Infertility is common in humans, affecting one in seven couples. In at least one quarter of cases, the cause cannot be found. The sex chromosomes are a special pair of chromosomes that differ between men (XY) and women (XX), and that are thought to be particularly important for making the sex cells, i.e. sperm and eggs. Historically, a lot of research on infertility has focused on the Y chromosome, and it has been shown that mutations of Y chromosome genes are a common cause of male infertility. However, in comparison, the X chromosome has been largely overlooked. In this project, we aim to study the functions of X chromosome genes in the formation of the male and female gonads and in the formation of sperm. The principle technique we are using for this is CRISPR genome editing, a novel way in which the sequence of genes can be changed in a rapid and inexpensive manner. For our experiments, we use both mice, which have sex chromosomes similar to humans, and a marsupial, the opossum, which represents a more distant cousin of humans but that is very useful to understand how the sex chromosomes evolved. Our overall aim is to address whether genetic problems affecting the X chromosome could be responsible for infertility in patients for which a cause cannot currently be found. The findings will be of great importance to the treatment of infertility and will help us better understand why the sex chromosomes are so important for the formation of sperm and eggs.