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High precision positioning for cooperative ITS applications

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - HIGHTS (High precision positioning for cooperative ITS applications)

Reporting period: 2015-05-01 to 2016-10-31

The emerging fields of Highly Autonomous Driving (HAD) and Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) require, as enablers, the possibility of a vehicle to localize itself with extremely high accuracy regardless of the context (roadside scenarios, weather conditions, traffic flow, etc.). The knowledge of accurate geographical location is a critical enabler to many services, ranging from safety to infotainment/marketing. Unfortunately, satellite-based positioning systems (e.g. GPS and Galileo) are unable to provide sufficiently accurate position information for such important applications especially considering certain challenging yet common environments (e.g. urban canyons and tunnels). This project addresses this problem by combining traditional satellite systems with an innovative use of on-board sensing and infrastructure-based wireless communication technologies (e.g. Wi-Fi, ITS-G5, UWB tracking, Zigbee, Bluetooth, LTE...) to produce advanced, highly-accurate positioning technologies for Cooperative-Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS). The results are being integrated into the facilities (i.e. service) layer of ETSI C-ITS architecture and the future European-wide C-ITS Platform, and will thereby become available for all C-ITS applications, including those targeting the challenging use cases Traffic Safety of Vulnerable Users and Autonomous Driving/platooning. The project therefore goes beyond ego- and infrastructure-based positioning by incorporating them along with cooperative communication and ranging as building blocks to an European-Wide positioning Service Platform (EWSP) based on enhanced Local Dynamic Maps and built on open European standards. In a nutshell the objectives are: i) to enable a large growth of new emerging Business and Use-Cases through the creation of enhanced localization algorithms; ii) increase road safety, increase of road efficiency and reduce is emission; iii) Tto realize an European-wide positioning service platform based on enhanced Local Dynamic Maps; iv) to provide recommendations to the cooperative ITS standardization bodies of required extensions to protocols, messages, Local Dynamic Maps (LDM) and related services specifications.
This project report covers the first half from the project, i.e. from M01 (May 2015) to M18 (October 2016). During this time span, the work performed by the HIGHTS project can be described enumerating, in a chronological orders, its deliverable.
The first 2 initial deliverable, D2.1 and D7.1 have marked the initial kick-off point with the first draft of Use-cases and Requirements, along with the world-wide panorama on standardization and regulation. The location sub-system has been defined at M12 with D2.1 and, in parallel, the first technical works have been described in three synoptic deliverable, namely D3.1 (SotA and selected communication technologies), D4.1 (SotA and selected ranging technologies) and D5.1 (SotA and selected hybrid localization algorithms). At M18 two other important deliverables have been submitted, marking important technical achievements: D5.2 provided the first specification for localization algorithms to be implemented in the second half of the project, while D6.1 described the implementation architecture of relevant technologies coming from the technical WPs (WP3, WP4 and WP5) into an hybrid platform.
Summarizing, this first half of the project has identified the SotA in term of technologies, Use-Cases and services, has selected the most relevant constrains and guidelines coming from such SotA, and proposed the technical specifications of three cooperative localization solutions.. In addition it has prepared their implementation into the final platform along the current standardization and regulation guidelines.
As stated in the previous subsections, HIGHTS has started from a comprehensive review of SotA technologies for communication, ranging and localization and has selected, within the C-ITS umbrella, the most relevant onces to be used for cooperative localization. Once established this starting point, HIGHTS has produced an architecture to integrate such relevant technologies into a hybrid platform. The main progress beyond the SotA is first innovative ego- and cooperative localization strategies, as well as the possibility to integrate them all together and producing, regardless the surrounding environment, the best possible localization estimate. The three proposed hybrid cooperative localization algorithms already provided below 25cm precisions in theoretical evaluations.
The potential impact is quite huge both in term of road safety, both for Highly Autonomous Driving (HAD) vehicles and for the Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) and in term of eco sustainability (smart traffic means reduction of casualties and reduction of pollution: all in all reduction of the traffic-related costs).
The resilient hybrid solution that has been so far depicted by HIGHTS during the first 18 months, and that will be integrated and verified during the second half of the project, will actively provide fundamental support to assisted driving up to highly automated driving (HAD), allowing the achievement of the aforementioned social impact.