"In Daphnia, parthenogenetic reproduction alternates with sexual reproduction. Individuals of both sexes that belong to the same parthenogenetic line are genetically identical and their sex is determined by the environment. However, some lines never produce males, and these non male producing (""NMP"") genotypes can only persist through phases of sexual reproduction if they co-occur with normal (""MP"") genotypes that produce both males and females. The distinction between MP and NMP is genetically determined by a single chromosomal region carrying a dominant NMP allele. Thus, Daphnia have a partially genetic and partially environmental sex determination. Here I propose to exploit this unique polymorphism to study the evolutionary transition between environmental and genetic sex determination and to investigate its genetic basis and genetic/genomic consequences, including the evolution of novel sex chromosomes."
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