In order to clarify key aspects of 2D/non-2D metal oxide interfacing the project employed atomically-resolved, element-specific, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques to elucidate the structural, chemical and electronic interactions of scalably deposited 2D nanomaterials (graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, MoS2) with device-relevant non 2D metal-oxide nanostructures (e.g. Al2O3, HfO2, ZnO, NbOx). Importantly the project linked realistic ex-situ 2D/non-2D oxide integration processing (evaporation, sputtering, atomic layer deposition) with dedicated ex-situ and in-situ STEM experiments and complementary spectroscopic fingerprinting. Key effects of grain boundaries, layer numbers, adsorbates and contamination in the 2D materials on non-2D nucleation and growth were revealed in the project, thereby increasing the structural control over non-2D nanostructure deposition. Furthermore thickness-dependent phase transitions in the non-2D oxides, correlated with their physical and chemical properties, were elucidated which resulted in deposition of non-standard oxide phases. Finally, during the experimentation also additional atomic scale insights into related 2D/2D integration (graphene/MoS2) and properties of 2D materials and membranes (graphene, hexagonal boron nitride) were gained. The results of the project have primarily been disseminated through publication in international scientific journals as well as through establishing collaborative follow-up work with industrial stakeholders in the field.