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Exploring the Terascale at LHC with Novel Highly Granular Calorimeters

Periodic Reporting for period 3 - Novel Calorimetry (Exploring the Terascale at LHC with Novel Highly Granular Calorimeters)

Reporting period: 2018-10-01 to 2020-03-31

"The ""Novel Calorimetry"" proposal deals with a novel, yet untested, high-risk approach to calorimetry that combines state of the art techniques so far only used independently either in charged particle tracking or conventional calorimeters. New technologies will have to be developed for such a ground-breaking calorimeter. These include powerful, radiation hard electronics in emerging technologies using feature sizes of 130 nm or 65 nm; low-cost silicon sensors in the emerging technology using 8” silicon wafers, also in Europe; environmentally-friendly cooling technologies using liquid C02; high performance and fast decision making logic using new more powerful FPGA’s, all to be produced at an industrial scale.

This project has formed a part of the upgrade of the CMS experiment for the high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider. This is curiosity driven science that enriches human knowledge and understanding of Nature. Technological spinoffs into other fields of science and society are expected.

The overall objective is to measure the energy, the direction, the identity and the time of arrival of particles produced in high energy proton-proton collisions that mimic a subset of collisions that would have been occurring in our universe a fraction of nanosecond after the Big Bang. This enables us to study the composition of our early universe, the forces of Nature relevant at that time, and its subsequent evolution."
"• Validation of the physics performance and detector optimisation; many key results from the physics simulation and performance simulation studies are presented in the Technical Design Report (TDR) on the upgrade of CMS Endcap Calorimeter [1]
• First evaluation of the “Novel Calorimetry” technique in electron and hadron test beams at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) and Fermilab (Illinois, USA) [2]. Further test-beam studies will be carried with full longitudinal sampling calorimeter at the end of 2018.
• Development, implementation and delivery of a trigger & data acquisition (DAQ) prototype: a new generation of prototype backend boards has recently been received. They will be tested and then loaded with FPGAs mounted on interposer boards and tested again. It is planned to produce ~ 10 boards for more refined development studies.
• Trigger simulation – results presented in the TDR from algorithms developed for Level-1 trigger [1]
• Development, implementation and delivery of prototype front-end electronics; A first prototype front-end chip is being tested at Imperial College, LLR Paris and CERN. This chip comprises shapers/ADCs/TDCs and high bandwidth electrical digital links. Fabrication of two, the second one being close-to-final, generation of chips is foreseen before the end of the Project.
• Technical Design Report [1] submitted in Dec 2017 and approved by CERN’s Scientific Peer Review Committee (the LHCC). The technique is included in the baseline programme for the HL-LHC scientific programme ([1]. After delivery of a “full-size” prototype the construction is scheduled to be carried out between 2020-2024.


References
[1] CERN-LHCC-2017-23, Dec 2017, https://cds.cern.ch/record/2283193/files/CMS-TDR-018.pdf
[2] ""First beam tests of prototype silicon modules for the CMS High Granularity Endcap Calorimeter"", submitted to JINST, (Preprint:JINST_039P_0418)
Many presentations to conferences e.g.
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/13/02/C02043/meta;
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/12/06/C06030 ;
https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.05638 ;
CMS CR-2017/156


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"A large prototype, with full functionality front-end and back-end electronics chain, will be built to validate the ""Novel Calorimetry"" concept outlined in the proposal."
"A silicon module comprising a 6"" hexagonal silicon sensor mounted on a Copper/tungsten base plate wc"