deliverable D4.3

In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D4.1 'Antenna design report',
- D4.2 'INS/GNSS Filter design report',
- D4.3 'Data fusion design report',
- D4.4 'EBPU definition and performance report'.

In terms of fulfilled milestones, the following ones were reached:
- MS5 'Integration of HW/SW GNSS platform',
- MS6 'Enhanced localization algorithms review'.

- WP4 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP4 respected what was planned originally by the GINSEC DoW: each partners dedicated to the WP4 work at least what he planned in the DoW. The same keeps valid for the equipment, consumables and travel.

WP5: System integration
-----------------------
- WP5 Activity Type: RTD
- WP5 Leader: SPH
- WP5 Total Effort: 41PM
- WP5 Starting Date: M09
- WP5 Ending Date: M22
WP5 Progress Description: By the end of First Project Period (from M1 to M9), the System Integration task has just started, however some activities are already running, in particular surveys and component study for an effective integration task.

During the project second period (M10 to M24 then extended to M27), the WP5 dealt with the successful integration and testing of the GINSEC system, and the elaboration of several field trials in which its correct operation has been confirmed. The main experimental achievements have been:
* The demonstration of the GNSS/IMU positioning unit, enabling to obtain from inertial measurements reliable position data at higher frequency (10 Hz) smoothly interlaced with GNSS updates (released at 1Hz).
* The demonstration of a compact, low cost heading sensor able to measure the azimuth of a fixed base on a small drone with respect to geographic North, even when the vehicle is hovering with zero or small translational speed.
* The demonstration of a powerful software platform which, accepting the raw data logs generated by GINSEC and associated to a series of aero-photogrammetric shots, allow a post processing of the latter enabling to achieve high quality mapping of terrain by equipment order of magnitude less costly than that used in traditional photogrammetic surveying.
The results confirm the initial goals of the GINSEC project and allow foreseeing the exploitation of the technology in several areas of mini-UAV applications.
As such, the GINSEC technology has been proven to be a reality, and thanks to the effective solutions to several critical design issues the final tests have led to the demonstration of a practical embodiment able to provide precise positioning and heading information also to flying vehicles (e.g. quadcopters) which a fixed position in the air for long times.
Remarkably, the heading unit, based on GNSS phase carrier measurements, is totally insensitive to magnetic disturbances and allows the control of a drone even in proximity of large iron masses or intensive magnetic fields from large current.
The consortium partners in charge of the development of the application software have shown how the precision of the collected data is sufficient for photogrammetric mapping and crops health control. GINSEC opens therefore a first route towards low-cost photogrammetric applications which could enable the
development of new markets (cadastral control, urban mapping, automatized agriculture etc.)
overcoming the cost constraints that make unfeasible the use of the said techniques when implemented by standard means, as e.g. by the use of specially-equipped aircraft for photogrammetric surveying.

In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D5.1 'Prototype of the GINSEC hardware platform with first release of all software modules (firmware, application, ')',
- D5.2 'Prototype field tests and validation report'.
In terms of fulfilled milestones, the following ones were reached:
- MS7 'Prototype of the GINSEC working platform'.

- WP5 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP5 respected what was planned originally by the GINSEC DoW: each partners dedicated to the WP5 work at least what he planned in the DoW. The same keeps valid for the equipment, consumables and travel.

WP6: Demonstration, evaluation and exploitation
-----------------------------------------------
- WP6 Activity Type: RTD, DEMO, OTHER
- WP6 Leader: LNAV
- WP6 Total Effort: 21.50PM
- WP6 Starting Date: M01
- WP6 Ending Date: M24
WP6 Progress Description: For the WP6 activities, the GINSEC project is willing to promote its existence and disseminate its results, in order to make both the research and the market communities aware of it. During the first quarterly period, the GINSEC web portal has been developed. The Deliverable D6.1 illustrated this web portal, including the location of the GINSEC website and some screen shots showing it contents. Furthermore, a method for the Research Executive Agency to get an access for the deployed file sharing server tool was also provided.
During the First Project Period (from M1 to M9), the demonstration activities where mainly targeted toward enriching the GINSEC web portal with updates and news about the project course. BRI also carried out dissemination activities of the project by presenting it to the civil protection of Portugal.
Subsequently the disseminations activities were started by a survey on potential national and international level stakeholders, thus initiating the two deliverable D6.3 'Draft dissemination and exploitation plan' and D6.6 'Report on press release'.

During the project second period (M10 to M24 then extended to M27), During this second project period the WP6 work included advertising of the GINSEC project existence, it scope, its objectives, achievements and expected impact, the partners forming the consortium, providing contact points for the project and, at last, maximizing the penetration of the GINSEC solution in both the research and the market scopes.
The communication aimed at providing awareness of the project in general, communication the goals and results to potential customers and partners, and the funding agencies The dissemination included two main types of activities: one aiming to peers that is addressed tough the usual means of technical publications, and the second aiming at the general public including the website, press releases and communication to both market players and general public.
The paper 'A redundant GNSS-INS low-cost UAV navigation solution for professional applications' was presented in one of the most appropriate forums available: a workshop (GeoUAV) included in the prestigious ISPRS Geospatial Week. That workshop specifically concentrated on new research on UAVs and there, the most relevant specialists on the subject had the opportunity to hear about the progress of the GINSEC project. More that 500 people attended to this event.
After its inclusion in the well-known Researchgate research portal, its abstract has been read by 25 people, and its full text requested 12 times by people not related to the GINSEC project.
The paper 'A multi-antenna approach for UAV's attitude determination' was presented in one of the most important environment for advancing technological innovation and excellence, which aims at reinforcing and supporting the collaborations among people working in developing instrumentation and measurement methods for aerospace.
The workshop (2nd IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Aerospace) was an IEEE event, the world's largest association of technical professionals with more than 400.000 members in about 160 countries around the world. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) objectives are the educational and technical advancement of electrical and electronic engineering, telecommunications, computer engineering and allied disciplines. For this reason the paper is inside to one of the most important research portal in the world.
The paper "I. Colomina, P. Molina, Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review" reviewed the positioning of the drones for remote sensing applications. It shows the available technology as well as most demanded applications. The paper has been published in one of the most relevant journals of the field and had quickly become one of the most referred on the field. After a year of it's publication, it has been cited in almost 100 papers (source: google scholar).
Further the following communication means were elaborated and used:
* Final Public Wikipedia page on the project and its results,
* Press releases,
* Short demonstration video.

