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International Network on Advanced high energy Permanent Magnets

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - INAPEM (International Network on Advanced high energy Permanent Magnets)

Reporting period: 2018-01-01 to 2018-12-31

The main objective of this Marie Curie RISE action is to improve and exchange interdisciplinary knowledge of materials design by modelling, materials synthesis, characterization, and materials processing for permanent magnet development to be able to provide a critical raw free permanent magnet to the industry. Permanent magnets are indispensable for many commercial and military applications. Major commercial applications include the electric, electronic and automobile industries, communications, information technologies and automatic control engineering. Development and improvement of new technologies based on permanent magnets requires the joint effort of a multidisciplinary researcher collective, involving the expertise of participants on different disciplines including physics, chemistry, materials science and engineering. A consortium with such expertise is put together to undertake an integrative and concerted effort (via knowledge transfer) to provide the fundamental innovations and breakthroughs that are needed to fabricate/implement industrially new phases and microstructures required for the development and application of advanced permanent magnets without the use of critical materials.
Results will be widely disseminated through publications, workshops, post-graduate courses to train new researchers, a dedicated webpage, and visits to companies working in the area. In that way, we will perform an important role in technology transfer between the most advanced hard and soft magnetic materials design and characterisation methods for the development of permanent magnets.
A very wide and comprehensive experimental screening of the predicted phases has been carried out by several techniques: combinatorial sputtering, and non-equilibrium techniques, such as melt spinning or mechanical alloying. Among all the samples that were produced, some were already discarded. Some compounds, with very promising properties, have not been produced so far - achieved the pure phase, but further efforts will be done.
The influence of the microstructure and temperature on the coercivity and maximum energy product were theoretically studied. Promising candidate phases for rare-earth free permanent magnets were studied with respect to interfaces and grain boundaries.
The microstructure of a magnet is essential for developing coercivity. The influence of the microstructure on coercivity, remanence, and energy density product was studied . Using experimental optimization tools, in order to maximize the coercive field or the energy density product. Structure optimization was performed for possible candidate phases.
A full structural, thermodynamic and magnetic characterization has been carried out in samples produced in WP3. Different characterization techniques provide information complementary to each other. The experimental results are compared with the predictions obtained by theoretical groups, so that they can adjust the models and computing methods with our input, to get a better understanding of the real behavior, and improve further predictions.
Nitrogentation of 1:12 phases is a key result bringing our progress beyong the state of the art.
In the following months, we expect to produce bonded magnets and also Mn-Al-C magnets. The magnetic properties of these magnets will be measured and we expect to obtain results that would be interesting for industries to produce and use our magnets. If successful results are obtained for these magnets we would have achieved a large reduction of the RE-content in PM and so CRM-content.