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REal World Advanced Technologies foR Diesel Engines

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - REWARD (REal World Advanced Technologies foR Diesel Engines)

Reporting period: 2015-05-01 to 2016-10-31

The overall objective of the REWARD project is to develop the knowhow, intellectual property rights and technical capabilities to adequately and cost-effectively produce cleaner, highly efficient Diesel powertrains and aftertreatment technologies for future cleaner passenger cars that “go beyond Euro 6 limits under Real Driving conditions” (EU6 RDE). Friction and wear reduction measures, exhaust gas treatment concepts and fuel-efficient 4-stroke Diesel engine concepts will be advanced to TRL 6 or TRL 7 and integrated in two demonstration vehicles: Class B/C and class D/E.

Furthermore, a novel architecture will be developed for future 2-stroke Diesel Engines. A full calibration and assessment of the vehicles and underlying technologies will take place to proof: real driving emissions below upcoming Euro 6 limits, 25% friction reduction in the entire engine, a significant higher lifetime durability and a more than 5% improved overall fuel efficiency. The impact of the cost effectiveness and high yield producibility of the applications will also be demonstrated.

Specific scientific and technical objectives, main innovations and targeted key results are

1. To develop and demonstrate advanced exhaust gas treatment concepts and low emission technologies up to TRL 7
2. To develop and demonstrate advanced friction and wear reduction measures up to TRL 6/7
3. Conceive an innovative 2-stroke Diesel engine architecture for optimizing the engine performances in terms of fuel consumption and engine out emissions on B/C class vehicle applications. Design and manufacture a Single Cylinder 2-stroke Diesel Engine according to this architecture
4. To develop and demonstrate advanced > 5% more fuel-efficient 4-stroke Diesel engines (TRL7) suited for class B, C D and E passenger cars and LCVs

The two demonstration vehicles, incorporating the developed Diesel engine technologies, exhaust gas treatment technologies and friction and wear reduction measures shall prove, by independent testing, a more than 5% improved fuel economy and compliance with stricter post Euro 6 limits under Real Driving conditions, ≥ 3 dB less noise and at least 50% less particle emissions.

REWARD cost targets are compared for manufacturing costs. There are calculated the costs to evolve a EURO 6b vehicle towards REWARD technology. As reference vehicle, each OEM’s best and closest comparable model on the market in 2013 is used.
In the course of the first 18 months it could have been highlighted that the costs conduct around 800 € for each of the investigated vehicle classes. For these calculations mainly empirical data form the literature was used. The vehicle supplier’s estimations confirmed very well to the results.
The partners successfully kicked of the project and installed all management processes and tools to support a smooth running of the project. Monthly Executive Board Meetings are held to monitor project progress and address and mitigate any risk that appears. All relevant dissemination tools were developed: logo, website, templates. A draft plan for a successful dissemination of the project was created, as well as the draft exploitation plan.

Below an overview of the main results per technical work package.

WP2 Advanced aftertreatment technologies development
New catalyst formulations for DOC, PNA, LNT, SCR, SCRF, have been developed, characterized on synthetic test rig and modelled. Different combinations of advanced catalyst components have been simulated over various real driving cycle to cover RDE worst cases. Pros and cons of each solution have been identified. Selected components have been supplied internally and to the vertical WPs. Requirements in terms exhaust gas temperature have been identified. Potential of conventional technologies and Exhaust VVT is ongoing by simulation and experimental activities. Testing activity on multi-cylinder engine has started and is currently ongoing.

WP3 Technologies for high efficiency
In Work Package 3 the different oils and coated parts were circulated among the partners. A test campaign using different tribological model tests has been started. Furthermore, the transparent diesel engine has been set up in order to characterize the injection phase. Parameters to be measured have been defined together with the acquisition methodology. In addition, the CFD 3D combustion model platform was validated.

WP4 Future 2-stroke A/B class Diesel engine
Architecture of the Diesel 2-Stroke engine has been chosen in order to provide the best BSFC and the best scavenge. Alternative architectures were rejected by intensive OD, 1D and 3D calculations. Insights were obtained on how to break the trade-off between swirl targets and scavenge efficiency, as well as insights into the key parameters for the intake ports design.

WP5 Future 4-stroke B/C class Diesel engine
The test engine has been specified and prepared for the development work. The test engine is based on RENAULT‘s 1,6L R9M engine. Currently the development work on the engine test bed is ongoing as well as the assembly of the demonstrator vehicle.

WP6 Future 4-stroke D/E class Diesel engine
The charging and exhaust gas recirculation concept have been specified and laid out by intensive simulation work. The test equipment for combustion development on a 1-cylinder research engine has been procured. Now the 1-cylinder combustion development work is ongoing. Extensive emission simulation work with validation through engine bench testing has been performed in collaboration with WP2 to design and procure an aftertreatment system that full fills project targets. Multicylinder engine and engine aftertreatment system procurement is ongoing and first fire planned for the beginning of 2017.

WP7 Assessment & Evaluation
The testing conditions for the assessment of the demonstration vehicles defined in the project will be documented in detail. The emission targets are clearly defined in terms of absolute values. Report on the assessment of cost for new technologies of demonstrator vehicles has been finalised. The baseline of the emission of the demonstrator vehicle of WP5 was defined. As similar procedure was proposed for the demonstrator vehicle of WP6 and the calculation of the CO2-emission according to RDE legislation are nearly finished.
The REWARD project aims to make a contribution to the capability of the European automotive industry to develop highly fuel efficient engines, to improve exhaust gas treatment systems, to advance on board monitoring and diagnostics in order to meet (forthcoming) EU-legislation on emission standards and fuel economy under real driving conditions. At the same time, the automotive industry has to improve competitiveness in order to be able to successfully market substantial volumes of high quality cars with attractive designs, driving behaviour and fuel economy.

To reach this aim, significant progress beyond the state of the art is targeted the 4 main target areas:
1. Exhaust gas treatment technologies for Diesel engines
2. Friction and wear for Diesel engines
3. 2-stroke Diesel engine technology
4. 4-stroke Diesel engine technology