At the business prospection level, a market approach for the exploitation of the GINSEC solution was also elaborated and highlighted the market framework in which the GINSEC solution will behave and outlined the exploitation strategy that the consortium will follow from making business and profit from the exploitation of results. This strategy was described at two levels: the level of a joint business plan approach that the GINSEC consortium SMES can go for and individual business plans that each SME can follow. Both business plans approach can be performed simultaneously and in complementary manner. It was concluded that the GINSEC developed solution targets an adequate market, this market is addressed in a timely fashion and the envisaged product covers a defined market need which will also be evolving through time, thus allowing for business maintenance at least in the mid to long term. The business figures that are drown are promising and open a door for the consortium SMEs to have a significant share, profit and position in the drones related civilian market.

In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D6.1 'GINSEC website',
- D6.2 'Performance and Ethical Issues report',
- D6.3 'Draft dissemination and exploitation plan',
- D6.4 'Final dissemination and exploitation plan',
- D6.5 'Final Public Wikipedia page on the project and its results',
- D6.6 'Report on press releases',
- D6.7 'Report on publications and other communication activities',
- D6.8 'Short demonstration video'.

In terms of fulfilled milestones, the following ones were reached:
- MS8 GINSEC 'performance results'.

- WP6 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP6 respected what was planned originally by the GINSEC DoW: each partners dedicated to the WP6 work at least what he planned in the DoW. The same keeps valid for the equipment, consumables and travel.
Potential Impact:
The GINSEC project intends to address the niche market of unmanned vehicles, developing and delivering a reliable and high quality guidance system. One of the SMEs in the consortium is active in the domain of unmanned aerial vehicles and already provides solutions. Nevertheless, the current state of the art of these technologies leaves some problems unsolved. This activity intends to solve the issues and deliver a new navigation system, which will be used in the next generations of civil products. The project will enable the introduction of several navigation enhancement techniques, previously available only to high-end markets such as avionics or military, into the much bigger market of professional navigation and at a similar price tag than the current navigation solutions. GINSEC will start developing building blocks, optimized and duly tuned, to merge them into a subsequent data fusion to realize the targeted system, a near-to-market prototype navigator for UAV. These building blocks are:
- Inertial navigation (for improved dynamics and availability);
- Attitude determination (heading, roll, pitch, yaw);
- Matched antenna system design,
- Semantic navigation.
A customer purchasing a navigator enhanced with the proposed techniques will have a fully competitive guidance system based on the combination of several techniques, thus offering improved accuracy and reliability with little additional costs with respect to the price of conventional solutions currently on the market.

More specifically many organisations (including a considerable number of European SMEs) are developing and marketing positioning application based on low cost GNSS receivers for different application areas. These applications (especially in Europe) are based on positioning data mainly provided by GPS, which in many cases may become problematic due to the low accuracy provided (thus preventing the take-up of services with high accuracy constraints), the increasing availability of satellite positioning signals will help increasing the operation of such platforms.
In this context, GINSEC will:
- Support better access of European SMEs to the potential offered by GALILEO, the European GNSS.
- Consolidate on projects done at industrial and academic level in the domains of GNSS, INS and guidance control of UAVs.
- Provide, at a pan-European level, an innovative solution for the unmanned aircraft growing market, improving navigation, stabilization, heading, and asset determination performances at a fair price.
List of Websites:
The Internet is probably the best dissemination channel as the media is instantaneous, reaches potentially everyone everywhere, and its target audience is increasing quickly.
During the first quarter of the GINSEC project, the GINSEC's web site was successfully built. It includes all relevant information about the project, such as achievements, events, and so on, hence stimulating contacts with potential users and industrial sectors. Furthermore, it is also used as a communication and information exchange environment between the different partners, helping them out in their daily work to make GINSEC's objectives a reality.
In addition, the aim of the GINSEC's website is to inform the customers about the scientific aspects, the techniques, the main achievements of the project success and to refer to the future pertinent events.
The main objective of the GINSEC Web site (http://ginsec.eclexys.com) is to diffuse the GINSEC results as wider as possible throughout the community and over. The GINSEC server provides the updated view on GINSEC, including objectives and achievements, public deliverables, key persons and contacts, announcement of public events and activities of the GINSEC consortium. Links to the GINSEC contractor's web sites are established as well. Constant updates and maintenance will be performed.
It should also be noticed that the text included in the GINSEC Web site is chosen adequately in order to point a research done on the Internet (e.g. using words such IMU, Redundant sensors, GNSS, ...) using any research engine (such as Google...) to the project website. This will contribute to generate a significant flow of connected persons on the GINSEC Web site, which contributes to disseminate widely its results.