Periodic Reporting for period 2 - ESPRIT (Easily diStributed Personal RapId Transit)
Reporting period: 2016-11-01 to 2018-10-31
6 prototype vehicles have been built. Tests carried out on real prototypes have confirmed that a 5 vehicle roadtrain is stable, without showing sway or road holding related problems. Dynamic modelling shows that up to eight vehicles can be nested together, 7 being towed, for an efficient redistribution of fleets and a smartly-balanced and cost efficient transport system.
A system enabling to charge an eight vehicle roadtrain at a time has also been designed, confirming a pre-feasibility of the foreseen system. The designed electronic architecture , implemented on the prototypes, enables to power, steer and brake a roadtrain of 6 vehicles, using a structure resilient to the failure of one of its sub-system (according to the ISO26262 process. ). This architecture enables to drive the vehicles as well in a single configuration as in road train.
A study has been carried out to identify which are the relevant regulations that apply, and which are the missing ones. Contacts have been taken at the German (local and federal levels), France and UK. A roadmap has been set and the identification of the relevant risks and associated measures/tests has been made.
Within WP2, the ESPRIT station has been designed. The guiding system hardware has been chosen and the software developed and tested on bench. The coupling device has been designed and dimensioned, prototyped and implemented on the prototypes
Within WP3, the ESPRIT communication and hardware architecture have been defined. The Kinematic and Dynamic Behavior Management System has been designed, prototyped, tested on bench and implemented and validated on the prototype vehicles. Anti-sway stabilization algorithms have been developed and prevalidated by simulation using a multibody vehicle model, and in the end validated on a real 5 vehicles road train. KDBMS functionality has been verified as well on single vehicle as in a roadtrain configuration.
Within WP4, the complete battery system and battery management system has been designed and a prototype issued. The complete architecture and wiring diagrams regarding the Roadtrain Energy Storage Management System has been made, predisposing for the charge of a complete roadtrain from a single point, and the battery balancing between vehicles. It has been tested on bench.
Within WP5, the complete vehicle physical architecture has been designed leading to the creation of two mockups (exterior body and interior body), 3 technical prototypes (without body) and 3 fully operational vehicles (body + chassis).
Within WP6, a study has been carried out to identify the relevant regulations leading to contacts taken in Germany (local and federal levels), France and UK. A roadmap has been set and the relevant risks and associated measures/tests identified.
Within WP7 a preliminary Review model based on data from the eastern suburb of Lyon has been produced. A lifestyle survey has been carried out in Glasgow. This study shows that more than 60% of the people would be considering ESPRIT for current or foreseen daily life. On this basis a more refined model has been developed, enabling to simulate as well the demand and the offer. These results show a mode share of 12% of ESPRIT in the Lyon use case, 8% in L’Hospitalet and 4% in Hillington Park, confirming a trend initially foreseen by the Review model
Within WP8, an important dissemination activity has been performed. A dedicated website has been set up as well as a brochure, various posters and videos. Various articles, presentations and lectures have been made within Europe either as scientific paper or in public oriented newspapers. The mockups manufactured by WP5 have been showed in 7 different events.
The road holding scenario chosen was based on an ‘Elk Test’ according to the ISO 3888 Standard.
The car speed during an Elk test was set to the maximum foreseen speed of the roadtrains (45 Km/h). The foreseen speed limit has been estimated through a market study and potential users analysis for a two vehicle roadtrain and for a roadtrain up to 8 vehicles.
These results are remarkable as the Elk test is largely considered by the transport industry as a strong and reliable test to estimate efficient measures to reduce vehicle sway.
Various patents have been filed to protect the principles of these control laws , the design of the axle and steering layouts as well as the central articulation damper locking control logics.
An architecture has been designed to enable to build a system to power, steer and brake a roadtrain, using a structure resilient to the failure of one of its sub-system (according to the ISO26262 process).
The delivered results, either technological or by modelling show that the concept, as initially foreseen, is not only feasible but also meeting potentially a customer need and a significant market. In particular, ESPRIT would increase the public transport (PT) modal share and would ease access to badly served by PT areas. Hence the expected impact is confirmed by the project. Nevertheless, only a real demonstration with a fleet of vehicles will enable to confirm these facts.
To enable the market uptake, a list of a few tenths of potentially relevant cities has been identified. Some of them have been contacted and belong to a follower group. Part of them have shown interest to welcome to demonstration project.