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“Boosting the EU ARCTic poliCY: security, sAfety and sustainability”

Final Report Summary - EU_ARCTYCA (“Boosting the EU ARCTic poliCY: security, sAfety and sustainability”)

EU_ARCTYCA overall aim: “Boosting the EU ARCTic poliCY: security, sAfety and sustainability” (EU_ARCTYCA) aims at analyzing the EU expanding role in the Arctic and its ecosystem approach to security, safety and sustainability matters in the Arctic, while seeking to deploy its actions related to the EU regulatory framework of corporate environmental responsibility, i.e. corporate commitment to assess business compliance with environmental impact and sustainable development thus assuming responsibility of their business operations. EU_ARCTYCA takes an in-depth look at current Arctic urgent matters which correspond to subsets of the project, i.e. work packages: I. Arctic shipping and EU sustainable environmental protection; II. New developments of economic activities in the Arctic and their environmental impact from an EU perspective; and, III. International security and EU external actions in the Arctic; IV. Interdisciplinary review and cross-sector application of project findings.

The work carried out to achieve research goals: The researcher, Dr. Cinelli, has demonstrated awareness of existing policies and practices in the thematic-areas related to the aforementioned work packages carrying out successful research activities which have been monitored by Professor Henriksen through internal meeting and seminars. They fully achieved all the objectives stated in the EU_ARCTYCA work plan. In particular, the work carried out includes activities of studying, researching and writing activities mostly at UiT. In addition, Dr. Cinelli had an active role in carrying out training activities. They include: developing organizational skills and networking activities as well as in the management of research projects thus ensuring that high-performance-based project processes -such as planning, scheduling, estimating, budgeting and staffing- were carried out with maximum efficacy; teaching and Master student mentoring -giving interactive lectures at the LLM Master on Law of the Sea (JCLOS-UiT); 2 LLM Students thesis supervisions (JCLOS-UiT); and Guest Lectures at University Sarajevo School of Science and Technology (Bosnia Herzegovina) –Lecture: “Legal aspects of maritime delimitation in semi-enclosed seas”; organizing and participating in international meeting and seminars of complementary projects in Rome, Pisa and European University Institute as well as in both Network on Marine gas hydrate - an indigenous resource of natural gas for Europe (EU COST ACTION ES1405 MIGRATE) and Network of experts on the legal aspects of maritime security and safety (EU COST ACTION IS1105 MARSAFENET); funding member of the Editorial Board of Maritime Safety and Security Law (online); organizing scientific events. At the same time, Dr. Cinelli carried out several consultancy activities in order to development concrete normative and policy solutions related to the matter of corporate environmental/ocean responsibility, shared guidelines and recommendations both for institutions and/or corporations addressed to decision-makers and other stakeholders.
In addition, two on-site visits were as completed - the first at the Netherland Institute of the Law of the Sea (NILOS, Utrecht, Netherlands) and the second at the European University of Florence (EUI, Fiesole, Italy). During the on-site visit at NILOS (October-December 2014), Dr. Cinelli improved knowledge of Arctic shipping and EU Law as well as Environmental Law under the tutoring of the Deputy Director, Erik Molenaar and by interacting with other members of the Utrecht School of Law, including Associate Professor Seline Trevisanut. At NILOS, Dr. Cinelli completed the survey research on work package I ‘Arctic Shipping and EU environmental sustainable protection.’ On the other hand, during the on-site visit at EUI (January-March 2016) improved her knowledge on the legal aspects of the EU external relations, taking the increasing role of the EU in the Arctic cooperation as a case study under the supervision of Professor Marise Cremona in line with the research activities related to the work-package III. International security and EU external actions in the Arctic. In addition, Dr. Cinelli co-organized, on behalf of Professor Tore Henriksen, a joint Symposium, between the Jebsen Centre for the Law of the Sea, and the Academy of Law, to be held at the EUI at the beginning of March 2016 (contact person at EUI: Professor Martin Scheinin).
Main Results and their potential impact: According to the EU_ARCTICA project, the results has been carried out in terms of publications (no. 10), scientific direction of academic events (no. 4) and participations in relevant international conferences (no. 8). For more details, see Section 2.
The relevance of the scientific impact of Dr. Cinelli’s research findings is showed by the facts that her publications has been quoted by distinguished authors; and it is also used as guideline by non-Arctic (public and private) stakeholders acting in the Arctic, including Italian stakeholders (such as industry sector, e.g. ENI). In this context, the researcher has been engaged in participating at the ‘Tavolo Artico’ of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Rome, IT). One of the most relevant contribution of the researcher has been her initiative to draft the Italian Strategy for the Arctic under the Italian presidency of the Council of EU (2014). The Italian Strategy for the Arctic was published in 2016.
Target group: The EU_ARCTYCA has achieved to involve not only academics at different stage of carriers – including under-graduated students in order to develop their motivation to embrace a research career and get them involved in Arctic issues –but also both public and private stakeholders.
Conclusions: The general proposition that EU_ARCTYCA puts forward is that despite its limited presence, the EU is nevertheless increasingly influential in the Arctic. Put differently: for the EU, institutional presence is not a sine qua non for influence. It highlights how the EU Arctic policy develops both directly, through the EU Arctic policy, and indirectly, through its environmental and energy policies and through the presence of EU private operators in the Arctic. Special attention has been given to the consequences for the Arctic region of the implementation of the EU Directive 2013/30 on safety of offshore oil and gas operations. While the EU is not full-fledged institutional actor in the Arctic, it does exert influence on decisions and discussions within the Arctic cooperation frameworks at international and regional level. This influence precisely derives from EU competence in areas that are directly relevant for the Arctic region. In turn, this competence directly influences its Member States, particularly in the context of the Arctic Council. The EU is able to pursue its global interests in general and its agenda in the Arctic in particular through several channels: one such channel is the Member States that are part of the Arctic Council. The latter are bound by EU law in the areas relevant to the Arctic. They are also constrained by strategies that the EU may develop on the particular subject. The same holds true, partly for the EEA – Schengen associates states, which are bound by EEA and Schengen rules when operating in the Arctic Council. The other channel is the external action of the EU at several levels. First, the EU has bilateral relations with most Arctic Council States, and through this, and its Member States it can influence their position in the Arctic. The question may be raised as to whether the EU needs more formal representation in the Arctic Council. In substantive terms, its influence might not be dramatically enhanced. Would it nevertheless enhance its visibility in the region, and foster more awareness internally toward Arctic concerns?