Periodic Reporting for period 2 - RESOLVE (Range of Electric SOlutions for L-category VEhicles)
Reporting period: 2016-11-01 to 2018-04-30
EU cities are congested by ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) vehicles, increasing emissions and noise levels and scarcer parking. To tackle such problems, European-wide emission targets are becoming stricter and urban mobility plans are drawn towards a shift in personal mobility from cars to lighter, smaller, more specialized and environmentally friendly alternatives, such as ELVs could be.
RESOLVE objectives (measureable indicators) are:
1) Development of an integrated, scalable, modular range of fully electric LV drivetrains
2) Showcase of advances to State-of-the-Art (SotA) in 2 Tilting Four Wheelers (TFW) demonstrators (L2e and L6e) with energy efficiencies, referring to the standard cycle and/or specific L-vehicle urban driving
3) Improvement of driver experience; development of a multi-wheel vehicle control algorithm improving handling/stability; HMI improvements reducing range anxiety and driver concerns.
4) Increasing ELVs attractiveness for car drivers in urban use.
RESOLVE project led to the development of cost-effective components and systems, such as modular battery and scalable LV-specific electric powertrains. The project delivered an attractive ELV driving experience by proposing new product concepts able to reduce energy consumption.
Two Tilting Four Wheelers demonstrators (D1 and D2) and one Tilting Three Wheeler (D3) are the result. Many advances are also applicable to the range of ELVs.
A preliminary Business Plan based on market analysis was performed, formulating different business models to enter in the market.
Cost reduction has been achieved by three main streamlines:
Battery Modularity: a universal 48V module 12S4P (18650 Li-Ion cells, 518 Wh capacity) has been used, enabling economies of scale and flexibility of design. BMS has been integrated. Battery pack has structural function in D2 prototype, thus D1 prototype has swappable batteries.
Scalability and functional integration: e-motor control, battery charger and overall vehicle control features are integrated in a single scalable hardware component, with ad-hoc software. The 4kW Drivetrain Management Module (DMM) uses the same hardware and a reconfigurable software. DMM functions have been successfully tested on the demonstrator D3.
Use of State-of-the Art low-cost solutions: investigation of technology transfer from automotive field led to two proposals:
- On board e-motor (electrically excited synchronous machine with claw pole rotor and additional ferrite magnets with inverter integrated)
- On-wheel e-motor (three phase brushless internal permanent magnet motor with planetary gear transmission integrated) for in-wheel installation (2 e-motors), with separated inverters.
RESOLVE design is based on virtual simulations, both for structural and performance analysis, including energy consumption cycles. Virtual mockups led to physical prototypes, fully tested on benches and on track. Energy consumption goals have been achieved, confirming predicted performances.
RESOLVE D1 (L2e) and D2 (L6e) demonstrators are based on TFW architecture, in order to offer enhanced active vehicle stability, comfort and weather protection.
According with their own strategies, RESOLVE OEMs propose two complementary vehicle formulas sharing common characteristics:
• Spontaneous tilting vehicles with roll lock system
• Affordable and energy efficient light weight concepts
• Modular architecture for batteries
• BMS with SOC and SOH estimation
• Electronic system architecture based on same hardware and software
• Increased efficiency of regenerative braking
• Innovative HMI
• Smart range management
Peculiarities to increase attractiveness like enclosed cabin and battery swapping features have been also proposed in different demonstrators.
Rider experience was improved by implementing algorithms for stability control and handling (i.e. automatic stand-up at low speeds, roll-motion dampening, traction control and electronic differential), regenerative braking (that allows for a range increase about 12% on test cycles) and smart range management for reducing range anxiety.
Innovative HMI (on-board display and smartphone) and controls enable a safer, comfortable and ergonomic interaction between rider and vehicle.
- Energy consumption: innovative vehicle construction and advanced energy management strategies, allowed unprecedented efficiency level on WMTC cycle with 37 Wh/km for L2e and 54 Wh/km for L6e four wheeler demonstrators.
- Net global emissions: as direct consequence of reduction of energy consumption, even if it cannot be easily objectified
- Journey time and traffic congestion: RESOLVE vehicles, for their small transversal dimensions, are almost “congestion-insensitive” and easy to park. The Smart Range Management guarantees to reach the destination within the available battery level.
- European economy and employment: RESOLVE is aimed at boosting the market of electric L-vehicles offering disruptive concepts and spreading technical advances on wide range of vehicles. The survey showed high expectations for advanced technologies, with a potential strong increase of demand of skills and competencies in the related fields.
- Consumer satisfaction (cost savings): Most of the activities of RESOLVE lead to cost reduction and the innovative business models proposed systemic for reducing TCO by rental solutions, vehicle sharing and battery swapping.
- Traffic safety: Concept definition and design activities have been aimed at providing RESOLVE demonstrators with intrinsically higher stability and safety levels respect to conventional L category vehicles. D1, D2 and D3 combine the agility of motorcycles with the increased contact surface guaranteed by added tire surface. Moreover, the lean angle stability control function, traction control and torque vectoring capabilities provide additional assistance to the rider in possible hazardous situations.