The research funded by ERC Starting Grant OPTIMALZ (contract number 640396) focused on the development and application of novel optical techniques for imaging pathology related to Alzheimer’s disease in the eye and brain. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia which affects increasing numbers of patients in our continuously aging society. Therefore, the search for powerful therapeutics as well as for reliable and early diagnostics poses an important research topic for the scientific community. Regarding the eye as an easily accessible outpost of the brain, OPTIMALZ explored new imaging techniques which shine a laser beam onto the neural tissue in the back of the eye and reconstruct 3D images of the optical properties of these tissues. These 3D images were then investigated in order to spot lesions in the eye related to Alzheimer’s disease. In parallel to investigating the retina in the back of the eye, we developed two optical imagers for studying the lens of the eye and brain tissue. Our multidisciplinary team consisting of physicists, engineers, biologists, and neuropathologists then applied the three prototypes for longitudinal studies of pathological lesions related to Alzheimer’s disease. We demonstrated that our technology is capable of visualizing and quantifying Alzheimeric lesions in the brain. We also found disruptions of the retinal morphology and focal deposits in the retina of a mouse model developing typical features of Alzheimer’s disease in the brain. However, at least to a certain extent, ocular lesions also occur in normal subjects, in particular at old age. We further observed opacifications and cataract in the crystalline lens of both wildtype and transgenic subjects of the specific model system we investigated. In summary, we developed novel optical imaging technology for the non-invasive visualization and quantitative assessment of lesions related to Alzheimer’s disease, which however may appear concurrently with other age-related abnormalities.